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Bone & Joint Research

S Takahara, S Y Lee, T Iwakura, K Oe, T Fukui, E Okumachi, T Waki, M Arakura, Y Sakai, K Nishida, R Kuroda, T Niikura
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair fracture healing. Increasing evidence suggests that some microRNA (miRNA) is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. We hypothesized that the functions of miRNA and changes to their patterns of expression may be implicated in the pathogenesis of impaired fracture healing in DM. METHODS: Closed transverse fractures were created in the femurs of 116 rats, with half assigned to the DM group and half assigned to the control group...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
P M Bennett, T Stevenson, I D Sargeant, A Mountain, J G Penn-Barwell
OBJECTIVES: The surgical challenge with severe hindfoot injuries is one of technical feasibility, and whether the limb can be salvaged. There is an additional question of whether these injuries should be managed with limb salvage, or whether patients would achieve a greater quality of life with a transtibial amputation. This study aims to measure functional outcomes in military patients sustaining hindfoot fractures, and identify injury features associated with poor function. METHODS: Follow-up was attempted in all United Kingdom military casualties sustaining hindfoot fractures...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
D Coric, D E Bullard, V V Patel, J T Ryaby, B L Atkinson, D He, R D Guyer
OBJECTIVES: Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation was evaluated after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures in a randomized, controlled clinical study performed for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. PEMF significantly increased fusion rates at six months, but 12-month fusion outcomes for subjects at elevated risk for pseudoarthrosis were not thoroughly reported. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of PEMF treatment on subjects at increased risk for pseudoarthrosis after ACDF procedures...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
M Pinheiro, C A Dobson, D Perry, M J Fagan
OBJECTIVES: Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease (LCP) is an idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head that is most common in children between four and eight years old. The factors that lead to the onset of LCP are still unclear; however, it is believed that interruption of the blood supply to the developing epiphysis is an important factor in the development of the condition. METHODS: Finite element analysis modelling of the blood supply to the juvenile epiphysis was investigated to understand under which circumstances the blood vessels supplying the femoral epiphysis could become obstructed...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
A MacLeod, A H R W Simpson, P Pankaj
OBJECTIVES: Secondary fracture healing is strongly influenced by the stiffness of the bone-fixator system. Biomechanical tests are extensively used to investigate stiffness and strength of fixation devices. The stiffness values reported in the literature for locked plating, however, vary by three orders of magnitude. The aim of this study was to examine the influence that the method of restraint and load application has on the stiffness produced, the strain distribution within the bone, and the stresses in the implant for locking plate constructs...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
O Abar, S Dharmar, S Y Tang
OBJECTIVES: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a post-translational modification of collagen that form spontaneously in the skeletal matrix due to the presence of reducing sugars, such as glucose. The accumulation of AGEs leads to collagen cross-linking, which adversely affects bone quality and has been shown to play a major role in fracture risk. Thus, intervening in the formation and accumulation of AGEs may be a viable means of protecting bone quality. METHODS: An in vitro model was used to examine the efficacy of two AGE-inhibitors, aminoguanidine (AG) and pyridoxamine (PM), on ageing human cortical bone...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
P S Young, S Patil, R M D Meek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
N Hopper, E Singer, F Henson
OBJECTIVES: The exact aetiology and pathogenesis of microdamage-induced long bone fractures remain unknown. These fractures are likely to be the result of inadequate bone remodelling in response to damage. This study aims to identify an association of osteocyte apoptosis, the presence of osteocytic osteolysis, and any alterations in sclerostin expression with a fracture of the third metacarpal (Mc-III) bone of Thoroughbred racehorses. METHODS: A total of 30 Mc-III bones were obtained; ten bones were fractured during racing, ten were from the contralateral limb, and ten were from control horses...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
A Saleh, J George, M Faour, A K Klika, C A Higuera
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult and requires a battery of tests and clinical findings. The purpose of this review is to summarize all current evidence for common and new serum biomarkers utilized in the diagnosis of PJI. METHODS: We searched two literature databases, using terms that encompass all hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, as well as PJI and statistical terms reflecting diagnostic parameters. The findings are summarized as a narrative review...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
S T J Tsang, M P McHugh, D Guerendiain, P J Gwynne, J Boyd, A H R W Simpson, T S Walsh, I F Laurenson, K E Templeton
OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ( MRSA and MSSA ) have an increased risk for healthcare-associated infections. There are currently limited national screening policies for the detection of S. aureus despite the World Health Organization's recommendations. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of molecular and culture techniques in S. aureus screening, determine the cause of any discrepancy between the diagnostic techniques, and model the potential effect of different diagnostic techniques on S...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
K-T Kang, Y-G Koh, J Son, O-R Kwon, J-S Lee, S K Kwon
OBJECTIVES: Posterior condylar offset (PCO) and posterior tibial slope (PTS) are critical factors in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A computational simulation was performed to evaluate the biomechanical effect of PCO and PTS on cruciate retaining TKA. METHODS: We generated a subject-specific computational model followed by the development of ± 1 mm, ± 2 mm and ± 3 mm PCO models in the posterior direction, and -3°, 0°, 3° and 6° PTS models with each of the PCO models...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
S Portal-Núñez, J A Ardura, D Lozano, I Martínez de Toda, M De la Fuente, G Herrero-Beaumont, R Largo, P Esbrit
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the onset and progression of involutional osteoporosis. However, classical antioxidants fail to restore osteoblast function. Interestingly, the bone anabolism of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to be associated with its ability to counteract oxidative stress in osteoblasts. The PTH counterpart in bone, which is the PTH-related protein (PTHrP), displays osteogenic actions through both its N-terminal PTH-like region and the C-terminal domain...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
J Zhou, X G Zhou, J W Wang, H Zhou, J Dong
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to assess whether gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite porous scaffolds could be used as a local controlled release system for vancomycin. We also investigated the efficiency of the scaffolds in eliminating infections and repairing osteomyelitis defects in rabbits. METHODS: The gelatin scaffolds containing differing amounts of of β-TCP (0%, 10%, 30% and 50%) were prepared for controlled release of vancomycin and were labelled G-TCP0, G-TCP1, G-TCP3 and G-TCP5, respectively...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Y V Kleinlugtenbelt, R G Krol, M Bhandari, J C Goslings, R W Poolman, V A B Scholtes
OBJECTIVES: The patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire are patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used for clinical and research purposes. Methodological high-quality clinimetric studies that determine the measurement properties of these PROMs when used in patients with a distal radial fracture are lacking. This study aimed to validate the PRWE and DASH in Dutch patients with a displaced distal radial fracture (DRF)...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
H Huang, R W Nightingale, A B C Dang
OBJECTIVES: Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. METHODS: A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
K-T Kang, J Son, D-S Suh, S K Kwon, O-R Kwon, Y-G Koh
OBJECTIVES: Patient-specific (PS) implantation surgical technology has been introduced in recent years and a gradual increase in the associated number of surgical cases has been observed. PS technology uses a patient's own geometry in designing a medical device to provide minimal bone resection with improvement in the prosthetic bone coverage. However, whether PS unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) provides a better biomechanical effect than standard off-the-shelf prostheses for UKA has not yet been determined, and still remains controversial in both biomechanical and clinical fields...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
V Janz, J Schoon, C Morgenstern, B Preininger, S Reinke, G Duda, A Breitbach, C F Perka, S Geissler
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a test for the rapid (within 25 minutes) intraoperative detection of bacteria from synovial fluid to diagnose periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). METHODS: The 16s rDNA test combines a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of 16s rDNA with a lateral flow immunoassay in one fully automated system. The synovial fluid of 77 patients undergoing joint aspiration or primary or revision total hip or knee surgery was prospectively collected...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
R M Y Wong, M H V Choy, M C M Li, K-S Leung, S K-H Chow, W-H Cheung, J C Y Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is a major challenge, and the enhancement of healing is critical as a major goal in modern fracture management. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at the metaphyseal bone region but few models exist and the healing is still poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyse the appropriateness of current osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed on the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, and relevant articles were selected...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
N Parsons, X L Griffin, J Achten, T J Chesser, S E Lamb, M L Costa
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the reporting of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients following hip fracture. We compare the relative merits and make recommendations for the use for two methods of measuring HRQoL; (i) including patients who died during follow-up and (ii) including survivors only. METHODS: The World Hip Trauma Evaluation has previously reported changes in HRQoL using EuroQol-5D for patients with hip fractures. We performed additional analysis to investigate the effect of including or excluding those patients who died during the first four months of the follow-up period...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
D F Hamilton, J M Giesinger, K Giesinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Bone & Joint Research
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