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Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research

Kee-Jong Hong, Sang-Hwan Seo
Organoid is an in vitro multicellular form mimicking in vivo organ. Its similarity to human organ including cellular organization, molecular expression patterns, as well as genetic signatures enables to study the characteristics of infectious agents and host-pathogen interaction. For the features of organoid, this system also can be potentially used to cultivate currently uncultivable viruses of vaccine candidates. This paper will briefly describe problems in the current culture system for virus production and the possibility of organoid as culture system for viral vaccine and their current limitations that should be solved to meet the goal...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Sang H Je, Taeyong Kwon, Sung J Yoo, Dong-Uk Lee, Sang Won Seo, Jeong J Byun, Jeong Y Shin, Young S Lyoo
Vaccination is considered a frequently used tool to prevent and control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). However, the effectiveness of conventional FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines in pigs has been controversial because the massive prophylactic vaccination could not elicit proper immune response nor prevent the broad spread of FMD outbreak, mainly in pig farms, in South Korea during outbreaks of 2014. In addition, there has been little information on the efficacy of inactivated, high potency, multivalent, oil-based FMDV vaccine in pigs, because an evaluation of FMDV vaccines had been mainly carried out using cattle...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Young-Hwa Kim, Pil-Gu Park, Sang-Hwan Seo, Kee-Jong Hong, Hyewon Youn
Purpose: Study on the pathogen and the pathogen-related disease require the information at both cellular and organism level. However, lack of appropriate high-quality antibodies and the difference between the experimental animal models make it difficult to analyze in vivo mechanism of pathogen-related diseases. For more reliable research on the infection and immune-response of pathogen-related diseases, accurate analysis is essential to provide spatiotemporal information of pathogens and immune activity to avoid false-positive or mis-interpretations...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Baek-Sang Han, Ho-Young Jang, Trina Racine, Xiangguo Qiu, Jeong-Im Sin
Purpose: The goal of this study was to purify and characterize Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP)-specific IgG antibodies from hybridoma clones. Materials and Methods: For hybridoma production, mice were injected by intramuscular-electroporation with GP DNA vaccines, and boosted with GP vaccines. The spleen cells were used for producing GP-specific hybridoma. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot assay, flow cytometry, and virus-neutralizing assay were used to test the ability of monoclonal IgG antibodies to recognize GP and neutralize Ebola virus...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Suengmok Lee, Kyung-A Hwang, Ji-Hoon Ahn, Jae-Hwan Nam
Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which is a pathogenic mycobacterial species grouped under Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) with four other pathogenic mycobacterial species. The mycobacteria not included in MTBC are known as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and cause several pulmonary diseases including pneumonia. Currently, NTM occurrences in TB-suspected respiratory specimens have increased, due to which, precise detection of MTBC and NTM is considered critical for the diagnosis and vaccination of TB...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Eun Young Lee, Sena Lee, Semi Rho, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seuk Keun Choi, Young Jin Lee, Joo Young Park, Manki Song, Jae Seung Yang
Purpose: An oral cholera vaccine (OCV), Euvichol, with thimerosal (TM) as preservative, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. In recent years, public health services and regulatory bodies recommended to eliminate TM in vaccines due to theoretical safety concerns. In this study, we examined whether TM-free Euvichol induces comparable immunogenicity to its TM-containing formulation in animal model. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the immunogenicity of the two variations of OCV, mice were immunized with TM-free or TM-containing Euvichol twice at 2-week interval by intranasal or oral route...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Masoud Foroutan, Leila Zaki, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease, which infect several warm-blooded mammals. More than one-third of the human population are seropositive worldwide. Due to the high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection worldwide, the resulting clinical, mental, and economical complications, as well as incapability of current drugs in the elimination of parasites within tissue cysts, the development of a vaccine against T. gondii would be critical. In the past decades, valuable advances have been achieved in order to identification of vaccine candidates against T...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, In-Soo Cho
Endemic animal rabies causes >99% of all human rabies cases; elimination of animal rabies reduces the rate of human infections. The most recent animal rabies cases in the Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces of Korea occurred in November 2012 and February 2013, respectively. Here we explore ways to ensure that Korea remains animal rabies non-occurrence. The government must prevent rabies recurrence by vaccinating dogs, distributing bait vaccine in regions with a high rabies risk, performing laboratory-based surveillance, preventing the flow of rabies-suspect animals from neighboring countries, and enhancing border quarantine...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Min-Ah Yu, Hye Won Jeong, Su-Jin Park, Young-Il Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Jae Si, Kwang Min Yu, Norbert John Robles, Hae Jung Han, Young Ki Choi
