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Journal of Nutritional Science

Jane N Eriksen, August P Prahm, Mads Krüger Falk, Eva Arrigoni, Palle B Jeppesen, Michael Larsen, Lars O Dragsted
Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density, when compared with healthy controls. Ten patients with IR and twelve healthy controls were included in the study. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, except for higher serum TAG (P < 0·05) and shorter bowel length (P < 0·0001) in the group with IR...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Thea Toft Hansen, Anders Sjödin, Christian Ritz, Simon Bonnet, Sanne Kellebjerg Korndal
Manipulation of food's macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 kJ) and low-protein/high-fat (LP/HF, 771 kJ) cheeses...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kathryn E Bradbury, Heather J Young, Wenji Guo, Timothy J Key
UK Biobank is an open access prospective cohort of 500 000 men and women. Information on the frequency of consumption of main foods was collected at recruitment with a touchscreen questionnaire; prior to examining the associations between diet and disease, it is essential to evaluate the performance of the dietary touchscreen questionnaire. The objectives of the present paper are to: describe the repeatability of the touchscreen questionnaire in participants (n 20 348) who repeated the assessment centre visit approximately 4 years after recruitment, and compare the dietary touchscreen variables with mean intakes from participants (n 140 080) who completed at least one of the four web-based 24-h dietary assessments post-recruitment...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ary I Savitri, Dwirani Amelia, Rebecca C Painter, Mohammad Baharuddin, Tessa J Roseboom, Diederick E Grobbee, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal
Previous studies suggest that Ramadan exposure during pregnancy might affect the health of women and their babies, particularly through the effect of fasting. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Ramadan exposure and fasting during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns. This study concerned 1351 pregnant women from a prospective cohort in Jakarta, Indonesia. Ramadan exposure was based on the actual overlap between Ramadan and pregnancy. Women's fasting behaviour was recorded among 139 women who came for antenatal care between 10 July 2013 and 7 August 2013, and those who had fasted for at least 1 d (n 110) were classified as exposed to Ramadan fasting...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Géraldine Blanchard, Maud Marsot, Roselyne Bourassin, Bernard-Marie Paragon, Jean-Jacques Benet, Adeline Linsart
Ferrets have become a common companion animal. But no data are available on the French population of ferrets. The goal of the survey was to characterise this population, including demographic characteristics, husbandry, reported medical care and feeding habits. Complete data were available for 1205 pet ferrets in 709 households. Most ferrets (86·1 %) lived indoors, 1 % received only artificial lighting, and 47 % chewed their cage. For 60 % of the ferrets, body weight was higher in winter and lower in summer...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Amanda Rundblad, Kirsten B Holven, Inge Bruheim, Mari C Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Fish consumption and supplementation with n -3 fatty acids reduce CVD risk. Krill oil is an alternative source of marine n -3 fatty acids and few studies have investigated its health effects. Thus, we compared krill oil supplementation with the intake of fish with similar amounts of n -3 fatty acids on different cardiovascular risk markers. In an 8-week randomised parallel study, thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18-70 years with fasting serum TAG between 1·3 and 4·0 mmol/l were randomised to receive either fish, krill oil or control oil...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mitsutaka Kohno, Hideo Sugano, Yuhko Shigihara, Yoshiaki Shiraishi, Takayasu Motoyama
The aim of the present study was to confirm the effects of a commercially available mung bean protein isolate (GLUCODIA™) on glucose and lipid metabolism. The main component of GLUCODIA™ is 8S globulin, which constitutes 80 % of the total protein. The overall structure of this protein closely resembles soyabean β-conglycinin, which accounts for 20 % of total soya protein (soya protein isolate; SPI). Many physiological beneficial effects of β-conglycinin have been reported. GLUCODIA™ is expected to produce beneficial effects with fewer intakes than SPI...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Paul Trayhurn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
L U Kaduka, Z N Bukania, Y Opanga, R Mutisya, A Korir, V Thuita, C Nyongesa, M Mwangi, C F L Mbakaya, E Muniu
Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Kenya. However, there is scarce information on the nutritional status of cancer patients to guide in decision making. The present study sought to assess the risk of malnutrition, and factors associated with malnutrition and cachexia, among cancer out-patients, with the aim of informing nutrition programmes for cancer management in Kenya and beyond. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study performed at Kenyatta National Hospital and Texas Cancer Centre in Nairobi, Kenya...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Maria H Hegelund, Jonathan C Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Dilnesaw Zerfu, Dirk L Christensen, Henrik Friis, Mette F Olsen
