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Journal of Nutritional Science

Maria A Choukri, Tamlin S Conner, Jill J Haszard, Michelle J Harper, Lisa A Houghton
Epidemiological evidence has linked low vitamin D status to a range of mood disorders. However, studies examining whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mood-related outcomes in healthy populations are limited. We investigated whether vitamin D supplementation over winter is beneficial for improving mood-related outcomes in healthy women. A total of 152 healthy women (18-40 years) in Dunedin, New Zealand were randomly assigned to receive 50 000 IU (1·25 mg) of oral vitamin D3 or placebo once per month for 6 months...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Micah Leshem, Haymanot Dessie-Navon
In young new Ethiopian immigrants (EI, about 0·5 years since immigration; n 20), veteran Ethiopian immigrant students (ES, about 13 years since immigration; n 30) and native Israeli students (NS; n 82), dietary macronutrients and electrolytes, and responses to basic tastes were compared in a cross-sectional design. From EI, to ES, to NS, dietary energy, protein, fat, and Na+ increase, whereas carbohydrates, K+ and Ca2+ do not differ. Corrected for energy intake, only Na+ increases. EI consume less dietary Na+ , like foods with less Na+ content, salt their food less, yet show a greater hedonic response to salt taste...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Louise D Clamp, David J Hume, Estelle V Lambert, Jacolene Kroff
Adaptive thermogenesis and reduced fat oxidative capacity may accompany weight loss, continuing in weight maintenance. The present study aimed (1) to determine whether weight-reduced and weight-loss relapsed women are at greater metabolic risk for weight gain compared with BMI-matched controls with no weight-loss history, and (2) to identify protective strategies that might attenuate weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis and support successful weight-loss maintenance. Four groups of women were recruited: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n 15), controls (low-weight stable weight; LSW, n 19) BMI <27 kg/m2 ; relapsed-overweight/obese (REL, n 11), controls (overweight/obese stable weight; OSW, n 11) BMI >27 kg/m2 ...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Julien Bensalem, Stéphanie Dudonné, David Gaudout, Laure Servant, Frédéric Calon, Yves Desjardins, Sophie Layé, Pauline Lafenetre, Véronique Pallet
Ageing is characterised by memory deficits, associated with brain plasticity impairment. Polyphenols from berries, such as flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and resveratrol, have been suggested to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study we assessed the preventive effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), with high concentrations of flavonoids, on age-related cognitive decline in mice. Adult and aged (6 weeks and 16 months) mice were fed a PEGB-enriched diet for 14 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Yasuo Kokai, Nana Mikami, Mitsuhiro Tada, Kazuichi Tomonobu, Ryuji Ochiai, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Hitoshi Sohma, Yoichi M Ito
We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to elucidate the effects of dietary milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) on the physical performance of community-dwelling Japanese adults. For this 24-week study, 115 middle-aged subjects (range 50-70 years old) were invited, of whom 113 (seventy-two women, forty-one men) completed the trial. Participants were then divided into either the placebo control or MFGM group. Measurements of physical performance (without undertaking any mandatory exercise) examining muscle strength, agility and balance were tested every 6 weeks until 24 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Tabitha J Hookey, Robert C Backus, Allison M Wara
More than one-third of humans and companion dogs in Western societies are overweight or obese. In people, vitamin D deficiency is widespread and associated with obesity, a now recognised inflammatory state. Low vitamin D status occurs in dogs with inflammatory conditions, but its relationship with obesity has not been investigated. In otherwise healthy privately owned adult dogs of ideal body condition (control, n 7) and dogs with overweight to obese body condition (treatment, n 8), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and body composition as inferred from 2 H-labelled water dilution space were evaluated...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Aki Saito, Mai Matsumoto, Aiko Hyakutake, Masafumi Saito, Naoko Okamoto
A growing body of evidence from Western countries shows that the presence of children in households is associated with the dietary intake of adults, but little is known about this relationship in non-Western countries with different food cultures. Our aim was to examine whether dietary intake was different with respect to the presence of young children in the home among Japanese married women. Subjects were Japanese married women (aged 23-44 years) living with children aged less than 5 years ( n 73) and married women who did not have children ( n 85)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Albert Van de Wiel, Menno Blaauw
Low concentrations of elements in food can be measured with various techniques, mostly in small samples (mg). These techniques provide only reliable data when the element is distributed homogeneously in the material to be analysed either naturally or after a homogenisation procedure. When this is not the case or homogenisation fails, a technique should be applied that is able to measure in samples up to grams and even kilograms and regardless of the distribution of the element. An adaptation of neutron activation analysis (NAA), called large-sample NAA, has been developed and proven accurate and may be an attractive alternative in food research and mass balance studies...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Corrine Hanson, Marina Verdi Schumacher, Elizabeth Lyden, Dejun Su, Jeremy Furtado, Rex Cammack, Bradley Bereitschaft, Matthew Van Ormer, Howard Needelman, Elizabeth McGinn, Katherine Rilett, Caleb Cave, Rebecca Johnson, Kara Weishaar, Ann Anderson-Berry
The objective of the present study was to evaluate intakes and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, and related compounds in a cohort of maternal-infant pairs in the Midwestern USA in relation to measures of health disparities. Concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in maternal serum were measured using HPLC and measures of socio-economic status, including food security and food desert residence, were obtained in 180 mothers upon admission to a Midwestern Academic Medical Center labour and delivery unit...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Louise O'Rourke, Gerard Clarke, Aoife Nolan, Claire Watkins, Timothy G Dinan, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross, Cornelius Anthony Ryan
