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Journal of Nutritional Science

Ryusei Uchio, Shinji Murosaki, Hiroshi Ichikawa
Curcuma longa , also known as turmeric, has long been used as a medicinal herb with various biological effects. A hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) has been reported to show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but its effect on hepatic inflammation is poorly understood. In the present study, to investigate the effect of WEC on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-methionine, choline-deficient diet with 0·175 % WEC (WEC group) or without WEC (control group) for 6 or 12 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kaija Nissinen, Liisa Korkalo, Henna Vepsäläinen, Päivi Mäkiranta, Leena Koivusilta, Eva Roos, Maijaliisa Erkkola
Validated methodological aids for food quantification are needed for the accurate estimation of food consumption. Our objective was to assess the validity of an age-specific food picture book, which contains commonly eaten foods among Finnish children, for parents and early educators in estimating food portion sizes. The food picture book was developed to assist in portion size estimation when filling in food records in the Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study. All ninety-five food pictures in the book, each containing three or four different portion sizes, were evaluated at real-time sessions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Taylor A Breuninger, Anna Riedl, Nina Wawro, Wolfgang Rathmann, Konstantin Strauch, Anne Quante, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand, Christa Meisinger, Jakob Linseisen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health epidemic. Diet and lifestyle changes have been demonstrated as effective measures in managing T2DM and preventing or delaying the progression from prediabetes to diabetes, yet the relationship between diet, prediabetes and diabetes is still not entirely clear. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between diet, diabetes and especially prediabetes. A total of 1542 participants of the cross-sectional, population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 study (2013/2014) were included in this analysis...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Caroline Jensen, Trygve Hausken, Einar Lied, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Ingeborg Brønstad, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Gülen Arslan Lied
The increased prevalence of lifestyle diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), calls for more knowledge on dietary treatments targeting the specific metabolic pathways involved in these conditions. Several studies have shown a protein preload before a meal to be effective in lowering the postprandial glycaemic response in healthy individuals and patients with T2DM. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a marine protein hydrolysate (MPH) from Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) on postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy, middle-aged to elderly subjects...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mohammed E Hefni, Cornelia M Witthöft, Ali A Moazzami
Public health authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 µg/d by eating folate-rich foods or by taking a folic acid supplement to protect against neural tube defects. In a previous study it was shown that folate-rich foods improved folate blood status as effectively as folic acid supplementation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using NMR metabolomics, the effects of an intervention with a synthetic folic acid supplement v. native food folate on the profile of plasma metabolites...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
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2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Rolf Jorde, Julia Kubiak
In observational studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with depressive symptoms. However, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with vitamin D supplementation have not been conclusive. In the present study 206 subjects were randomised to vitamin D (100 000 IU (2500 µg) as a bolus dose followed by 20 000 IU (500 µg) per week) and 202 to placebo. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was filled in at baseline and after 4 months at the end of the study. At baseline the mean age was 51·4 and 52·5 years and mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) 32·5 and 35·1 nmol/l in the vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satoshi Sasaki, Naoko Hirota, Akiko Notsu, Ayako Miura, Hidemi Todoriki, Mitsuru Fukui, Chigusa Date
Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
James M Shikany, Tiffany L Carson, Claudia M Hardy, Yufeng Li, Samara Sterling, Sharonda Hardy, Cordie M Walker, Monica L Baskin
The nutrition environment, including food store type, may influence dietary choices, which in turn can affect risk of obesity and related chronic diseases such as CHD, diabetes and cancer. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the extent to which healthy foods are available and affordable in various rural food outlets. A subset of the nutrition environment was assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S). The NEMS-S instrument assessed the availability and price of healthy foods (e...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
S Doaei, M Hajiesmaeil, A Aminifard, S A Mosavi-Jarrahi, M E Akbari, M Gholamalizadeh
The role of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility in the development of colon cancer (CC) has been already proven, but the role of gene polymorphisms in modifying the risk of environmental factors such as nutritional factors is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polymorphisms of involved genes in the association between red meat consumption and the development of CC. The present review was carried out using keywords such as polymorphism and/or protein and/or red meat and/or processed meat and/or colon cancer...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
L J Moran, Y Verwiel, M Bahri Khomami, T J Roseboom, R C Painter
Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne illness which is more common in populations such as pregnant women, and can result in serious complications including miscarriage, prematurity, maternal and neonatal sepsis, and death in the newborn. Population recommendations exist for specific foods and food preparation practices to reduce listeriosis risk during pregnancy. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the association between listeriosis and these practices during pregnancy to confirm appropriateness of these recommendations...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Erigene Rutayisire, Xiaoyan Wu, Kun Huang, Shuman Tao, Yunxiao Chen, Sufang Wang, Fangbiao Tao
