Read by QxMD icon Read

Cancer Biology & Medicine

Mohamed R Elshafey, Rehab A Ahmed, Mohamed I Mourad, Essam T Gaballah
OBJECTIVE: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) is an important prognostic factor in some cancers and a tool that differentiates between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. This study aimed to identify a relationship between the expression of IMP3 and the outcome of salivary gland MEC, as well as to differentiate MEC from pleomorphic adenoma (PA). METHODS: Tissue specimens from 70 cases of salivary gland MEC, 40 cases of PA, and 10 cases with normal salivary gland were examined immunohistochemically for IMP3...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Wei Liao, Sanjai Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells over-express a guanine exchange factor (GEF), Rasgrf-1. This GEF increases active Ras as it catalyzes the removal of GDP from Ras so that GTP can bind and activate Ras. This study aims to study the mechanism of action of Rasgrf-1 in B-cell malignancies. METHODS: N-terminus truncated Rasgrf-1 variants have a higher GEF activity as compared to the full-length transcript therefore a MCL cell line with stable over-expression of truncated Rasgrf-1 was established...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Anna Carolina Batista Dantas, Marco Aurelio Santo, Roberto de Cleva, Rubens Antônio Aissar Sallum, Ivan Cecconello
Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery.
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Wen-Ya Zhou, Hong Zheng, Xiao-Ling Du, Ji-Long Yang
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family plays important roles in regulating cell growth, proliferation, survival, differentiation and angiogenesis. Deregulation of the FGF/FGFR signaling pathway has been associated with multiple development syndromes and cancers, and thus therapeutic strategies targeting FGFs and FGFR in human cancer are currently being explored. However, few studies on the FGF/FGFR pathway have been conducted in sarcoma, which has a poor outcome with traditional treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Hong-Sheng Zhou, Bing Z Carter, Michael Andreeff
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of circulating immature blasts that exhibit uncontrolled growth, lack the ability to undergo normal differentiation, and have decreased sensitivity to apoptosis. Accumulating evidence shows the bone marrow (BM) niche is critical to the maintenance and retention of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), including leukemia stem cells (LSC), and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that crosstalk between LSC and the stromal cells associated with this niche greatly influences leukemia initiation, progression, and response to therapy...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Robert L Hollis, Charlie Gourley
Epithelial ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, and can be divided into five main histological subtypes: high grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous. These subtypes represent distinct disease entities, both clinically and at the molecular level. Molecular analysis has revealed significant genetic heterogeneity in ovarian cancer, particularly within the high grade serous subtype. As such, this subtype has been the focus of much research effort to date, revealing molecular subgroups at both the genomic and transcriptomic level that have clinical implications...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Dimitrios Zardavas, Martine Piccart-Gebhart
The implementation of molecular profiling technologies in oncology deepens our knowledge for the molecular landscapes of cancer diagnoses, identifying aberrations that could be linked with specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. In particular, there is an increasing list of molecularly targeted anticancer agents undergoing clinical development that aim to block specific molecular aberrations. This leads to a paradigm shift, with an increasing list of specific aberrations dictating the treatment of patients with cancer...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Jay Hocking, Sridurga Mithraprabhu, Anna Kalff, Andrew Spencer
Circulating free nucleic acids; cell free DNA and circulating micro-RNA, are found in the plasma of patients with hematologic and solid malignancies at levels higher than that of healthy individuals. In patients with hematologic malignancy cell free DNA reflects the underlying tumor mutational profile, whilst micro-RNAs reflect genetic interference mechanisms within a tumor and potentially the surrounding microenvironment and immune effector cells. These circulating nucleic acids offer a potentially simple, non-invasive, repeatable analysis that can aid in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions in cancer treatment...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Yu-Ling Li, Hua Zhao, Xiu-Bao Ren
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is primarily known as a proangiogenic factor and is one of the most important growth and survival factors affecting the vascular endothelium. However, recent studies have shown that VEGF also plays a vital role in the immune environment. In addition to the traditional growth factor role of VEGF and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), they have a complicated relationship with various immune cells. VEGF also reportedly inhibits the differentiation and function of immune cells during hematopoiesis...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Mahir Maruf, Sam J Brancato, Piyush K Agarwal
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been the gold standard treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, there has been an emergence of novel immunotherapeutic agents, which have shown promise in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma. These agents aim to augment, modify, or enhance the immune response. Such strategies include recombinant BCG, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Here, we review the emerging immunotherapeutics in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Samuel J Harris, Jessica Brown, Juanita Lopez, Timothy A Yap
There have been exponential gains in immuno-oncology in recent times through the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors also appear to have significant antitumor activity in multiple other tumor types. An exciting component of immunotherapy is the durability of antitumor responses observed, with some patients achieving disease control for many years. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit, and efforts should thus now focus on improving the efficacy of immunotherapy through the use of combination approaches and predictive biomarkers of response and resistance...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Mari Mino-Kenudson
Blockade of immune checkpoints has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in various tumors. In particular, monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) have been most studied in lung cancer, and PD-1 inhibitors are now established agents in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The reports on high-profile clinical trials have shown the association of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with higher overall response rates to the PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade suggesting that PD-L1 expression may serve as a predictive marker...
