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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386166/interplay-between-redox-and-protein-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Diogo R Feleciano, Kristin Arnsburg, Janine Kirstein
The subcellular compartments of eukaryotic cells are characterized by different redox environments. Whereas the cytosol, nucleus and mitochondria are more reducing, the endoplasmic reticulum represents a more oxidizing environment. As the redox level controls the formation of intra- and inter-molecular disulfide bonds, the folding of proteins is tightly linked to its environment. The proteostasis network of each compartment needs to be adapted to the compartmental redox properties. In addition to chaperones, also members of the thioredoxin superfamily can influence the folding of proteins by regulation of cysteine reduction/oxidation...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386165/hitting-two-birds-with-one-stone-the-unforeseen-consequences-of-nested-gene-knockouts-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Richard Jovelin, Asher D Cutter
Nested genes represent an intriguing form of non-random genomic organization in which the boundaries of one gene are fully contained within another, longer host gene. The C. elegans genome contains over 10,000 nested genes, 92% of which are ncRNAs, which occur inside 16% of the protein coding gene complement. Host genes are longer than non-host coding genes, owing to their longer and more numerous introns. Indel alleles are available for nearly all of these host genes that simultaneously alter the nested gene, raising the possibility of nested gene disruption contributing to phenotypes that might be attributed to the host gene...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386164/a-joint-graph-inference-case-study-the-c-elegans-chemical-and-electrical-connectomes
#3
Li Chen, Joshua T Vogelstein, Vince Lyzinski, Carey E Priebe
We investigate joint graph inference for the chemical and electrical connectomes of the Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm. The C. elegans connectomes consist of [Formula: see text] non-isolated neurons with known functional attributes, and there are two types of synaptic connectomes, resulting in a pair of graphs. We formulate our joint graph inference from the perspectives of seeded graph matching and joint vertex classification. Our results suggest that connectomic inference should proceed in the joint space of the two connectomes, which has significant neuroscientific implications...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385264/another-morphogenetic-movement-on-the-map-charting-dorsal-intercalation-in-c-elegans
#4
COMMENT
Elise Walck-Shannon, Jeff Hardin
Dorsal intercalation is a coordinated cell migration event that rearranges hypodermal cells during C. elegans embryogenesis, and that resembles cell intercalation in many systems from flies to mice. Despite its conservation, the molecular mechanisms that govern dorsal intercalation in worms have remained elusive. Here, we comment on our recent publication, Walck-Shannon et al.,(1) which begins to spatially map the molecular requirements for intercalation. First, we provide a historical perspective on the factors that have previously hampered the study of dorsal intercalation...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384150/why-motor-proteins-team-up-intraflagellar-transport-in-c-elegans-cilia
#5
COMMENT
Jona Mijalkovic, Bram Prevo, Erwin J G Peterman
Inside the cell, vital processes such as cell division and intracellular transport are driven by the concerted action of different molecular motor proteins. In C. elegans chemosensory cilia, 2 kinesin-2 family motor proteins, kinesin-II and OSM-3, team up to drive intraflagellar transport (IFT) in the anterograde direction, from base to tip, whereas IFT dynein hitchhikes toward the tip and subsequently drives IFT in the opposite, retrograde direction, thereby recycling both kinesins. While it is evident that at least a retrograde and an anterograde motor are necessary to drive IFT, it has remained puzzling why 2 same-polarity kinesins are employed...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383912/the-adhesion-gpcr-latrophilin-a-novel-signaling-cascade-in-oriented-cell-division-and-anterior-posterior-polarity
#6
COMMENT
Jana Winkler, Simone Prömel
Although several signaling pathways in oriented cell division have been well characterized such as delta/notch inductions or wnt/frizzled-based anterior-posterior polarity, there is strong evidence for additional signal pathways controlling early anterior-posterior polarity decisions. The homolog of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor latrophilin, LAT-1 has been identified as a receptor essential for oriented cell division in an anterior-posterior direction of specific blastomeres in the early C. elegans embryo...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383728/keeping-fit-storing-fat-lipid-droplet-biogenesis
#7
COMMENT
Vineet Choudhary, Andy Golden, William A Prinz