Globally, the prevalence of childhood obesity has substantially increased at an alarming rate. This study investigated associations between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in 3- to 6-year-old children. Recruited children were from four prefecture-level cities in Eastern China. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. Individual dietary patterns were assessed by a comprehensive self-administered FFQ using thirty-five food items. Using factor analysis two dietary patterns were derived: the traditional Chinese pattern was characterised by high consumption of cereals, vegetables and fresh juices while the modern pattern was characterised by high consumption of Western fast food, Chinese fast food, sweets/sugary foods and carbonated beverages...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Maria A Choukri, Tamlin S Conner, Jill J Haszard, Michelle J Harper, Lisa A Houghton
Epidemiological evidence has linked low vitamin D status to a range of mood disorders. However, studies examining whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mood-related outcomes in healthy populations are limited. We investigated whether vitamin D supplementation over winter is beneficial for improving mood-related outcomes in healthy women. A total of 152 healthy women (18-40 years) in Dunedin, New Zealand were randomly assigned to receive 50 000 IU (1·25 mg) of oral vitamin D3 or placebo once per month for 6 months...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Micah Leshem, Haymanot Dessie-Navon
In young new Ethiopian immigrants (EI, about 0·5 years since immigration; n 20), veteran Ethiopian immigrant students (ES, about 13 years since immigration; n 30) and native Israeli students (NS; n 82), dietary macronutrients and electrolytes, and responses to basic tastes were compared in a cross-sectional design. From EI, to ES, to NS, dietary energy, protein, fat, and Na+ increase, whereas carbohydrates, K+ and Ca2+ do not differ. Corrected for energy intake, only Na+ increases. EI consume less dietary Na+ , like foods with less Na+ content, salt their food less, yet show a greater hedonic response to salt taste...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Louise D Clamp, David J Hume, Estelle V Lambert, Jacolene Kroff
Adaptive thermogenesis and reduced fat oxidative capacity may accompany weight loss, continuing in weight maintenance. The present study aimed (1) to determine whether weight-reduced and weight-loss relapsed women are at greater metabolic risk for weight gain compared with BMI-matched controls with no weight-loss history, and (2) to identify protective strategies that might attenuate weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis and support successful weight-loss maintenance. Four groups of women were recruited: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n 15), controls (low-weight stable weight; LSW, n 19) BMI <27 kg/m2 ; relapsed-overweight/obese (REL, n 11), controls (overweight/obese stable weight; OSW, n 11) BMI >27 kg/m2 ...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Julien Bensalem, Stéphanie Dudonné, David Gaudout, Laure Servant, Frédéric Calon, Yves Desjardins, Sophie Layé, Pauline Lafenetre, Véronique Pallet
Ageing is characterised by memory deficits, associated with brain plasticity impairment. Polyphenols from berries, such as flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and resveratrol, have been suggested to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study we assessed the preventive effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), with high concentrations of flavonoids, on age-related cognitive decline in mice. Adult and aged (6 weeks and 16 months) mice were fed a PEGB-enriched diet for 14 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Yasuo Kokai, Nana Mikami, Mitsuhiro Tada, Kazuichi Tomonobu, Ryuji Ochiai, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Hitoshi Sohma, Yoichi M Ito
We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to elucidate the effects of dietary milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) on the physical performance of community-dwelling Japanese adults. For this 24-week study, 115 middle-aged subjects (range 50-70 years old) were invited, of whom 113 (seventy-two women, forty-one men) completed the trial. Participants were then divided into either the placebo control or MFGM group. Measurements of physical performance (without undertaking any mandatory exercise) examining muscle strength, agility and balance were tested every 6 weeks until 24 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Tabitha J Hookey, Robert C Backus, Allison M Wara
More than one-third of humans and companion dogs in Western societies are overweight or obese. In people, vitamin D deficiency is widespread and associated with obesity, a now recognised inflammatory state. Low vitamin D status occurs in dogs with inflammatory conditions, but its relationship with obesity has not been investigated. In otherwise healthy privately owned adult dogs of ideal body condition (control, n 7) and dogs with overweight to obese body condition (treatment, n 8), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and body composition as inferred from 2 H-labelled water dilution space were evaluated...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Aki Saito, Mai Matsumoto, Aiko Hyakutake, Masafumi Saito, Naoko Okamoto
A growing body of evidence from Western countries shows that the presence of children in households is associated with the dietary intake of adults, but little is known about this relationship in non-Western countries with different food cultures. Our aim was to examine whether dietary intake was different with respect to the presence of young children in the home among Japanese married women. Subjects were Japanese married women (aged 23-44 years) living with children aged less than 5 years ( n 73) and married women who did not have children ( n 85)...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Albert Van de Wiel, Menno Blaauw
Low concentrations of elements in food can be measured with various techniques, mostly in small samples (mg). These techniques provide only reliable data when the element is distributed homogeneously in the material to be analysed either naturally or after a homogenisation procedure. When this is not the case or homogenisation fails, a technique should be applied that is able to measure in samples up to grams and even kilograms and regardless of the distribution of the element. An adaptation of neutron activation analysis (NAA), called large-sample NAA, has been developed and proven accurate and may be an attractive alternative in food research and mass balance studies...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
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