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Journal of Nutritional Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308197/malnutrition-and-cachexia-among-cancer-out-patients-in-nairobi-kenya
#1
L U Kaduka, Z N Bukania, Y Opanga, R Mutisya, A Korir, V Thuita, C Nyongesa, M Mwangi, C F L Mbakaya, E Muniu
Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Kenya. However, there is scarce information on the nutritional status of cancer patients to guide in decision making. The present study sought to assess the risk of malnutrition, and factors associated with malnutrition and cachexia, among cancer out-patients, with the aim of informing nutrition programmes for cancer management in Kenya and beyond. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study performed at Kenyatta National Hospital and Texas Cancer Centre in Nairobi, Kenya...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299309/validation-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-ethiopian-adults-with-hiv
#2
Maria H Hegelund, Jonathan C Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Dilnesaw Zerfu, Dirk L Christensen, Henrik Friis, Mette F Olsen
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an inexpensive, quick and non-invasive method to determine body composition. Equations used in BIA are typically derived in healthy individuals of European descent. BIA is specific to health status and ethnicity and may therefore provide inaccurate results in populations of different ethnic origin and health status. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of BIA in Ethiopian antiretroviral-naive HIV patients. BIA was validated against the 2H dilution technique by comparing fat-free mass (FFM) measured by the two methods using paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299308/effects-of-a-portion-design-plate-on-food-group-guideline-adherence-among-hospital-staff
#3
Dirk F de Korne, Rahul Malhotra, Wai Yee Lim, Christine Ong, Ashu Sharma, Tai Kiat Tan, Thiam Chye Tan, Kee Chong Ng, Truls Østbye
Food group guideline adherence is vital to prevent obesity and diabetes. Various studies have demonstrated that environmental variables influence food intake behaviour. In the present study we examined the effect of a portion design plate with food group portion guidelines demarcated by coloured lines (ETE Plate™). A two-group quasi-experimental design was used to measure proportions of carbohydrate, vegetable and protein portions and user experience in a hospital staff lounge setting in Singapore. Lunch was served on the portion design plate before 12...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299307/100%C3%A2-fruit-juice-and-measures-of-glucose-control-and-insulin-sensitivity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Mary M Murphy, Erin C Barrett, Kara A Bresnahan, Leila M Barraj
Studies on the effects of consuming 100 % fruit juice on measures of glycaemic control are conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review and quantitatively summarise results from randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining effects of 100 % fruit juice on glucose-insulin homeostasis. Eligible studies were identified from a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE and hand searches of reference lists from reviews and relevant papers. Using data from eighteen RCT, meta-analyses evaluated the mean difference in fasting blood glucose (sixteen studies), fasting blood insulin (eleven studies), the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; seven studies) and glycosylated Hb (HbA1c; three studies) between the 100 % fruit juice intervention and control groups using a random-effects model...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296279/nutrients-and-perinatal-depression-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Thalia M Sparling, Robin C Nesbitt, Nicholas Henschke, Sabine Gabrysch
Pregnancy and lactation deplete nutrients essential to the neurotransmission system. This may be one reason for the increased risk of depression during the perinatal period. The objective of the present review was to systematically review the literature and summarise evidence on whether blood nutrient levels influence the risk of perinatal depression. PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for studies of any design. A total of twenty-four articles of different designs were included, representing 14 262 subjects...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209497/long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-vegetarian-women-a-metabolic-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209496/abnormal-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-a-canine-model-for-muscular-dystrophy
#7
Andressa R Amaral, Márcio A Brunetto, Marina P Brólio, Daniela S Cima, Maria A Miglino, João Paulo F Santos, Carlos E Ambrósio
The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209495/effect-of-neuroactive-nutritional-supplementation-on-body-weight-and-composition-in-growing-puppies
#8
Wei Wang, Melissa Brooks, Cari Gardner, Norton Milgram
Nutritional factors can dramatically affect development of young animals during the early stage of life. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of a neuroactive nutritional supplement (NNS) containing DHA, taurine, carotenoids and vitamins on the body weight and body composition of growing puppies. A total of twenty-four 2-month-old Beagles were fed a nutritionally complete and balanced base diet and a control supplement daily during an initial 1-month baseline assessment, after which they were divided into control and treatment groups...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152259/prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-risk-of-undernutrition-in-hospitalised-children-with-liver-disease
#9
Ronghua Yu, Yizhong Wang, Yongmei Xiao, Lili Mo, Aishu Liu, Dan Li, Ting Ge, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < -2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < -2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < -2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (-2 ≤ Z < -1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152258/in-vitro-screening-of-neuroprotective-activity-of-indian-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera
#10
Manjeet Singh, Charles Ramassamy
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition characterised by changes in decline in learning and memory patterns. The neurodegenerative features of CCD in ageing dogs and cats are similar to human ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies against CCD and AD is a major challenge. Strong evidence supports the role of amyloid β peptide deposition and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of CCD and AD. In both the human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152257/a-new-model-for-evaluating-maintenance-energy-requirements-in-dogs-allometric-equation-from-319-pet-dogs
#11
Guilhem Divol, Nathalie Priymenko
