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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110874/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-infections-among-the-children-of-andaman-islands-with-special-reference-to-pathotype-distribution-and-clinical-profile
#1
P Ramya Raghavan, Subarna Roy, Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
Diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110873/predictors-of-healthcare-seeking-delays-among-children-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-nepal
#2
Drake G LeBrun, Divya Talwar, Tuyetnhi A Pham, Bibek Banskota, David A Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare seeking behaviors among children with musculoskeletal disorders are poorly understood. We sought to analyze healthcare seeking delays among children with chronic musculoskeletal conditions in Nepal and identify predictors of clinically significant delays. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large pediatric musculoskeletal rehabilitation center in Nepal. Baseline sociodemographic data and healthcare seeking behaviors were assessed via interviews with 75 randomly selected caregivers...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110872/venous-thromboembolism-risks-and-prophylaxis-in-king-fahad-hospital-madinah-saudi-arabia
#3
Ayman Kharaba, Mohammad Al Aboud, Madinah Reham Kharabah, Khaled Alyami, Amal Al Beihany
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors, physician's compliance, and implementation of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis at our hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2015 to September 2015. We used the ACCP 2012 guidelines to assess the VTE risk and to determine whether patients had received the recommended prophylaxis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110871/prevalence-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-seropositive-patients-and-their-treatment-outcomes
#4
C K Vidyaraj, A Chitra, S Smita, M Muthuraj, S Govindarajan, B Usharani, S Anbazhagi
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110870/evidence-of-ongoing-brucellosis-in-livestock-animals-in-north-west-libya
#5
Huda H Al-Griw, Elfurgani Salem Kraim, Milad E Farhat, Lorraine L Perrett, Adrian M Whatmore
Animal brucellosis is thought to be present in small ruminants, cattle, and camels in Libya, particularly in the west coastal strip. Before the system collapsed due to political unrest in 2011, prevalence of the disease did not exceed 0.2% in cattle, 0.1% in camels, 8.3% in sheep, and 14.8% in goats. The aim of this study was to highlight outbreaks of disease that took place during the 18-month period from November 2014 to April 2016. A total of 1612 serum samples, collected opportunistically from 29 herds in 12 different localities in the northwest region of Libya, were investigated for brucellosis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110869/prevalence-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-central-indian-populations
#6
Prachi R Bapat, Renuka S Dodkey, Seema D Shekhawat, Aliabbas A Husain, Amit R Nayak, Anuja P Kawle, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
In the present study, we aimed to estimate the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and examine the determinants of distribution of the disease in three high-risk populations of Central India. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Central India between March 2014 and June 2015. Based on the requisite inclusion criteria, we recruited a total of 301 participants whose blood samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110868/effect-of-exclusive-cigarette-smoking-and-in-combination-with-waterpipe-smoking-on-lipoproteins
#7
Souheil Hallit, Marouan Zoghbi, Rabih Hallit, Lara Youssef, Rachelle Costantine, Nelly Kheir, Pascale Salameh
OBJECTIVE: A significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C is well shown in tobacco users, as compared to non-tobacco users. The additive effects of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels have not been studied. The study's objective was to assess the correlation between cigarette smoking and LDL levels in Lebanese cigarette smokers and to check the interaction effect of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 in 4 different laboratories, enrolling 308 patients (188 non-smokers, 105 cigarette smokers, 15 previous smokers)...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110867/characterization-of-sccmec-and-spa-types-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-health-care-and-community-acquired-infections-in-kerman-iran
#8
Yaser Fasihi, Somayeh Kiaei, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a worldwide problem. Molecular typing is a useful tool to understand MRSA epidemiology. Herein, we determined vancomycin-resistant, SCCmec and spa types among MRSA isolates recovered from healthcare and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran. A total of 170 S. aureus isolates were collected from different patients who were admitted to affiliated hospitals of Kerman University of Medical science. MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected by phenotypic methods...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110866/prenatal-care-utilization-in-zimbabwe-examining-the-role-of-community-level-factors
#9
Marshall Makate, Clifton Makate
This paper assesses the importance of community-level factors on prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe. The analysis is performed using data from the two most recent rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11 linked with other community-level data. We use logistic, generalized linear regressions as well as multilevel mixed models to examine the factors associated with the frequency, timing and quality of prenatal care. Our results suggest that contraceptive prevalence, religious composition, density of nurses, health expenditures per capita and availability of government hospitals in communities are important predictors of prenatal care use in Zimbabwe...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110865/establishing-a-cohort-in-a-developing-country-experiences-of-the-diabetes-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-cohort-study