June 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Hai-Fei Niu, Li-Juan Wei, Jin-Pu Yu, Zhen Lian, Jing Zhao, Zi-Zheng Wu, Jun-Tian Liu
OBJECTIVE: Survival and treatment of patients with microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) remain controversial. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with MIBC to identify risk factors influencing its prognosis and decide the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 108 patients with MIBC were recruited according to seventh edition of the staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Mohamed A Daoud, Engy M Aboelnaga, Wael M Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Panitumumab administered as monotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) has shown response and disease stabilization rates of approximately 30%. The current study aimed to evaluate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with panitumumab every 3 weeks as a second line treatment. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 18 patients, aged more than 18 years, with wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC treated with panitumumab as a second-line single agent after progression on first-line chemotherapy...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Kanwal Tariq, Kulsoom Ghias
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men globally. CRC arises from one or a combination of chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Genetic instability is usually caused by aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity. Mutations in the tumor suppressor or cell cycle genes may also lead to cellular transformation. Similarly, epigenetic and/or genetic alterations resulting in impaired cellular pathways, such as DNA repair mechanism, may lead to microsatellite instability and mutator phenotype...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Arnav Katira, Peng H Tan
Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Megan L Ludwig, Andrew C Birkeland, Rebecca Hoesli, Paul Swiecicki, Matthew E Spector, J Chad Brenner
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Historically, it has been a model example for organ preservation and treatment stratification paradigms. Unfortunately, survival for LSCC has stagnated over the past few decades. As the era of next-generation sequencing and personalized treatment for cancer approaches, LSCC may be an ideal disease for consideration of further treatment stratification and personalization. Here, we will discuss the important history of LSCC as a model system for organ preservation, unique and potentially targetable genetic signatures of LSCC, and methods for bringing stratified, personalized treatment strategies to the 21(st) century...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Arpita Desai, Smitha P Menon, Grace K Dy
During the last decade, we have seen tremendous progress in the therapy of lung cancer. Discovery of actionable mutations in EGFR and translocations in ALK and ROS1 have identified subsets of patients with excellent tumor response to oral targeted agents with manageable side effects. In this review, we highlight treatment options including corresponding clinical trials for oncogenic alterations affecting the receptor tyrosine kinases MET, FGFR, NTRK, RET, HER2, HER3, and HER4 as well as components of the RAS-RAF-MEK signaling pathway...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Hong-Xia Tian, Xu-Chao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jian-Guang Chen, Shi-Liang Chen, Wei-Bang Guo, Yi-Long Wu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a method for highly parallel multiplexed detection of genetic mutations in Chinese lung cancer samples through Agena iPLEX chemistry and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis on MassARRAY mass spectrometry platform. METHODS: We reviewed the related literature and data on lung cancer treatments. We also identified 99 mutation hot spots in 13 target genes closely related to the pathogenesis, drug resistance, and metastasis of lung cancer...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Christine Stanislaw, Yuan Xue, William R Wilcox
The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in testing for hereditary cancer susceptibility allows testing of multiple cancer susceptibility genes simultaneously. While there are many potential benefits to utilizing this technology in the hereditary cancer clinic, including efficiency of time and cost, there are also important limitations that must be considered. The best panel for the given clinical situation should be selected to minimize the number of variants of unknown significance...
March 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"