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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Zahra Alahmed, Felipe Lobelo
This work aimed to summarize the benefits of physical activity and the importance of counseling by a physician to promote physical activity in a primary health care setting in Saudi Arabia. Despite established evidence that physical activity is effective for reducing the risk of non-communicable diseases, as well as the importance and cost-effectiveness of physical activity counseling in the primary care setting, few studies have been conducted regarding physical activity counseling in Saudi Arabia.
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
F Y Al Slail, H U Afridi, Sahar Mohamed Fadl, O O Kheir
A qualitative study was carried out to explore the health status of people with diabetes during Ramadan. Fifteen patients participated in two focus group discussions. Most respondents reported lack of knowledge regarding their own conditions and do not follow the medical advice of not fasting during Ramadan. Barriers facing the patients seeking healthcare before and during Ramadan were the atmosphere, long distances to facilities, monthly appointments, and monthly prescribed medication. All respondents agreed on the importance of physical activity but their opinions varied on how to conduct it...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Eman S Alsaeed, Ghada N Farhat, Abdullah M Assiri, Ziad Memish, Elawad M Ahmed, Mohammad Y Saeedi, Mishal F Al-Dossary, Hisham Bashawri
The prevalence rates of β-thalassemia (β-thal) and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in Saudi Arabia are considered one of the highest compared to surrounding countries in the Middle East (0.05% and 4.50%, respectively). In this study, Secondary data analysis was obtained from the premarital screening and genetic counseling program (PMSGC), and included 12,30,582 individuals from February 2011 to December 2015. Prevalence rates (per 1000 population) for β-thal and SCD were calculated for carrier status, disease status and their combination...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Eiman Gaid, Abdullah Assiri, Scott McNabb, Weam Banjar
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) including device-associated HAI (DA-HAI) are a serious patient safety issue in hospitals worldwide, affecting 5-10% of hospitalized patients and deadly for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). (Vincent, 2003; Al-Tawfiq et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2013). DA-HAIs account for up to 23% of HAIs in ICUs and about 40% of all hospital infections (i.e. central line-associated blood stream infections [CLABSI], ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP], and catheter-associated urinary tract infections [CAUTI])...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Sami Alqahtani, Abdulhameed Kashkary, Abdullah Asiri, Heba Kamal, Jose Binongo, Kenneth Castro, Scott McNabb
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB) mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Fahad M Almutairi, Tamara Tayeb, Raffat Alhakeem, Abdulaziz Bin Saeed, Abdullah Assiri, Scott J N McNabb
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health threat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with many challenges that limit its prevention and control. To understand how to meet these challenges, this study calculated the TB incidence rates (IRs) in KSA from 2005 to 2012, which were stratified by nationality, sex, and administrative regions. Furthermore, laboratory capabilities were assessed by determining the proportion of laboratory-confirmed TB cases. The overall TB IRs decreased from 15.80/100,000 population in 2005 [95% confidence interval (CI)=15...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Sabrine Hamdi
The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is the recommended prevention strategy for viruses-related cancers, but its acceptability remains controversial, primarily because of the relationship between sexual activity and HPV infection. Countries in the Middle East and North Africa are conservative vis-à-vis sexual behaviors, where Islam shapes people's practices including sexual health, and imposes that sex be carried out within lawful context. Many sexually transmitted infections can be prevented if the rules of Islam are unfailingly applied by Muslims in that region...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Hatim I Alghamdi, Ali F Alshehri, Ghada N Farhat
Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer worldwide in terms of incidence and constitutes a major health problem. About 90% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at advance stage where treatment is not available. Despite evidence that lung cancer screening improves survival, guidelines for lung cancer screening are still a subject for debate. In Saudi Arabia, only 14% of lung cancers are diagnosed at early stage and researches on survival and its predictors are lacking. This overview analysis was conducted on predictors of lung cancer mortality according to the two major cancer types, small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) in Saudi Arabia...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
P Ramya Raghavan, Subarna Roy, Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
Diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Drake G LeBrun, Divya Talwar, Tuyetnhi A Pham, Bibek Banskota, David A Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare seeking behaviors among children with musculoskeletal disorders are poorly understood. We sought to analyze healthcare seeking delays among children with chronic musculoskeletal conditions in Nepal and identify predictors of clinically significant delays. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large pediatric musculoskeletal rehabilitation center in Nepal. Baseline sociodemographic data and healthcare seeking behaviors were assessed via interviews with 75 randomly selected caregivers...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Ayman Kharaba, Mohammad Al Aboud, Madinah Reham Kharabah, Khaled Alyami, Amal Al Beihany