Reports concerning maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs are common but most of the data cover laboratory or utility dogs. This study establishes those of healthy adult pet dogs and the factors which cause these energy requirements to vary. Within the framework of a nutrition teaching exercise, each student followed a pet from his entourage and gathered accurate records of its feeding habits. Data have been restricted to healthy adult dogs with an ideal body weight (BW) which did not vary more than 5 % during the study period...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#12
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152255/effects-of-monobutyrin-and-tributyrin-on-liver-lipid-profile-caecal-microbiota-composition-and-scfa-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#13
Thao Duy Nguyen, Olena Prykhodko, Frida Fåk Hållenius, Margareta Nyman
Butyric acid has been shown to have suppressive effects on inflammation and diseases related to the intestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation of two glycerol esters, monobutyrin (MB) and tributyrin (TB), would reach the hindgut of rats, thus having an effect on the caecal profile of SCFA, microbiota composition and some risk markers associated with chronic inflammation. For this purpose, rats were fed high-fat diets after adding MB (1 and 5 g/kg) and TB (5 g/kg) to a diet without any supplementation (high-fat control; HFC)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152254/calcium-intake-and-the-associations-with-faecal-fat-and-energy-excretion-and-lipid-profile-in-a-free-living-population
#14
Louise Kjølbæk, Janne K Lorenzen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between the habitual Ca intake and faecal fat and energy excretion as well as blood lipid profile in free-living normal-weight and overweight individuals. The participants were enrolled for an 8-d period where data from a 7-d diet registration (days 1-7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3-7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5-7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy (P = 0·031) when adjusted for BMI, age, sex and intake of Ca-containing supplements...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152253/evaluation-of-dietary-intake-assessed-by-the-dutch-self-administered-web-based-dietary-24-h-recall-tool-compl-eat%C3%A2-against-interviewer-administered-telephone-based-24-h-recalls
#15
Saskia Meijboom, Martinette T van Houts-Streppel, Corine Perenboom, Els Siebelink, Anne M van de Wiel, Anouk Geelen, Edith J M Feskens, Jeanne H M de Vries
Self-administered web-based 24-h dietary recalls (24 hR) may save a lot of time and money as compared with interviewer-administered telephone-based 24 hR interviews and may therefore be useful in large-scale studies. Within the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study, the web-based 24 hR tool Compl-eat™ was developed to assess Dutch participants' dietary intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of this tool against the interviewer-administered telephone-based 24 hR method...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152252/effect-of-fish-oil-and-vitamin-e-on-sperm-lipid-peroxidation-in-dogs
#16
Analía Lorena Risso, Francisco J Pellegrino, Yanina Corrada, Mónica Marmunti, Mariana Gavazza, Alejandro Palacios, Alejandro E Relling
The objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on sperm sensitivity to lipid peroxidation (LP) in dogs. Using an incomplete replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design, five dogs were allocated into three groups. One of the squares was incomplete and had two dogs that were used with three treatments. The dogs were assigned to three different treatments, fed a control diet of balanced commercial food (control group; CG), control diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg body weight(0·75) per d (FO group; FG) and FO plus 400 mg VE per d (FO and VE group; FEG) for 60 d...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152251/oxygen-the-forgotten-nutrient
#17
Paul Trayhurn
O2 is essential for the maintenance and growth of aerobic animals, similar to the essentiality of what are classically considered nutrients. Nevertheless, O2 is not customarily regarded as a nutrient, this reflecting the route by which it enters the body - through the lungs or gills in vertebrates, rather than via the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. A relative deficiency of O2 occurs at high altitudes and during deep-sea diving, to which distinct adaptations occur. Deficiency is also evident in lung diseases such as emphysema...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152250/development-and-evaluation-of-a-concise-food-list-for-use-in-a-web-based-24-h-dietary-recall-tool
#18
Katie Evans, Áine Hennessy, Janette Walton, Claire Timon, Eileen Gibney, Albert Flynn
Foodbook24 is a self-administered web-based 24-h dietary recall tool developed to assess food and nutrient intakes of Irish adults. This paper describes the first step undertaken in developing Foodbook24 which was to limit participant burden by establishing a concise list of food items for inclusion in the tool. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether using a concise food list (as opposed to an extensive list) with generic composition data would influence the estimates of nutrient intakes in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152249/a-survey-of-feeding-activity-supplement-use-and-energy-consumption-in-north-american-agility-dogs
#19
Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Gretchen M Van Deventer, Laura A Eirmann, Joseph J Wakshlag
A survey was designed and administered at eighteen agility competitions across the Northeast and Midwest USA in 2015 to obtain information regarding competition level, training, feeding practices, owner-reported weight, body condition score (BCS) and supplement use. Average energy intake per d from reported consumption was assessed for all dogs in ideal body condition based on manufacturers' or US Department of Agriculture database information. To assess the respective parameters across competition levels (novice, open, master/elite), non-parametric or parametric ANOVA or χ(2) was used to determine significance...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152248/nutritional-management-of-search-and-rescue-dogs
#20
G Vassalotti, N Musco, P Lombardi, S Calabrò, R Tudisco, V Mastellone, R Grazioli, S Bianchi, M I Cutrignelli
Dogs used for search and rescue (SAR) may experience continuous micro-traumas that predispose them to skeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diet on osteo-articular apparatus in healthy SAR dogs. A total of sixteen SAR dogs were divided into two groups (low supplementation (LS) and high supplementation (HS)) and were fed for 3 months with two experimental diets, characterised by the same protein and energy density, but different in n-3 PUFA (6·2 v. 8·4 % of metabolisable energy), chondroitin sulfate (219·8 v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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