#10
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies are instrumental in generating valid scientific evidence based on identifying temporal associations between cause and effect. Researchers in a developing country like Pakistan seldom undertake cohort studies hence little is known about the challenges encountered while conducting them. We describe the retention rates among tuberculosis patients with and without diabetes, look at factors associated with loss to follow up among the cohort and assess operational factors that contributed to retention of cohort...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110864/pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patna-india-durations-delays-and-health-care-seeking-behaviour-among-patients-identified-through-household-surveys
#11
Nerges Mistry, Eunice Lobo, Shimoni Shah, Sheela Rangan, Yatin Dholakia
BACKGROUND: Delays in accessing effective health care plays a pivotal role in increasing Tuberculosis (TB) transmission within the community. Patna, North India, with high levels of poverty and weak public health system, faces huge challenges for achieving effective TB control. The study aims to determine delays that occur from onset of TB symptoms until initiation of pulmonary TB (PTB) treatment among patients in Patna. METHODS: Of the 109 self-reporting TB patients identified through an active household survey, 64 PTB patients were interviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110863/assessment-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-kashmiri-population-with-type-2-diabetes-employing-the-standard-criteria-s-given-by-who-ncepatp-iii-and-idf
#12
Shafat Lone, Kouser Lone, Saika Khan, Rafiq Ahmed Pampori
BACKGROUND: Around 20-25 percent of the world's adult populations have the metabolic syndrome and they are twice as likely to die from heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. The World Health Organization proposed a definition for the metabolic syndrome in 1998 and later on NCEP ATPIII and IDF provided new definitions of this syndrome in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Very few studies have compared the different definitions to diagnose the metabolic syndrome in type two diabetics in India while as for Kashmir valley no such documented study has been carried out till date...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110862/low-pre-diagnosis-attrition-but-high-pre-treatment-attrition-among-patients-with-mdr-tb-an-operational-research-from-chennai-india
#13
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Dina Nair, Joel S Klinton, Malik Parmar, J Lavanya, Lakshmi Murali, Vivek Gupta, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. METHODS: Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110861/-before-reaching-the-last-mile-knowledge-attitude-practice-and-perceived-barriers-related-to-tuberculosis-directly-observed-therapy-among-asha-workers-in-central-india-a-mixed-method-study
#14
Akash Ranjan Singh, Abhijit Pakhare, Arun M Kokane, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ashish Chauhan, Abhishek Singh, Arti Gangwar, Prahlad Singh Thakur
INTRODUCTION: Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. METHODS: Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110860/incidence-and-prevalence-rates-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-saudi-arabia-an-overview
#15
REVIEW
Abdulellah Alotaibi, Lin Perry, Leila Gholizadeh, Ali Al-Ganmi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). DESIGN: A descriptive review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110859/a-360-degree-view-of-an-ancient-killer-disease
#16
EDITORIAL
Sarah E Ahlbrand, Madhukar Pai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756831/frequency-and-implications-of-ofloxacin-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients
#17
LETTER
Jyoti Arora, Gavish Kumar, Ajoy Kumar Verma, Manpreet Bhalla, Ritu Singhal, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756830/predictors-of-past-quit-attempts-and-duration-of-abstinence-among-cigarette-smokers
#18
N Layoun, S Hallit, M Waked, Z Aoun Bacha, I Godin, A Leveque, M Dramaix, P Salameh
OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread awareness of the harms of smoking, millions continue to smoke around the world partly due to the difficulty it takes to quit smoking. Identifying the factors associated with making quit attempts is an essential pillar to reach successful quitting. The purpose of this study is to assess the factors associated with the past quit attempts and their past length of abstinence in a Lebanese sample of cigarette smokers. METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2014 and March 2015, involving 382 patients randomly chosen from 5 outpatient clinics in 5 hospitals in Lebanon...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756829/occupational-stress-anxiety-and-depression-among-egyptian-teachers
#19
Dalia Desouky, Heba Allam
Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and the Arabic version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI), the Arabic validated versions of Taylor manifest anxiety scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess OS, anxiety and depression respectively...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756828/is-google-trends-a-reliable-tool-for-digital-epidemiology-insights-from-different-clinical-settings
#20
Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi
Internet-derived information has been recently recognized as a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Google Trends, a Google Inc. portal, generates data on geographical and temporal patterns according to specified keywords. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of Google Trends in different clinical settings, for both common diseases with lower media coverage, and for less common diseases attracting major media coverage. We carried out a search in Google Trends using the keywords "renal colic", "epistaxis", and "mushroom poisoning", selected on the basis of available and reliable epidemiological data...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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