Breast milk is the only source of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) in breast-fed infants. Low levels of TRP could have implications for infant neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to compare the relationship of TRP and its neuroactive pathway metabolites kynurenine (Kyn) and kynurenic acid (KynA) in preterm and term expressed breast milk (EBM) in the first 14 d following birth, and the relationship of TRP metabolism to maternal stress and immune status. A total of twenty-four mothers were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital: twelve term (>38 weeks) and twelve preterm (<35 weeks)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mie Shiraishi, Megumi Haruna, Masayo Matsuzaki, Ryoko Murayama, Satoshi Sasaki
Dietary under-reporting is a common problem when using self-reported dietary assessment tools. However, there are few studies regarding under-reporting during pregnancy. This study aimed to explore the demographic and psychosocial characteristics related to dietary under-reporting in pregnant Japanese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Nutrient intake was assessed using a self-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), which had questions about the consumption frequency and portion size of selected food items...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
B Amoutzopoulos, T Steer, C Roberts, J E Cade, C J Boushey, C E Collins, E Trolle, E J de Boer, N Ziauddeen, C van Rossum, E Buurma, D Coyle, P Page
The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Amanda Rundblad, Kirsten B Holven, Inge Bruheim, Mari C Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Marine n -3 (omega-3) fatty acids alter gene expression by regulating the activity of transcription factors. Krill oil is a source of marine n -3 fatty acids that has been shown to modulate gene expression in animal studies; however, the effect in humans is not known. Hence, we aimed to compare the effect of intake of krill oil, lean and fatty fish with a similar content of n -3 fatty acids, and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with added astaxanthin on the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as circulating inflammatory markers...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Sarah Roßbach, Tanja Diederichs, Christian Herder, Anette E Buyken, Ute Alexy
The present study describes time and age trends in morning and evening protein intakes and sources among German children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014. A total of 9757 three-day weighed dietary records of 1246 3- to 18-year-old participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were analysed using polynomial mixed-effects regression models. Morning protein intake increased over the study period by approximately 1 % of morning energy intake (linear trend P < 0·0001), with the youngest and the oldest children having the highest protein intake (linear, quadratic trend P < 0·0001)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Jane N Eriksen, August P Prahm, Mads Krüger Falk, Eva Arrigoni, Palle B Jeppesen, Michael Larsen, Lars O Dragsted
Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density, when compared with healthy controls. Ten patients with IR and twelve healthy controls were included in the study. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, except for higher serum TAG ( P < 0·05) and shorter bowel length ( P < 0·0001) in the group with IR...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Thea Toft Hansen, Anders Sjödin, Christian Ritz, Simon Bonnet, Sanne Kellebjerg Korndal
Manipulation of food's macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2 ) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 kJ) and low-protein/high-fat (LP/HF, 771 kJ) cheeses...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kathryn E Bradbury, Heather J Young, Wenji Guo, Timothy J Key
UK Biobank is an open access prospective cohort of 500 000 men and women. Information on the frequency of consumption of main foods was collected at recruitment with a touchscreen questionnaire; prior to examining the associations between diet and disease, it is essential to evaluate the performance of the dietary touchscreen questionnaire. The objectives of the present paper are to: describe the repeatability of the touchscreen questionnaire in participants ( n 20 348) who repeated the assessment centre visit approximately 4 years after recruitment, and compare the dietary touchscreen variables with mean intakes from participants ( n 140 080) who completed at least one of the four web-based 24-h dietary assessments post-recruitment...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ary I Savitri, Dwirani Amelia, Rebecca C Painter, Mohammad Baharuddin, Tessa J Roseboom, Diederick E Grobbee, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal
Previous studies suggest that Ramadan exposure during pregnancy might affect the health of women and their babies, particularly through the effect of fasting. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Ramadan exposure and fasting during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns. This study concerned 1351 pregnant women from a prospective cohort in Jakarta, Indonesia. Ramadan exposure was based on the actual overlap between Ramadan and pregnancy. Women's fasting behaviour was recorded among 139 women who came for antenatal care between 10 July 2013 and 7 August 2013, and those who had fasted for at least 1 d ( n 110) were classified as exposed to Ramadan fasting...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Géraldine Blanchard, Maud Marsot, Roselyne Bourassin, Bernard-Marie Paragon, Jean-Jacques Benet, Adeline Linsart
Ferrets have become a common companion animal. But no data are available on the French population of ferrets. The goal of the survey was to characterise this population, including demographic characteristics, husbandry, reported medical care and feeding habits. Complete data were available for 1205 pet ferrets in 709 households. Most ferrets (86·1 %) lived indoors, 1 % received only artificial lighting, and 47 % chewed their cage. For 60 % of the ferrets, body weight was higher in winter and lower in summer...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Amanda Rundblad, Kirsten B Holven, Inge Bruheim, Mari C Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Fish consumption and supplementation with n -3 fatty acids reduce CVD risk. Krill oil is an alternative source of marine n -3 fatty acids and few studies have investigated its health effects. Thus, we compared krill oil supplementation with the intake of fish with similar amounts of n -3 fatty acids on different cardiovascular risk markers. In an 8-week randomised parallel study, thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18-70 years with fasting serum TAG between 1·3 and 4·0 mmol/l were randomised to receive either fish, krill oil or control oil...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
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