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Journal of Nutritional Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630705/physiological-effects-of-stress-related-to-helicopter-travel-in-federal-emergency-management-agency-search-and-rescue-canines
#1
E Perry, N Gulson, T-W Liu Cross, K S Swanson
Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630704/the-effects-of-a-post-exercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-supplement-on-repeat-performance-serum-chemistry-insulin-and-glucagon-in-competitive-weight-pulling-dogs
#2
Christopher W Frye, Gretchen M VanDeventer, Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Sabine Mann, Ella Pittman, Brian M Zanghi, Joseph J Wakshlag
The physiological demands of weight-pulling dogs have yet to be investigated. Two groups of competitive weight-pulling dogs both underwent two identical pull series 3 h apart. The control group (n 8) was compared with a group fed a rapidly digestible carbohydrate and protein supplement after the first pull series (n 9). Blood was drawn before and after each pull series as well as at 15 and 30 min after the first pull series finished. Biochemistry values remained unremarkable throughout the study in both groups regardless of supplementation or exercise over time...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630703/energy-requirements-for-growth-in-the-yorkshire-terrier
#3
Janet E Alexander, Alison Colyer, Penelope J Morris
The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630702/evaluation-of-an-in-vitro-fibre-fermentation-method-using-feline-faecal-inocula-repeatability-and-reproducibility
#4
Guido Bosch, Lisa Heesen, Karine de Melo Santos, Wilbert F Pellikaan, John W Cone, Wouter H Hendriks
To gain knowledge on the precision of an in vitro method for characterisation of the fermentability of dietary fibres, this study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of such a method. Substrates used were citrus pectin (CP), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), guar gum (GG), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and wheat middlings (WM). Each substrate was incubated with faecal inoculum from five cats with three replicates for each substrate-cat combination. Gas production was measured continuously during the 48 h incubation and SCFA and organic matter disappearance (only SBP and WM) were determined after incubation...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630701/evaluation-of-an-in-vitro-fibre-fermentation-method-using-feline-faecal-inocula-inter-individual-variation
#5
Guido Bosch, Lisa Heesen, Karine de Melo Santos, John W Cone, Wilbert F Pellikaan, Wouter H Hendriks
The present study aimed to evaluate the inter-individual variability in fermentation of standard fibrous substrates by faecal inocula from ten healthy adult female cats. Substrates were citrus pectin (CP), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), guar gum (GG), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and wheat middlings (WM). Each substrate was incubated with faecal inoculum from each cat. Gas production was measured continuously during the 48 h incubation and SCFA and organic matter disappearance (only SBP and WM) after incubation. Out of ten cats, nine produced faeces on the days of inoculum preparation...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630700/retorting-conditions-affect-palatability-and-physical-characteristics-of-canned-cat-food
#6
Esther A Hagen-Plantinga, Denmark F Orlanes, Guido Bosch, Wouter H Hendriks, Antonius F B van der Poel
The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality (F0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630699/nutritional-correlates-of-monetary-diet-cost-in-young-middle-aged-and-older-japanese-women
#7
Keiko Shiraki, Kentaro Murakami, Hitomi Okubo, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Satoshi Sasaki
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630698/physical-activity-in-the-classroom-to-prevent-childhood-obesity-a-pilot-study-in-santiago-chile
#8
Francisco Mardones, Pilar Arnaiz, Johana Soto-Sánchez, Juana Saavedra, Angélica Domínguez, Jaime Rozowski, Laura Iriarte, Jennifer Cantwell Wood
This paper describes a 4-month pilot study that tested the suitability of a physical activity intervention for first graders (children aged 6 and 7 years) in a public school in Santiago, Chile. Teachers were trained to deliver the programme in the classroom during the school day. Teachers were surveyed to determine if this intervention fit within their curriculum and classroom routines and they reported in a focus group that it was suitable for them. All children actively participated in the programme and positive changes in their attitudes towards physical activity were observed by their teachers...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630697/the-effect-of-position-on-the-precision-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-correlation-with-body-condition-score-in-dogs-and-cats
#9
Charlotte R Bjørnvad, Mie E Nielsen, Susanna E M Hansen, Dorte H Nielsen
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been used to assess body composition in dogs and cats in several studies, but studies are difficult to compare for several reasons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether positioning of dogs or cats in either dorsal or ventral recumbency during DEXA scanning influences results. Dogs and cats that were brought to the University Hospital for Companion Animals for euthanasia during the period 15 September-6 November 2015 were consecutively recruited if owners signed a written consent...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630696/the-impact-of-time-of-neutering-on-weight-gain-and-energy-intake-in-female-kittens
#10
David Allaway, Matthew Gilham, Alison Colyer, Penelope J Morris
Neutering is a risk factor for obesity in companion animals. In a study to determine the total energy requirements of kittens (15-52 weeks) the impact of neutering and age when neutered on intake and body weight (BW) was investigated. Females (n 14), neutered when 19 (early neuter; EN) or 31 (conventional neuter; CN) weeks old (n 7/group), were individually fed to maintain an ideal body condition score (BCS). EN kittens gained weight gradually whilst CN kittens' BW gain slowed from week 24, weighing less than EN kittens from week 30 with a reduced energy intake (kcal/kg BW(0·67)) in weeks 24-32 (P < 0·05)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630695/newly-formulated-protein-quality-enhanced-extruded-sorghum-cowpea-corn-soya-sugar-and-oil-containing-fortified-blended-foods-lead-to-adequate-vitamin-a-and-iron-outcomes-and-improved-growth-compared-with-non-extruded-csb-in-rats