All eukaryotes store excess lipids in organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs), which play central roles in lipid metabolism. Understanding LD biogenesis and metabolism is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of lipid metabolic disorders like obesity and atherosclerosis. LDs are composed of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids that often contains coat proteins. Nascent LDs bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the mechanism is not known. In this commentary we discuss our recent finding that a conserved family of proteins called fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins is necessary for LDs budding from the ER...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383565/a-twist-of-fate-how-a-meiotic-protein-is-providing-new-perspectives-on-germ-cell-development
#8
COMMENT
Rana Mainpal, Judith L Yanowitz
The molecular pathways that govern how germ line fate is acquired is an area of intense investigation that has major implications for the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertility interventions, and treatment of germ cell cancers. Transcriptional repression has emerged as a primary mechanism to ensure suppression of somatic growth programs in primordial germ cells. In this commentary, we address how xnd-1 illuminates our understanding of transcriptional repression and how it is coordinated with the germ cell differentiation program...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383456/new-insights-into-cell-non-autonomous-mechanisms-of-the-c-elegans-hypoxic-response
#9
COMMENT
Scott F Leiser, Ryan Rossner, Matt Kaeberlein
The hypoxic response is a well-studied and highly conserved biological response to low oxygen availability. First described more than 20 y ago, the traditional model for this response is that declining oxygen levels lead to stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which then bind to hypoxia responsive elements (HREs) in target genes to mediate the transcriptional changes collectively known as the hypoxic response.(1,2) Recent work in C. elegans has forced a re-evaluation of this model by indicating that the worm HIF (HIF-1) can mediate effects in a cell non-autonomous fashion and, in at least one case, increase expression of an intestinal hypoxic response target gene in cells lacking HIF-1...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383290/l1-arrest-daf-16-foxo-and-nonautonomous-control-of-post-embryonic-development
#10
COMMENT
Rebecca E W Kaplan, L Ryan Baugh
Post-embryonic development is governed by nutrient availability. L1 arrest, dauer formation and aging illustrate how starvation, anticipation of starvation and caloric restriction have profound influence on C. elegans development, respectively. Insulin-like signaling through the Forkhead box O transcription factor daf-16/FoxO regulates each of these processes. We recently reported that ins-4, ins-6 and daf-28 promote L1 development from the intestine and chemosensory neurons, similar to their role in dauer development...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383221/glycogen-a-must-have-storage-to-survive-stressful-emergencies
#11
COMMENT
Elite Possik, Arnim Pause
Mechanisms of adaptation to acute changes in osmolarity are fundamental for life. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, cells and organisms utilize conserved strategies to prevent water loss and maintain cellular integrity and viability. The production of glycerol is a common strategy utilized by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and many other organisms to survive hyperosmotic stress. Specifically, the transcriptional upregulation of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of glycerol, has been previously implicated in many model organisms...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383074/new-functional-and-biophysical-insights-into-the-mitochondrial-rieske-iron-sulfur-protein-from-genetic-suppressor-analysis-in-c-elegans
#12
COMMENT
Gholamali Jafari, Brian M Wasko, Matt Kaeberlein, Antony R Crofts
Several intragenic mutations suppress the C. elegans isp-1(qm150) allele of the mitochondrial Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP), a catalytic subunit of Complex III of the respiratory chain. These mutations were located in a helical region of the "tether" span of ISP-1, distant from the primary mutation in the extrinsic head, and suppressed all pleiotropic phenotypes associated with the qm150 allele. Analysis of these suppressors revealed control of electron transfer into Complex III through a "spring-loaded" mechanism involving a binding force for formation of enzyme-substrate complex, counter balanced by forces (a chemical "spring") favoring helix formation in the tether...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383012/game-of-zones-how-actin-binding-proteins-organize-muscle-contraction
#13
COMMENT
Eugenia Butkevich, Dieter R Klopfenstein, Christoph F Schmidt
Locomotion of C. elegans requires coordinated, efficient transmission of forces generated on the molecular scale by myosin and actin filaments in myocytes to dense bodies and the hypodermis and cuticle enveloping body wall muscles. The complex organization of the acto-myosin scaffold with its accessory proteins provides a fine-tuned machinery regulated by effectors that guarantees that sarcomere units undergo controlled, reversible cycles of contraction and relaxation. Actin filaments in sarcomeres dynamically undergo polymerization and depolymerization...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090395/sta-1-is-repressed-by-mir-58-family-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Encarnación Lozano, María Pilar de Lucas, Alberto G Sáez
