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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413105/investigation-of-omnigene%C3%A2-sputum-performance-in-delayed-tuberculosis-testing-by-smear-culture-and-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rif-assays-in-uganda
#1
Cassandra D Kelly-Cirino, P S Curry
OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S) is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required) and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC) group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315657/magnitude-and-determinants-of-adverse-treatment-outcomes-among-tuberculosis-patients-registered-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-in-a-tuberculosis-unit-wardha-central-india-a-record-based-cohort-study
#2
Anuj Mundra, Pradeep R Deshmukh, Ajay Dawale
INTRODUCTION: Deaths, defaults, relapses, and treatment failures have made the control of TB difficult across the globe. METHODOLOGY: This study is a record-based follow-up of a cohort of patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in the year 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, India. Data were collected from the records available at the District Tuberculosis Office. RESULTS: Data of 510 patients were analyzed. The sputum conversion rate was 88%...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253475/sickle-cell-disease-in-saudi-arabia-a-challenge-or-not
#3
EDITORIAL
Maha Mohammed Alotaibi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215491/predictors-of-hepatitis-c-testing-intention-among-african-american-baby-boomers
#4
Mohamed Rashrash, Mary Maneno, Anthony Wutoh, Earl Ettienne, Monika Daftary
Baby Boomers (BBs) are responsible for three-quarters of hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the United States; however, HCV testing is distinctly underused by them. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HCV testing and to evaluate predictors of HCV testing intention among African-American BBs. The study was guided by the Health Belief Model and theory of reasoned action frameworks. Of the 137 participants included in the study, 44.8% had at least a college education; 13.9% received prior to 1992 blood transfusion...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208052/new-tuberculosis-estimates-must-motivate-countries-to-act
#5
EDITORIAL
Madhukar Pai, Ziad A Memish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188122/drug-resistance-detection-and-mutation-patterns-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-strains-from-children-in-delhi
#6
Jyoti Arora, Ritu Singhal, Manpreet Bhalla, Ajoy Verma, Niti Singh, Digamber Behera, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
A total of 312 sputum samples from pediatric patients presumptive of multidrug resistant tuberculosis were tested for the detection of drug resistance using the GenoTypeMTBDRplus assay. A total of 193 (61.8%) patients were smear positive and 119 (38.1%) were smear negative by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. A line probe assay was performed for 208 samples/cultures (193 smear positive samples and 15 cultures from smear negative samples). Valid results were obtained from 198 tests. Some 125/198 (63.1%) were sensitive to both rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), while 73/198 (36...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188121/a-survey-of-hypertension-prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-in-health-screening-camps-of-rural-central-punjab-pakistan
#7
Salman T Shafi, Tahir Shafi
Hypertension is a global public health problem with increasing prevalence. There is limited updated information on the prevalence of hypertension in the Pakistani population. This is a cross-sectional study based on data collected during multiple health screening camps held at multiple locations in rural central Punjab, Pakistan in the period between 2008 and 2015. A total of 13,722 patients were included in this study. Crude prevalence of hypertension was 35.1% and age-standardized prevalence was 34.4%. Among patients with hypertension, 62...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188120/suicide-rate-in-relation-to-the-human-development-index-and-other-health-related-factors-a-global-ecological-study-from-91-countries
#8
Salman Khazaei, Vajihe Armanmehr, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Shahab Rezaeian, Somayeh Khazaei
There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188119/incidence-and-economic-burden-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-aged-up-to-5years-in-three-middle-eastern-countries-and-pakistan-a-multinational-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Ghulam Mustafa, Amal Y Al Aidaroos, Idris S Al Abaidani, Kinga Meszaros, Kusuma Gopala, Mehmet Ceyhan, Mohamad Al-Tannir, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Shyam Bawikar, Johannes E Schmidt
Epidemiological data on acute otitis media (AOM), an infectious disease frequently affecting children, are lacking in some countries. This study was undertaken to assess the incidence of AOM in children ≤5years in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Pakistan, and Turkey, as well as the economic burden from a parent/caregiver perspective. Medical records of 4043 children (Saudi Arabia=1023, Oman=998, Pakistan=1022, Turkey=1000) were retrospectively reviewed and the incidence of AOM episodes calculated from suspected and confirmed cases...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003094/ecological-correlations-of-dietary-food-intake-and-mental-health-disorders
#10
Jordan Hoerr, Joshua Fogel, Benjamin Van Voorhees
This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940022/population-attributable-fraction-of-hypertension-associated-with-obesity-and-abdominal-obesity-and-the-joint-effect-of-both-in-the-central-provinces-of-iran
#11
Masoud Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of hypertension associated with obesity and abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was extracted from the Iranian Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase 2009. Measure of association between obesity and hypertension was extracted from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, for men and women, in order to calculate the PAF of hypertension associated with obesity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065259/predictors-of-ramadan-fasting-during-pregnancy
#12
Lily A van Bilsen, Ary I Savitri, Dwirani Amelia, Mohammad Baharuddin, Diederick E Grobbee, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal
Although the health effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy are still unclear, it is important to identify the predictors and motivational factors involved in women's decision to observe the fast. We investigated these factors in a cross sectional study of 187 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care visits in the Budi Kemuliaan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. The odds of adherence to fasting were reduced by 4% for every week increase in gestational age during Ramadan [odds ratio (OR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0...
