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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444226/evaluation-of-a-live-attenuated-human-metapneumovirus-vaccine-in-adults-and-children
#1
Ruth A Karron, Jocelyn San Mateo, Kimberli Wanionek, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
We conducted a phase I clinical trial of an experimental live attenuated recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) vaccine (rHMPV-Pa) sequentially in adults, HMPV-seropositive children, and HMPV-seronegative children, the target population for vaccination. rHMPV-Pa was appropriately restricted in replication in adults and HMPV-seropositive children but was overattenuated for HMPV-seronegative children.
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419343/utilizing-a-modified-care-coordination-measurement-tool-to-capture-value-for-a-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-and-prolonged-oral-antibiotic-therapy-program
#2
Louise E Vaz, Cindi L Farnstrom, Kimberly K Felder, Judith Guzman-Cottrill, Hannah Rosenberg, Richard C Antonelli
Background.: Outpatient parenteral or prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs reduce inpatient healthcare costs by shifting care to outpatient settings. Care coordination (CC) is a necessary component to successfully transition patients. Our objective was to assess outcomes of provider time spent on nonreimbursable CC activities in a pediatric OPAT program. Methods.: We used a qualitative feasibility pilot design and modified the Care Coordination Measurement Tool...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419275/clinical-care-guideline-for-improving-pediatric-acute-musculoskeletal-infection-outcomes
#3
Murray D Spruiell, Justin Benjamin Searns, Travis C Heare, Jesse L Roberts, Erin Wylie, Laura Pyle, Nathan Donaldson, Jaime R Stewart, Heather Heizer, Jennifer Reese, Halden F Scott, Kelly Pearce, Colin J Anderson, Mark Erickson, Sarah K Parker
Background.: Acute pediatric musculoskeletal infections are common, leading to significant use of resources and antimicrobial exposure. In order to decrease variability and improve the quality of care, Children's Hospital Colorado implemented a clinical care guideline (CCG) for these infections. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical and resource outcomes PRE and POST this CCG. Methods.: Retrospective chart review evaluated patients admitted to a large pediatric quaternary referral center (CHCO) diagnosed with acute osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, pyomyositis, and/or musculoskeletal abscess prior to and after guideline implementation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419263/renal-toxicity-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-cidofovir-for-the-treatment-of-adenovirus-infection
#4
Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers, Janet A Englund
Treatment options for adenovirus infection in immunocompromised children are limited. Nephrotoxicity has been associated with cidofovir use, but the rate of cidofovir-associated nephrotoxicity in pediatric patients is unclear. In a retrospective review of patients with adenovirus infection treated with cidofovir, neonates (n = 5) had higher viral loads and shorter times to renal insufficiency than older children (n = 24). Higher weekly doses of cidofovir were associated with greater increases in creatinine levels...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419265/validation-of-the-sepsis-metascore-for-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis
#5
Timothy E Sweeney, James L Wynn, María Cernada, Eva Serna, Hector R Wong, Henry V Baker, Máximo Vento, Purvesh Khatri
What’s Known on This Subject.: Neonates are at increased risk for developing sepsis, but this population often exhibits ambiguous clinical signs that complicate the diagnosis of infection. No biomarker has yet shown enough diagnostic accuracy to rule out sepsis at the time of clinical suspicion. What This Study Adds.: We show that a gene-expression-based signature is an accurate objective measure of the risk of sepsis in a neonate or preterm infant, and it substantially improves diagnostic accuracy over that of commonly used laboratory-based testing...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407118/voriconazole-dosing-in-children-younger-than-3-years-undergoing-cancer-chemotherapy-or-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Shirley Qiong Yan, Brian Seyboth, Rachel Kobos, Anne Eaton, Susan K Seo, Nina Cohen
There are limited pediatric population pharmacokinetic data for voriconazole dosing, particularly in younger children. In a cohort of 34 patients younger than 3 years receiving voriconazole, the majority (n = 23, 68%) had a low initial serum concentration <1 mg/L. Among 23 children <2 years old, 19 (83%) had an initial trough <1 mg/L. There was large intra- and interindividual variability in trough levels. Dosing also varied from 3.3 to 19.6 mg/kg per dose. Only 2 of 34 patients had a documented adverse drug reaction attributable to voriconazole...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407067/evaluation-of-a-second-sign-process-for-antimicrobial-prior-authorization
