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BoneKEy Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867499/lessons-on-skeletal-cell-plasticity-from-studying-jawbone-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#1
REVIEW
Sandeep Paul, J Gage Crump
Three major mesenchymal cell types have important roles in determining the shapes of vertebrate animals: bone-producing osteoblasts, cartilage-producing chondrocytes, and fat-producing adipocytes. Although often considered discrete cell types, accumulating evidence is revealing mesenchymal cells of intermediate identities and interconversion of cell types. Such plasticity is particularly evident during adult skeletal repair. In this Review, we highlight recent work in zebrafish showing a role for hybrid cartilage-bone cells in large-scale regeneration of the adult jawbone, as well as their origins in the periosteum...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867497/murine-models-of-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis
#3
Laura E Wright, Penelope D Ottewell, Nadia Rucci, Olivier Peyruchaud, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Antonella Chiechi, Jeroen T Buijs, Julie A Sterling
Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in late-stage breast cancer patients and are currently considered incurable. Investigators rely on translational models to better understand the pathogenesis of skeletal complications of malignancy in order to identify therapeutic targets that may ultimately prevent and treat solid tumor metastasis to bone. Many experimental models of breast cancer bone metastases are in use today, each with its own caveats. In this methods review, we characterize the bone phenotype of commonly utilized human- and murine-derived breast cell lines that elicit osteoblastic and/or osteolytic destruction of bone in mice and report methods for optimizing tumor-take in murine models of bone metastasis...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818743/the-clinical-contribution-of-cortical-porosity-to-fragility-fractures
#4
REVIEW
Åshild Bjørnerem
Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. However, cortical bone loss occurs more slowly than trabecular loss due to the fact that less surface per unit of bone matrix volume is available for bone remodeling. Nevertheless, most of the bone loss over time is cortical because cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, and the relative proportion of trabecular bone diminishes with advancing age...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818742/methodological-considerations-when-studying-the-skeletal-response-to-glucose-intolerance-using-the-diet-induced-obesity-model
#5
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Brenda J Smith
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise, and as a result, research aimed at understanding the molecular basis for the co-morbidities has become an area of much scientific interest. Among the more recently recognized chronic complications of T2DM is the increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture, that has been reported independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A widely used animal model to study how the development and progression of impaired glucose tolerance affect the skeleton has been the diet-induce obesity (DIO) model...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790370/tissue-engineered-3d-cancer-in-bone-modeling-silk-and-pur-protocols
#6
Ushashi Dadwal, Carolyne Falank, Heather Fairfield, Sarah Linehan, Clifford J Rosen, David L Kaplan, Julie Sterling, Michaela R Reagan
Cancers that metastasize or grow in the bone marrow are typically considered incurable and cause extensive damage to the bone and bone marrow. The bone is a complex, dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of a plethora of cells that may contribute to, or constrain, the growth of tumor cells and development of bone disease. The development of safe and effective drugs is currently hampered by pre-clinical two-dimensional (2D) models whose poor predictive power does not accurately predict the success or failure of therapeutics...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688878/how-rare-bone-diseases-have-informed-our-knowledge-of-complex-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mark L Johnson
Rare bone diseases, generally defined as monogenic traits with either autosomal recessive or dominant patterns of inheritance, have provided a rich database of genes and associated pathways over the past 2-3 decades. The molecular genetic dissection of these bone diseases has yielded some major surprises in terms of the causal genes and/or involved pathways. The discovery of genes/pathways involved in diseases such as osteopetrosis, osteosclerosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and many other rare bone diseases have all accelerated our understanding of complex traits...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648260/osteocyte-isolation-and-culture-methods
#8
Karan M Shah, Matt M Stern, Amber R Stern, Janak L Pathak, Nathalie Bravenboer, Astrid D Bakker
The aim of this paper is to present several popular methods for in vitro culture of osteocytes and osteocyte cell lines. Osteocytes are located extremely suitably within the calcified bone matrix to sense mechanical signals, and are equipped with a multitude of molecular features that allow mechanosensing. However, osteocytes are more than specialized mechanosensing cells. Several signaling molecules are preferentially produced by osteocytes, and osteocytes hold a tight reign over osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity, but also have a role as endocrine cell, communicating with muscles or organs as remote as the kidneys...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648259/intramembranous-bone-regeneration-and-implant-placement-using-mechanical-femoral-marrow-ablation-rodent-models
#9
Meghan M Moran, Kotaro Sena, Margaret A McNulty, D R Sumner, Amarjit S Virdi
In this paper, we provide a detailed protocol for a model of long bone mechanical marrow ablation in the rodent, including surgical procedure, anesthesia, and pre- and post-operative care. In addition, frequently used experimental end points are briefly discussed. This model was developed to study intramembranous bone regeneration following surgical disruption of the marrow contents of long bones. In this model, the timing of the appearance of bone formation and remodeling is well-characterized and therefore the model is well-suited to evaluate the in vivo effects of various agents which influence these processes...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617082/osteoporosis-drug-effects-on-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-a-review-of-hr-pqct-analyses
#10
REVIEW
Eric Lespessailles, Ridha Hambli, Serge Ferrari
With the development of new non-invasive analytical techniques and particularly the advent of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) it is possible to assess cortical and trabecular bone changes under the effects of ageing, diseases and treatments. In the present study, we reviewed the treatment-related effects on bone parameters assessed by HRpQCT imaging. We identified 12 full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals describing treatment-induced changes assessed by HRpQCT...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579166/post-yield-and-failure-properties-of-cortical-bone