December 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886846/are-we-facing-a-noncommunicable-disease-pandemic
#13
REVIEW
Luke Allen
The global boom in premature mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) shares many similarities with pandemics of infectious diseases, yet public health professionals have resisted the adoption of this label. It is increasingly apparent that NCDs are actually communicable conditions, and although the vectors of disease are nontraditional, the pandemic label is apt. Arguing for a change in terminology extends beyond pedantry as the move carries serious implications for the public health community and the general public...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870929/a-clinical-study-of-cutaneous-changes-in-pregnancy
#14
Vinitha V Panicker, Najeeba Riyaz, P K Balachandran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842211/risk-factors-and-quality-of-life-of-dyslipidemic-patients-in-lebanon-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Akram Farhat, Amal Al-Hajje, Samar Rachidi, Salam Zein, Mayssam Bou Zeid, Pascale Salameh, Wafaa Bawab, Sanaa Awada
The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of dyslipidemia and measure its impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). Secondary objectives were to determine the percentage of dyslipidemia and assess the predictive factors affecting patients' QOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of Lebanese population. A standardized questionnaire was developed to assess the QOL using the SF-36 score. A total of 452 individuals were interviewed, of which 59.5% were females. The mean age was 43...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717646/assessment-of-vitamin-d-levels-awareness-among-lebanese-pharmacy-students-and-impact-of-pharmacist-counseling
#16
Diana Malaeb, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh
Vitamin D inadequacy, frequently underdiagnosed, affects people of all age groups worldwide. This prospective study aims at determining the percentage of inadequate vitamin D levels among students and evaluating the impact of pharmacist counseling on raising the awareness of the importance of sun exposure and adequate vitamin D intake. A total of 160 university students were recruited. Blood samples were taken to check the vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous levels. Vitamin D levels ⩽30ng/mL were defined as inadequate...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663900/measuring-a-hidden-population-a-novel-technique-to-estimate-the-population-size-of-women-with-sexual-violence-related-pregnancies-in-south-kivu-province-democratic-republic-of-congo
#17
Lisa G Johnston, Katherine R McLaughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Susan A Bartels
Successive sampling (SS)-population size estimation (PSE) is a technique used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations using data collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. We here assess past estimations and use new data from an RDS survey to calculate a new PSE. In 2012, 852 adult women in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, who self-identified as survivors of sexual violence, resulting in a pregnancy, since the start of the war (in 1996) were sampled using RDS. We used imputed visibility, enrollment order, and prior estimates for PSE using SS-PSE in RDS Analyst...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639039/careseeking-for-childhood-diarrhoea-at-the-primary-level-of-care-in-communities-in-cross-river-state-nigeria
#18
Oluranti Ekpo
Risk factors for care-seeking choices for childhood diarrhea in Nigeria are poorly understood. They are essential to the control of childhood illnesses because diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality. This study explored the contributors to care-seeking choices in Cross River State, Nigeria. Caregivers of children aged 0-59months in 1240 randomly selected households in Cross River State were involved in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on demographics, knowledge of illness, and care-seeking patterns, and observed associations were explored using logistic regression...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944896/presence-of-blaper-1-and-blaveb-1-beta-lactamase-genes-among-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-south-west-of-iran
#19
Elham Davodian, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Samileh Noorbakhsh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates have acquired resistance to antibiotics such as novel beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to investigate the blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaPSE-1 genes among isolates of P. aeruginosa among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Sixty-five isolates were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility testing and combined disk tests were performed to detect the isolates producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among ceftazidime-resistant isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaPSE-1 genes was conducted...
September 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829279/a-cohort-study-of-chronic-diseases-for-mongolian-people-outline-with-baseline-data-of-the-moncohort-study
#20
Tsogzolbaatar Enkh-Oyun, Dambadarjaa Davaalkham, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yasuko Aoyama, Satoshi Tsuboi, Ryusuke Ae, Gombojav Davaa, Dayan Angarmurun, Nanjid Khuderchuluun, Yosikazu Nakamura
Many Mongolian people suffer from non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to plan preventive strategies against such diseases, we designed a community-based prospective cohort study of chronic diseases, called the Moncohort study, in Mongolia. This is the first nationwide large-scale cohort study of chronic diseases. This paper describes the study's rationale, design and methods with baseline data. Mongolian residents aged ⩾40years were selected nationwide from many geographic regions in 2009. Data were collected on demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements...
September 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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