#7
Aimee M Dassner, Jennifer E Girotto
Background.: A second-sign prospective restriction of select broad-spectrum antimicrobials was fully implemented in January 2015 as a pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) initiative to help ensure the most appropriate empiric use of ceftaroline, cefepime, fidaxomicin, linezolid, and vancomycin (intravenous). The objective of this evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of a forced second-sign process in the electronic medical record as a pediatric ASP strategy. We anticipated that the second-sign process for antibiotics would increase the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic use, as defined by preapproved criteria, clinical pathways, national guidelines, and pediatric-specific infectious diseases reference texts, while not causing significant delay in the initial administration of antibiotic therapy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383697/using-the-electronic-medical-record-to-correlate-kawasaki-disease-phenotypes-with-clinical-outcomes
#8
Preeti Jaggi, Michelle Grcic, John Kovalchin, Carolyn M Wilhelm, Cagri Yildirim-Toruner, Karen Texter
Background.: We sought to systematically standardize the documentation of clinical and laboratory features in Kawasaki disease (KD) on the day of initial treatment and correlate the presentation with clinical outcomes. Methods.: Kawasaki disease features and classification were documented by the attending physician using a standardized documentation tool on the day of treatment for KD, including confidence in the KD diagnosis on a 4-point scale. Incomplete KD was further classified using American Heart Association (AHA) criteria (sufficient or insufficient) and baseline echocardiogram data...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379561/rule-out-outbreak-24-hour-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-for-characterizing-respiratory-virus-source-for-infection-prevention
#9
Alexander L Greninger, Alpana Waghmare, Amanda Adler, Xuan Qin, Janet L Crowley, Janet A Englund, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Danielle M Zerr
Background.: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been used to uncover unusual causes of infectious diseases but has not been used routinely for the investigation of putative nosocomial outbreaks. Here, we describe the use of mNGS during investigation of a cluster of human rhinovirus (HRV)-positive infections on a high-risk pulmonary ward. Methods.: We performed mNGS on 6 midnasal turbinate swabs from 4 case-patients and 10 swabs from 9 control outpatients that tested positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus by the FilmArray system...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379476/delayed-recurrence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system-after-neonatal-infection-and-completion-of-six-months-of-suppressive-therapy
#10
Baylee Henderson, David W Kimberlin, Sarah E Fjie
A 10-day-old child was treated for neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease with 21 days of intravenous acyclovir and 6 months of oral acyclovir. She presented 7 years later with HSV CNS disease and new lesions in her brain, illustrating the non-benign nature of delayed recurrent HSV CNS disease.
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379408/sharing-antimicrobial-reports-for-pediatric-stewardship-sharps-a-quality-improvement-collaborative
#11
Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber, Matthew P Kronman, Georgann Meredith, Brian R Lee, Cary Thurm, Adam L Hersh
Background.: Although many children's hospitals have established antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), data-driven benchmarks for optimizing antimicrobial use across centers are lacking. We developed a multicenter quality improvement collaborative focused on sharing data reports and benchmarking antimicrobial use to improve antimicrobial prescribing among hospitalized children. Methods.: A national antimicrobial stewardship collaborative among children's hospitals, Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS), was established in 2013...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379405/unique-case-of-disseminated-plague-with-multifocal-osteomyelitis
#12
Leidy Tovar Padua, Amanda Kamali, Hannah Kim, Nicole M Green, Rachel Civen, Benjamin Schwartz, Paul Krogstad, Jaime Deville, Nava Yeganeh, Debra Lugo, Amira Baker, Priya Soni, Catherine Cho, Natalia Svircic, Sarah Dry, Leanne Seeger, Jessica Lloyd, Grace Deukmedjian, Richard Bowen, Gillian Hale, Sherif R Zaki, Paul Mead, Karin Nielsen-Saines
Plague is a disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Septicemic and pneumonic plague have a high mortality rate if untreated. Here we describe the challenges of accurately diagnosing a nonfatal pediatric case of septicemic plague with involvement of multiple organs; to our knowledge, the first documented case of multifocal plague osteomyelitis.