#11
Nicole M Delimont, Nicole M Fiorentino, Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong, Michael V Joseph, Qingbin Guo, Sajid Alavi, Brian L Lindshield
Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630694/physical-activity-level-of-female-and-male-adult-cats-before-and-after-running-wheel-habituation
#12
Katelyn B Detweiler, Samona Rawal, Kelly S Swanson, Maria R C de Godoy
The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether access to a running wheel increases voluntary physical activity in adult female and male domestic cats. Eight neutered domestic shorthair male cats (mean age 8·6 (sd 0·05) years) and eleven intact domestic shorthair female cats (mean age 3·3 (sd 0·14) years) were group housed for 22 h daily and individually housed during the feeding period. Voluntary physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Experimental design consisted of 1 week of baseline physical activity measurement, followed by 3 weeks of wheel habituation, and 1 week of physical activity measurement post-wheel habituation...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630693/quality-of-food-frequency-questionnaire-validation-studies-in-the-dietary-assessment-of-children-aged-12-to-36-months-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Amy Lovell, Rhodi Bulloch, Clare R Wall, Cameron C Grant
A child's diet is an important determinant of growth and development. Because of this, the accurate assessment of dietary intake in young children remains a challenge. A systematic search of studies validating FFQ methodologies in children 12 to 36 months of age was completed. English-language articles published until March 2016 were searched using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL). Quality assessment of the identified studies was carried out using The Reduced Summary Score and EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) scoring system...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630692/liver-fat-a-relevant-target-for-dietary-intervention-summary-of-a-unilever-workshop
#14
REVIEW
Harry P F Peters, Patrick Schrauwen, Petra Verhoef, Christopher D Byrne, David J Mela, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ulf Risérus, Frits R Rosendaal, Vera Schrauwen-Hinderling
Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630691/overweight-dogs-are-more-likely-to-display-undesirable-behaviours-results-of-a-large-online-survey-of-dog-owners-in-the-uk
#15
Alexander J German, Emily Blackwell, Mark Evans, Carri Westgarth
Much of the global canine population is now overweight, and this can adversely affect health, lifespan and quality of life. Undesirable behaviours are also common in pet dogs, and these can adversely affect welfare, as well as being stressful to owners. However, links between obesity and behavioural disorders have never previously been explored. An online survey was conducted between June and August in 2014, coinciding with the broadcast of a National UK television programme, exploring dog health, welfare and behaviour...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620488/impact-of-faecal-dm-excretion-on-faecal-calcium-losses-in-dogs-eating-complete-moist-and-dry-pet-foods-food-digestibility-is-a-major-determinant-of-calcium-requirements
#16
Ellen Kienzle, Thomas Brenten, Britta Dobenecker
The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620487/effect-of-enzyme-supplements-on-macronutrient-digestibility-by-healthy-adult-dogs
#17
Cecilia Villaverde, Edgar G Manzanilla, Jenifer Molina, Jennifer A Larsen
Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620486/overweight-dogs-exercise-less-frequently-and-for-shorter-periods-results-of-a-large-online-survey-of-dog-owners-from-the-uk
#18
Alexander J German, Emily Blackwell, Mark Evans, Carri Westgarth
Canine obesity is now the number one health concern in dogs worldwide. Regular physical activity can improve health, and owners are advised to exercise their dogs on a regular basis. However, limited information exists about associations between overweight status of dogs and walking activity. An online survey was conducted between June and August in 2014, coinciding with the broadcast of a national UK television programme, exploring dog behaviour. Information gathered included signalment, overweight status, and owner-reported information on duration and frequency of dog walking...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620485/variation-in-activity-levels-amongst-dogs-of-different-breeds-results-of-a-large-online-survey-of-dog-owners-from-the-uk
#19
Emily Pickup, Alexander J German, Emily Blackwell, Mark Evans, Carri Westgarth
Regular physical activity is an important means of promoting health, both in people and their pets. Walking is the most common method used for dogs, but there is a lack of clarity on how much daily activity different breeds of dog require. Data from an online survey of UK dog owners were collected between June and August in 2014. The University of Liverpool Ethics Committee approved the project, and owners consented to data use. The initial dataset (17 028 dogs) was first cleaned to remove erroneous data, and then edited to remove mixed breed dogs, leaving a total of 12 314 dogs from known pedigree breeds...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620484/the-effect-of-changing-the-moisture-levels-of-dry-extruded-and-wet-canned-diets-on-physical-activity-in-cats
#20
D G Thomas, M Post, G Bosch
Obesity levels in cats are increasing and the main causative factor is higher energy intake v. energy expenditure over time. Therefore, altering energy expenditure by enhancing physical activity of the cat could be a strategy to reduce obesity. Hydrating commercial dry diets with water increased activity in cats; however, no study has compared this approach with feeding high-moisture canned diets. Eight healthy male neutered domestic shorthair cats were fed four different dietary treatments in a Latin square design...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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