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Bone & Joint Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298321/ubiquitin-e3-ligase-itch-negatively-regulates-osteoblast-function-by-promoting-proteasome-degradation-of-osteogenic-proteins
#1
J Liu, X Li, H Zhang, R Gu, Z Wang, Z Gao, L Xing
OBJECTIVES: Ubiquitin E3 ligase-mediated protein degradation regulates osteoblast function. Itch, an E3 ligase, affects numerous cell functions by regulating ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of related proteins. However, the Itch-related cellular and molecular mechanisms by which osteoblast differentiation and function are elevated during bone fracture repair are as yet unknown. METHODS: We examined the expression levels of E3 ligases and NF-κB members in callus samples during bone fracture repair by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the total amount of ubiquitinated proteins by Western blot analysis in wild-type (WT) mice...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288986/bisphosphonates-and-atypical-subtrochanteric-fractures-of-the-femur
#2
N Kharwadkar, B Mayne, J E Lawrence, V Khanduja
OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates are widely used as first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. Whilst they have proved effective in this role, there is growing concern over their long-term use, with much evidence linking bisphosphonate-related suppression of bone remodelling to an increased risk of atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur (AFFs). The objective of this article is to review this evidence, while presenting the current available strategies for the management of AFFs...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258117/augmented-reality-in-bone-tumour-resection-an-experimental-study
#3
H S Cho, Y K Park, S Gupta, C Yoon, I Han, H-S Kim, H Choi, J Hong
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. METHODS: We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs)...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258116/inhibitory-effects-of-vancomycin-and-fosfomycin-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-antibiotic-impregnated-articulating-cement-spacers
#4
V Yuenyongviwat, N Ingviya, P Pathaburee, B Tangtrakulwanich
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin and fosfomycin are antibiotics commonly used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. This study compares the in vitro inhibitory effects against MRSA of articulating cement spacers impregnated with either vancomycin or fosfomycin. METHODS: Vancomycin-impregnated articulating cement spacers and fosfomycin-impregnated articulating cement spacers were immersed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions and then incubated...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258115/the-effect-of-systemic-administration-of-g-csf-on-a-full-thickness-cartilage-defect-in-a-rabbit-model-msc-proliferation-as-presumed-mechanism-g-csf-for-cartilage-repair
#5
T Sasaki, R Akagi, Y Akatsu, T Fukawa, H Hoshi, Y Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Y Sato, R Nakagawa, K Takahashi, S Yamaguchi, T Sasho
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation in vitro and to determine whether pre-microfracture systemic administration of G-CSF (a bone marrow stimulant) could improve the quality of repaired tissue of a full-thickness cartilage defect in a rabbit model. METHODS: MSCs from rabbits were cultured in a control medium and medium with G-CSF (low-dose: 4 μg, high-dose: 40 μg)...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246095/explant-analysis-of-the-biomet-magnum-recap-metal-on-metal-hip-joint
#6
S C Scholes, B J Hunt, V M Richardson, D J Langton, E Smith, T J Joyce
OBJECTIVES: The high revision rates of the DePuy Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and the DePuy ASR XL (the total hip arthroplasty (THA) version) have led to questions over the viability of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. Some designs of MoM hip joint do, however, have reasonable mid-term performance when implanted in appropriate patients. Investigations into the reasons for implant failure are important to offer help with the choice of implants and direction for future implant designs...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246094/bactericidal-and-antimicrobial-effects-of-pure-titanium-and-titanium-alloy-treated-with-short-term-low-energy-uv-irradiation
#7
T Itabashi, K Narita, A Ono, K Wada, T Tanaka, G Kumagai, R Yamauchi, A Nakane, Y Ishibashi
OBJECTIVES: The surface of pure titanium (Ti) shows decreased histocompatibility over time; this phenomenon is known as biological ageing. UV irradiation enables the reversal of biological ageing through photofunctionalisation, a physicochemical alteration of the titanium surface. Ti implants are sterilised by UV irradiation in dental surgery. However, orthopaedic biomaterials are usually composed of the alloy Ti6Al4V, for which the antibacterial effects of UV irradiation are unconfirmed...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235767/canine-articular-cartilage-regeneration-using-mesenchymal-stem-cells-seeded-on-platelet-rich-fibrin-macroscopic-and-histological-assessments
#8
D Kazemi, K Shams Asenjan, N Dehdilani, H Parsa