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an inexpensive, quick and non-invasive method to determine body composition. Equations used in BIA are typically derived in healthy individuals of European descent. BIA is specific to health status and ethnicity and may therefore provide inaccurate results in populations of different ethnic origin and health status. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of BIA in Ethiopian antiretroviral-naive HIV patients. BIA was validated against the 2H dilution technique by comparing fat-free mass (FFM) measured by the two methods using paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Dirk F de Korne, Rahul Malhotra, Wai Yee Lim, Christine Ong, Ashu Sharma, Tai Kiat Tan, Thiam Chye Tan, Kee Chong Ng, Truls Østbye
Food group guideline adherence is vital to prevent obesity and diabetes. Various studies have demonstrated that environmental variables influence food intake behaviour. In the present study we examined the effect of a portion design plate with food group portion guidelines demarcated by coloured lines (ETE Plate™). A two-group quasi-experimental design was used to measure proportions of carbohydrate, vegetable and protein portions and user experience in a hospital staff lounge setting in Singapore. Lunch was served on the portion design plate before 12...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mary M Murphy, Erin C Barrett, Kara A Bresnahan, Leila M Barraj
Studies on the effects of consuming 100 % fruit juice on measures of glycaemic control are conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review and quantitatively summarise results from randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining effects of 100 % fruit juice on glucose-insulin homeostasis. Eligible studies were identified from a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE and hand searches of reference lists from reviews and relevant papers. Using data from eighteen RCT, meta-analyses evaluated the mean difference in fasting blood glucose (sixteen studies), fasting blood insulin (eleven studies), the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; seven studies) and glycosylated Hb (HbA1c; three studies) between the 100 % fruit juice intervention and control groups using a random-effects model...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Thalia M Sparling, Robin C Nesbitt, Nicholas Henschke, Sabine Gabrysch
Pregnancy and lactation deplete nutrients essential to the neurotransmission system. This may be one reason for the increased risk of depression during the perinatal period. The objective of the present review was to systematically review the literature and summarise evidence on whether blood nutrient levels influence the risk of perinatal depression. PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for studies of any design. A total of twenty-four articles of different designs were included, representing 14 262 subjects...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Andressa R Amaral, Márcio A Brunetto, Marina P Brólio, Daniela S Cima, Maria A Miglino, João Paulo F Santos, Carlos E Ambrósio
The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Wei Wang, Melissa Brooks, Cari Gardner, Norton Milgram
Nutritional factors can dramatically affect development of young animals during the early stage of life. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of a neuroactive nutritional supplement (NNS) containing DHA, taurine, carotenoids and vitamins on the body weight and body composition of growing puppies. A total of twenty-four 2-month-old Beagles were fed a nutritionally complete and balanced base diet and a control supplement daily during an initial 1-month baseline assessment, after which they were divided into control and treatment groups...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ronghua Yu, Yizhong Wang, Yongmei Xiao, Lili Mo, Aishu Liu, Dan Li, Ting Ge, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < -2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < -2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < -2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (-2 ≤ Z < -1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Manjeet Singh, Charles Ramassamy
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition characterised by changes in decline in learning and memory patterns. The neurodegenerative features of CCD in ageing dogs and cats are similar to human ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies against CCD and AD is a major challenge. Strong evidence supports the role of amyloid β peptide deposition and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of CCD and AD. In both the human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Guilhem Divol, Nathalie Priymenko
Reports concerning maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs are common but most of the data cover laboratory or utility dogs. This study establishes those of healthy adult pet dogs and the factors which cause these energy requirements to vary. Within the framework of a nutrition teaching exercise, each student followed a pet from his entourage and gathered accurate records of its feeding habits. Data have been restricted to healthy adult dogs with an ideal body weight (BW) which did not vary more than 5 % during the study period...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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