The miR-58 family comprises 6 microRNAs with largely shared functions, and with an overall high expression, because one of its members, miR-58, is the most abundant microRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. We recently found that 2 TGF-β signaling pathways, Sma/Mab and Dauer, responsible for body size and dauer formation respectively, among other phenotypes, are downregulated by the miR-58 family. Here, we further explore this family by showing that it also acts through the sta-1 3'UTR. sta-1 encodes a transcription factor, homologous to mammalian STATs, that inhibits dauer formation in association with the TGF-β Dauer pathway...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090394/gexplore-1-4-an-expanded-web-interface-for-queries-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-protein-and-gene-function
#15
Harald Hutter, Jinkyo Suh
Genetic high-throughput experiments often result in hundreds or thousands of genes satisfying certain experimental conditions. Grouping and prioritizing a large number of genes for further analysis can be a time-consuming challenge. In 2009 we developed a web-based user interface, GExplore, to assist with large-scale data-mining related to gene function in Caenorhabditis elegans. The underlying database contained information about Caenorhabditis elegans genes and proteins including domain organization of the proteins, phenotypic descriptions, expression data and Gene Ontology Consortium annotations...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090393/skn-1-independent-transcriptional-activation-of-glutathione-s-transferase-4-gst-4-by-egf-signaling
#16
Giel Detienne, Pieter Van de Walle, Wouter De Haes, Liliane Schoofs, Liesbet Temmerman
In C. elegans research, transcriptional activation of glutathione S-transferase 4 (gst-4) is often used as a read-out for SKN-1 activity. While many heed an assumed non-exclusivity of the GFP reporter signal driven by the gst-4 promoter to SKN-1, this is also often ignored. We here show that gst-4 can also be transcriptionally activated by EOR-1, a transcription factor mediating effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. Along with enhancing exogenous oxidative stress tolerance, EOR-1 inde-pendently of SKN-1 increases gst-4 transcription in response to augmented EGF signaling...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695656/leveraging-the-withered-tail-tip-phenotype-in-c-elegans-to-identify-proteins-that-influence-membrane-properties
#17
Emma Svensk, Jana Biermann, Sofia Hammarsten, Fredrik Magnusson, Marc Pilon
The properties of cellular membranes are critical for most cellular functions and are influenced by several parameters including phospholipid composition, integral and peripheral membrane proteins, and environmental conditions such as temperature. We previously showed that the C. elegans paqr-2 and iglr-2 mutants have a defect in membrane homeostasis and exhibit several distinct phenotypes, including a characteristic tail tip defect and cold intolerance. In the present study we report that screening for novel mutants with these 2 defects can lead to the identification of genes that are important contributors to membrane properties...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695655/probing-and-rearranging-the-transcription-factor-network-controlling-the-c-elegans-endoderm
#18
COMMENT
Tobias Wiesenfahrt, Erin Osborne Nishimura, Janette Y Berg, James D McGhee
The ELT-2 GATA factor is the predominant transcription factor regulating gene expression in the C. elegans intestine, following endoderm specification. We comment on our previous study (Wiesenfahrt et al., 2016) that investigated how the elt-2 gene is controlled by END-1, END-3 and ELT-7, the 3 endoderm specific GATA factors that lie upstream in the regulatory hierarchy. We also discuss the unexpected result that ELT-2, if expressed sufficiently early and at sufficiently high levels, can specify the C. elegans endoderm, replacing the normal functions of END-1 and END-3...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695654/gamete-interactions-require-transmembranous-immunoglobulin-like-proteins-with-conserved-roles-during-evolution
#19
COMMENT
Hitoshi Nishimura, Steven W L'Hernault
C. elegans spe-9 class genes are male germline-enriched in their expression and indispensable during sperm-oocyte fusion. Identification of mammalian orthologs that exhibit similar functions to these C. elegans genes has been a challenge. The mouse Izumo1 gene encodes a sperm-specific, immunoglobulin (Ig)-like transmembrane (TM) protein that is required for gamete fusion. We recently identified the C. elegans spe-45 gene, which shows male germline-enriched expression and encodes an Ig-like TM protein. spe-45 mutant worms produced otherwise normal spermatozoa that cannot fuse with oocytes, causing essentially the same phenotype as that seen in the Izumo1-knockout mice...
2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695653/mechanism-of-chromatin-segregation-to-the-nuclear-periphery-in-c-elegans-embryos
#20
COMMENT
Adriana Gonzalez-Sandoval, Susan M Gasser
In eukaryotic organisms, gene regulation occurs in the context of chromatin. In the interphase nucleus, euchromatin and heterochromatin occupy distinct space during cell differentiation, with heterochromatin becoming enriched at the nuclear and nucleolar peripheries. This organization is thought to fine-tune gene expression. To elucidate the mechanisms that govern this level of genome organization, screens were carried out in C. elegans which monitored the loss of heterochromatin sequestration at the nuclear periphery...
2016: Worm
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