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors, physician's compliance, and implementation of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis at our hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2015 to September 2015. We used the ACCP 2012 guidelines to assess the VTE risk and to determine whether patients had received the recommended prophylaxis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
C K Vidyaraj, A Chitra, S Smita, M Muthuraj, S Govindarajan, B Usharani, S Anbazhagi
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Huda H Al-Griw, Elfurgani Salem Kraim, Milad E Farhat, Lorraine L Perrett, Adrian M Whatmore
Animal brucellosis is thought to be present in small ruminants, cattle, and camels in Libya, particularly in the west coastal strip. Before the system collapsed due to political unrest in 2011, prevalence of the disease did not exceed 0.2% in cattle, 0.1% in camels, 8.3% in sheep, and 14.8% in goats. The aim of this study was to highlight outbreaks of disease that took place during the 18-month period from November 2014 to April 2016. A total of 1612 serum samples, collected opportunistically from 29 herds in 12 different localities in the northwest region of Libya, were investigated for brucellosis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Prachi R Bapat, Renuka S Dodkey, Seema D Shekhawat, Aliabbas A Husain, Amit R Nayak, Anuja P Kawle, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
In the present study, we aimed to estimate the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and examine the determinants of distribution of the disease in three high-risk populations of Central India. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Central India between March 2014 and June 2015. Based on the requisite inclusion criteria, we recruited a total of 301 participants whose blood samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Souheil Hallit, Marouan Zoghbi, Rabih Hallit, Lara Youssef, Rachelle Costantine, Nelly Kheir, Pascale Salameh
OBJECTIVE: A significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C is well shown in tobacco users, as compared to non-tobacco users. The additive effects of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels have not been studied. The study's objective was to assess the correlation between cigarette smoking and LDL levels in Lebanese cigarette smokers and to check the interaction effect of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 in 4 different laboratories, enrolling 308 patients (188 non-smokers, 105 cigarette smokers, 15 previous smokers)...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Yaser Fasihi, Somayeh Kiaei, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a worldwide problem. Molecular typing is a useful tool to understand MRSA epidemiology. Herein, we determined vancomycin-resistant, SCCmec and spa types among MRSA isolates recovered from healthcare and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran. A total of 170 S. aureus isolates were collected from different patients who were admitted to affiliated hospitals of Kerman University of Medical science. MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected by phenotypic methods...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Marshall Makate, Clifton Makate
This paper assesses the importance of community-level factors on prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe. The analysis is performed using data from the two most recent rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11 linked with other community-level data. We use logistic, generalized linear regressions as well as multilevel mixed models to examine the factors associated with the frequency, timing and quality of prenatal care. Our results suggest that contraceptive prevalence, religious composition, density of nurses, health expenditures per capita and availability of government hospitals in communities are important predictors of prenatal care use in Zimbabwe...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies are instrumental in generating valid scientific evidence based on identifying temporal associations between cause and effect. Researchers in a developing country like Pakistan seldom undertake cohort studies hence little is known about the challenges encountered while conducting them. We describe the retention rates among tuberculosis patients with and without diabetes, look at factors associated with loss to follow up among the cohort and assess operational factors that contributed to retention of cohort...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Nerges Mistry, Eunice Lobo, Shimoni Shah, Sheela Rangan, Yatin Dholakia
BACKGROUND: Delays in accessing effective health care plays a pivotal role in increasing Tuberculosis (TB) transmission within the community. Patna, North India, with high levels of poverty and weak public health system, faces huge challenges for achieving effective TB control. The study aims to determine delays that occur from onset of TB symptoms until initiation of pulmonary TB (PTB) treatment among patients in Patna. METHODS: Of the 109 self-reporting TB patients identified through an active household survey, 64 PTB patients were interviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Shafat Lone, Kouser Lone, Saika Khan, Rafiq Ahmed Pampori
BACKGROUND: Around 20-25 percent of the world's adult populations have the metabolic syndrome and they are twice as likely to die from heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. The World Health Organization proposed a definition for the metabolic syndrome in 1998 and later on NCEP ATPIII and IDF provided new definitions of this syndrome in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Very few studies have compared the different definitions to diagnose the metabolic syndrome in type two diabetics in India while as for Kashmir valley no such documented study has been carried out till date...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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