#11
REVIEW
Uwe Wolfram, Jakob Schwiedrzik
Ageing and associated skeletal diseases pose a significant challenge for health care systems worldwide. Age-related fractures have a serious impact on personal, social and economic wellbeing. A significant proportion of physiological loading is carried by the cortical shell. Its role in the fracture resistance and strength of whole bones in the ageing skeleton is of utmost importance. Even though a large body of knowledge has been accumulated on this topic on the macroscale, the underlying micromechanical material behaviour and the scale transition of bone's mechanical properties are yet to be uncovered...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579165/skeletal-implications-and-management-of-cystinosis-three-case-reports-and-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Justine Bacchetta, Marcella Greco, Aurélia Bertholet-Thomas, François Nobili, Jozef Zustin, Pierre Cochat, Francesco Emma, Georges Boivin
Hypophosphatemic rickets and short stature are observed in nephropathic cystinosis, an orphan autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease due to a deficiency of cystinosin (CTNS gene). Although bone impairment is not common, it nevertheless appears to be more and more discussed by experts, even though the exact underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Four hypotheses are currently discussed to explain such impairment: copper deficiency, bone consequences of severe hypophosphatemic rickets during infancy, cysteamine toxicity and abnormal thyroid metabolism...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579164/effects-of-myokines-on-bone
#13
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kaji
The links between muscle and bone have been recently examined because of the increasing number of patients with osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Myokines are skeletal muscle-derived humoral cytokines and growth factors, which exert physiological and pathological functions in various distant organs, including the regulation of glucose, energy and bone metabolism. Myostatin is a crucial myokine, the expression of which is mainly limited to muscle tissues. The inhibition of myostatin signaling increases bone remodeling, bone mass and muscle mass, and it may provide a target for the treatment of both sarcopenia and osteoporosis...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579163/genetics-of-pediatric-bone-strength
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan A Mitchell, Diana L Cousminer, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant, Alessandra Chesi
Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered robust genetic signals influencing BMD in adults, and similar studies have also been conducted to investigate the genetics of BMD in the pediatric setting...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579162/role-of-milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-8-in-osteoimmunology
#15
REVIEW
Kathrin Sinningen, Sylvia Thiele, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Martina Rauner
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in various tissues and has a pivotal role in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. However, MFG-E8 has also gained significant attention because of its wide range of functions in autoimmunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. More recently, MFG-E8 has been identified as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis, being expressed in both, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it was shown that MFG-E8 fulfils an active role in modulating inflammatory processes, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 and proposing it as a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408711/models-of-ex-vivo-explant-cultures-applications-in-bone-research
#16
Silvia Marino, Katherine Ann Staines, Genevieve Brown, Rachel Anne Howard-Jones, Magdalena Adamczyk
Ex vivo explant culture models are powerful tools in bone research. They allow investigation of bone and cartilage responses to specific stimuli in a controlled manner that closely mimics the in vivo processes. Because of limitations in obtaining healthy human bone samples the explant growth of animal tissue serves as a platform to study the complex physico-chemical properties of the bone. Moreover, these models enable preserving important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in order to better understand the behaviour of cells in their natural three-dimensional environment...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408710/high-osteoporosis-risk-among-east-africans-linked-to-lactase-persistence-genotype
#17
Constance B Hilliard
This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347399/diagnostic-performance-of-osteocalcin-measurements-in-patients-with-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome
#18
Zhanna E Belaya, Alexander V Iljin, Galina A Melnichenko, Alexander G Solodovnikov, Liudmila Y Rozhinskaya, Larisa K Dzeranova, Ivan I Dedov
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of osteocalcin (OC), as measured by automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), in identifying Cushing's syndrome (CS) in two separate populations: among obese and overweight subjects and among women of postmenopausal age with osteoporosis. Among the 106 referral patients with obesity, CS was confirmed in 42 cases. The patients of the referred population provided late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC), underwent low-dose dexamethasone suppression testing (DST) and were further evaluated until CS was pathologically confirmed...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347398/in-vivo-evaluation-of-bone-microstructure-in-humans-clinically-useful
#19
REVIEW
Roland Chapurlat
In vivo evaluation of bone microstructure with high-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HRpQCT) has been used for a decade in research settings. In this review, we examine the value this technique could have in clinical practice. Bone microstructure parameters obtained with HRpQCT are associated with prevalent fracture in men and women. In postmenopausal women, some parameters also predict incident fracture, independently of areal bone mineral density. In specific population groups including patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, glucocorticosteroid therapy and rheumatic diseases, abnormal microstructure parameters from HRpQCT have been reported...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257477/the-case-for-genome-wide-association-studies-of-bone-acquisition-in-paediatric-and-adolescent-populations
#20
REVIEW
John P Kemp, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Jonathan H Tobias, Fernando Rivadeneira, David M Evans
Peak bone mass, the maximum amount of bone accrued at the end of the growth period, is an important predictor of future risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hence, the contribution of genetic factors influencing bone accrual is of considerable interest to the osteoporosis research community. In this article, we review evidence that genetic factors play an important role in bone growth, describe the genetic loci implicated so far and briefly discuss lessons learned from the application of genome-wide association studies...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
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