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, and thus have emerged as promising alternatives to chondrocytes in cell-based cartilage repair methods. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet rich fibrin on osteochondral defect repair and articular cartilage regeneration in a canine model. METHODS: Osteochondral defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 adult male mixed breed dogs...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188129/enhancement-of-fracture-healing-in-the-rat-modulated-by-compounds-that-stimulate-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-acceleration-of-fracture-healing-via-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#9
R A Rajfer, A Kilic, A S Neviaser, L M Schulte, S M Hlaing, J Landeros, M G Ferrini, E Ebramzadeh, S-H Park
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects on fracture healing of two up-regulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a rat model of an open femoral osteotomy: tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and the recently reported nutraceutical, COMB-4 (consisting of L-citrulline, Paullinia cupana, ginger and muira puama), given orally for either 14 or 42 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral femoral osteotomies were created in 58 male rats and fixed with an intramedullary compression nail...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167489/mechanical-properties-of-all-suture-anchors-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#10
N S Nagra, N Zargar, R D J Smith, A J Carr
OBJECTIVES: All-suture anchors are increasingly used in rotator cuff repair procedures. Potential benefits include decreased bone damage. However, there is limited published evidence for the relative strength of fixation for all-suture anchors compared with traditional anchors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of four commercially available all-suture anchors, the 'Y-Knot' (ConMed), Q-FIX (Smith & Nephew), ICONIX (Stryker) and JuggerKnot (Zimmer Biomet) and a traditional anchor control TWINFIX Ultra PK Suture Anchor (Smith & Nephew) were tested in cadaveric human humeral head rotator cuff repair models (n = 24)...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148490/characterisation-of-osteophytes-as-an-autologous-bone-graft-source-an-experimental-study-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#11
K Ishihara, K Okazaki, T Akiyama, Y Akasaki, Y Nakashima
OBJECTIVES: Osteophytes are products of active endochondral and intramembranous ossification, and therefore could theoretically provide significant efficacy as bone grafts. In this study, we compared the bone mineralisation effectiveness of osteophytes and cancellous bone, including their effects on secretion of growth factors and anabolic effects on osteoblasts. METHODS: Osteophytes and cancellous bone obtained from human patients were transplanted onto the calvaria of severe combined immunodeficient mice, with Calcein administered intra-peritoneally for fluorescent labelling of bone mineralisation...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108483/measuring-hip-muscle-strength-in-patients-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-and-other-hip-pathologies-a-systematic-review
#12
E Mayne, A Memarzadeh, P Raut, A Arora, V Khanduja
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on measurement of muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and other pathologies and to suggest guidelines to standardise protocols for future research in the field. METHODS: The Cochrane and PubMed libraries were searched for any publications using the terms 'hip', 'muscle', 'strength', and 'measurement' in the 'Title, Abstract, Keywords' field. A further search was performed using the terms 'femoroacetabular' or 'impingement'...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108482/inhibition-of-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-decreases-muscle-fibrosis-following-chronic-rotator-cuff-tear
#13
J P Gumucio, M D Flood, A Bedi, H F Kramer, A J Russell, C L Mendias
OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff tears are among the most frequent upper extremity injuries. Current treatment strategies do not address the poor quality of the muscle and tendon following chronic rotator cuff tears. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that activates many genes that are important in skeletal muscle regeneration. HIF-1α is inhibited under normal physiological conditions by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). In this study, we used a pharmacological PHD inhibitor, GSK1120360A, to enhance the activity of HIF-1α following the repair of a chronic cuff tear, and measured muscle fibre contractility, fibrosis, gene expression, and enthesis mechanics...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108481/clinically-insignificant-trunnionosis-in-large-diameter-metal-on-polyethylene-total-hip-arthroplasty
#14
H S Hothi, D Kendoff, C Lausmann, J Henckel, T Gehrke, J Skinner, A Hart
OBJECTIVES: Mechanical wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) (trunnionosis) have been implicated in their early revision, most commonly in metal-on-metal (MOM) hips. We can isolate the role of the head-stem junction as the predominant source of metal release by investigating non-MOM hips; this can help to identify clinically significant volumes of material loss and corrosion from these surfaces. METHODS: In this study we examined a series of 94 retrieved metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips for evidence of corrosion and material loss at the taper junction using a well published visual grading method and an established roundness-measuring machine protocol...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077396/the-effects-of-kinematically-aligned-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-stress-at-the-medial-tibia-a-case-study-for-varus-knee