To develop the large scale serological assay for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection, we evaluated two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods using nucleocapsid protein (NP) and Gn proteins of CB1 (genotype B) SFTSV strains. The NP-based ELISA tests showed more sensitive with broad cross-reactivity between two different genotype A and B strains compared with those of Gn-based ELISA tests. However, Gn-based ELISA showed more genotype specificity and specificity...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Shun Mei Lin, Yong Zhi, Ki Bum Ahn, Sangyong Lim, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading causal organism of neonatal invasive diseases and severe infections in the elderly. Despite significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of GBS infections and improvement in personal hygiene standards, this pathogen is still a global health concern. Thus, an effective vaccine against GBS would augment existing strategies to substantially decrease GBS infection. In 2014, World Health Organization convened the first meeting for consultation on GBS vaccine development, focusing on the GBS maternal immunization program, which was aimed at reducing infections in neonates and young infants worldwide...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Sukhyun Ryu, Joon Jai Kim, Meng-Yu Chen, Hyunju Jin, Hyun Kyung Lee, Byung Chul Chun
Purpose: A pertussis patient from an elementary school, in Gyeonggi Province, Korea, was notified to public health authority on July 25, 2017. Epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify the magnitude, possible source of infection and risk factors for this outbreak on August 17, 2017. Materials and Methods: A case was defined as the school student experiencing cough for more than two weeks with or without paroxysmal, whoop, or post-tussive vomiting. Control was defined as the student polymerase chain reaction-negative at the school...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Seung Heon Lee, Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, In-Soo Cho
Purpose: The first aim of this study was to develop a novel inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine using the recently isolated Korean PEDV QIAP1401 strain and to evaluate its protective efficacy in growing pigs. The second was to determine the optimum adjuvant formulation of the inactivated PEDV vaccine that induces protection against viral challenge. Materials and Methods: To generate high titers of infectious PEDV, the QIAP1401 isolate was passaged in Vero cells...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Zahra Sadat Hosseini, Jafar Amani, Fahimeh Baghbani Arani, Shahram Nazarian, Mohammad Javad Motamedi, Fatemeh Shafighian
Purpose: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most important pathogens which create hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human. It is one of the most prevalent causes of diarrhea leading to death of many people every year. The first diagnosed gene in the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island is eae gene. The product of this gene is a binding protein called intimin belonging to the group of external membrane proteins regarded as a good stimulants of the immune system...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Norbert John C Robles, Hae Jung Han, Su-Jin Park, Young Ki Choi
Over the past ten years there has been a marked increase in cases of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome in East Asia. This tick-borne hemorrhagic fever presents along with clinical signs including high fever and leukopenia. In addition to humans, the virus has also been detected with shared genetic homology in farm animals including goats, cattle, horses, and pigs. Furthermore, several genotypes of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) are currently co-circulating between humans and animals...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Jae-Min Song
Polyphenols including catechins from green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) have been reported to have anti-infective activities against a broad spectrum of viruses and other pathogens. During the last two decades, antiviral activities of catechins with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, Herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, hepatitis B and C virus. In this study, we focused on the antiviral properties of catechins and their derivatives against viral hepatitis which have become a key public health issue due to their serious impact on human health with liver diseases...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Masoud Foroutan, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the Apicomplexa phylum that caused a widespread zoonotic infection in wide range of intermediate hosts. Over one-third of the world's population are latently infected with T. gondii and carry it. The complex life cycle of T. gondii indicates the presence of a plurality of antigenic epitopes. During the recent years, continuous efforts of scientists have made precious advances to elucidate the different aspects of the cell and molecular biology of T. gondii . Despite of great progresses, the development of vaccine candidates for preventing of T...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Chaelin Lee, Myungmi Lee, Inmoo Rhee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most professional antigen presenting cells that play important roles in connection between innate and adaptive immune responses. Numerous studies revealed that the functions of DCs are related with the capture and processing of antigen as well as the migration to lymphoid tissues for the presenting antigens to T cells. These unique features of DCs allow them to be considered as therapeutic vaccines that can induce immune responses and anti-tumor activity. Here, we discuss and understand the immunological basis of DCs and presume the possibilities of DC-based vaccines for the promising cancer therapy...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Young S Lyoo
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Young Chan Park, Jae Min Song
PURPOSE: Nitrocellulose membrane-based filtration system (NCFS) is widely used for protein concentration. In this study, we applied NCFS for production of virus-like particle (VLP) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Influenza VLPs were generated by baculovirus-insect cell protein expression system. NCFS and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation were used for purification of VLP. Immunogenicity of VLP was evaluated by animal experiment...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Md Selim Ahmed, Myeong-Ho Kang, Ezra Lee, Yujin Park, Yideul Jeong, Yong-Soo Bae
PURPOSE: The Src homology 2 domain-containing adaptor protein B (SHB) is widely expressed in immune cells and acts as an important regulator for hematopoietic cell function. SHB silencing induces Th2 immunity in mice. SHB is also involved in T-cell homeostasis in vivo. However, SHB has not yet been studied and addressed in association with dendritic cells (DCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of SHB expression on the immunogenicity of DCs were assessed by Shb gene silencing in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs)...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
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