#15
S Nakamura, Y Tian, Y Tanaka, S Kuriyama, H Ito, M Furu, S Matsuda
OBJECTIVES: Little biomechanical information is available about kinematically aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to simulate the kinematics and kinetics after KA TKA and mechanically aligned (MA) TKA with four different limb alignments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone models were constructed from one volunteer (normal) and three patients with three different knee deformities (slight, moderate and severe varus). A dynamic musculoskeletal modelling system was used to analyse the kinematics and the tibiofemoral contact force...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077395/the-effects-of-posterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-on-posterolateral-corner-structures-under-gait-and-squat-loading-conditions-a-computational-knee-model
#16
K-T Kang, Y-G Koh, M Jung, J-H Nam, J Son, Y H Lee, S-J Kim, S-H Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to analyse the effects of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency on forces of the posterolateral corner structure and on tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) contact force under dynamic-loading conditions. METHODS: A subject-specific knee model was validated using a passive flexion experiment, electromyography data, muscle activation, and previous experimental studies. The simulation was performed on the musculoskeletal models with and without PCL deficiency using a novel force-dependent kinematics method under gait- and squat-loading conditions, followed by probabilistic analysis for material uncertain to be considered...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077394/metal-backed-versus-all-polyethylene-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-proximal-tibial-strain-in-an-experimentally-validated-finite-element-model
#17
C E H Scott, M J Eaton, R W Nutton, F A Wade, S L Evans, P Pankaj
OBJECTIVES: Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062525/parathyroid-hormone-1-34-and-skeletal-anabolic-action-the-use-of-parathyroid-hormone-in-bone-formation
#18
L Osagie-Clouard, A Sanghani, M Coathup, T Briggs, M Bostrom, G Blunn
Intermittently administered parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) has been shown to promote bone formation in both human and animal studies. The hormone and its analogues stimulate both bone formation and resorption, and as such at low doses are now in clinical use for the treatment of severe osteoporosis. By varying the duration of exposure, parathyroid hormone can modulate genes leading to increased bone formation within a so-called 'anabolic window'. The osteogenic mechanisms involved are multiple, affecting the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes and the stem cell niche, and ultimately leading to increased osteoblast activation, reduced osteoblast apoptosis, upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, increased stem cell mobilisation, and mediation of the RANKL/OPG pathway...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057632/are-two-retrograde-3-5-mm-screws-superior-to-one-7-3-mm-screw-for-anterior-pelvic-ring-fixation-in-bones-with-low-bone-mineral-density
#19
Y P Acklin, I Zderic, S Grechenig, R G Richards, P Schmitz, B Gueorguiev
OBJECTIVES: Osteosynthesis of anterior pubic ramus fractures using one large-diameter screw can be challenging in terms of both surgical procedure and fixation stability. Small-fragment screws have the advantage of following the pelvic cortex and being more flexible.The aim of the present study was to biomechanically compare retrograde intramedullary fixation of the superior pubic ramus using either one large- or two small-diameter screws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 human cadaveric hemipelvises were analysed in a matched pair study design...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057631/ultimate-fracture-load-of-cadaver-proximal-humeri-correlates-more-strongly-with-mean-combined-cortical-thickness-than-with-areal-cortical-index-dexa-density-or-canal-to-calcar-ratio
#20
J G Skedros, C S Mears, W Z Burkhead
OBJECTIVES: This investigation sought to advance the work published in our prior biomechanical study (Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2016). We specifically sought to determine whether there are additional easy-to-measure parameters on plain radiographs of the proximal humerus that correlate more strongly with ultimate fracture load, and whether a parameter resembling the Dorr strength/quality characterisation of proximal femurs can be applied to humeri. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 adult humeri were used from a previous study where we quantified bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using radiographs and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and regional mean cortical thickness and cortical index using radiographs...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
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