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369502/severe-parechovirus-3-infections-in-young-infants-kansas-and-missouri-2014
#13
Claire M Midgley, Mary Anne Jackson, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Patrick Franklin, Elizabeth L Holzschuh, Jennifer Lloyd, Joseph Scaletta, Anne Straily, Sheri Tubach, Ashley Willingham, W Allan Nix, M Steven Oberste, Christopher J Harrison, Charles Hunt, George Turabelidze, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
Background.: Infection with parechovirus type 3 (PeV3) can cause severe neurologic and sepsis-like illness in young infants; clinical and epidemiologic descriptions have been limited. We aimed to characterize PeV3 illness and explore risk factors for acquisition in a cluster of neonatal cases at Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, Missouri. Methods.: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were obtained from infants aged <180 days who were hospitalized with sepsis-like illness or meningitis between June 1 and November 1, 2014...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369564/clinical-features-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-ambulatory-children-aged-5-13-years
#14
Leigh M Howard, Kathryn M Edwards, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Peter G Szilagyi, Mary A Staat, Daniel C Payne, John V Williams
We detected human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in 54 (5%) of 1055 children aged 5 to 13 years with acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified by outpatient and emergency department surveillance between November and May 2003-2009. Its clinical features were similar to those of HMPV-negative ARI, except a diagnosis of pneumonia was more likely (13% vs 4%, respectively; P = .005) and a diagnosis of pharyngitis (7% vs 24%, respectively; P = .005) was less likely in patients with HMPV- positive ARI than those with HMPV-negative ARI...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369477/use-of-internet-search-data-to-monitor-rotavirus-vaccine-impact-in-the-united-states-united-kingdom-and-mexico
#15
Minesh P Shah, Benjamin A Lopman, Jacqueline E Tate, John Harris, Marcelino Esparza-Aguilar, Edgar Sanchez-Uribe, Vesta Richardson, Claudia A Steiner, Umesh D Parashar
Background.: Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369464/four-component-meningococcal-capsular-group-b-vaccine-in-preterm-infants
#16
Manish Sadarangani, Sheula Barlow, Mark Anthony, Andrew J Pollard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340091/effect-of-antimicrobial-treatment-on-the-resolution-of-middle-ear-effusion-after-acute-otitis-media
#17
Aino Ruohola, Miia K Laine, Paula A Tähtinen
Background.: Acute otitis media (AOM) induces middle-ear effusion (MEE), which affects hearing. The effect of antimicrobial treatment on the resolution of MEE is controversial, and the factors that affect resolution are unknown. Methods.: We studied the effect of antimicrobial treatment on the time to the resolution of MEE as a secondary objective in our randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 6 to 35 months with stringently diagnosed AOM were allocated to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate (161 patients) or placebo (158 patients) for 7 days and closely followed for 3 months...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340194/painful-foot-nodules-and-rash-in-a-teenager
#18
Gwenn Skar, Kari A Simonsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340179/open-label-pilot-study-to-compare-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccine-rv5-administered-on-an-early-alternative-dosing-schedule-with-those-of-rv5-administered-on-the-recommended-standard-schedule
#19
Ezzeldin Saleh, Brian Eichner, Douglas W Clark, Martha E Gagliano, James M Troutman, Lynn Harrington, Monica McNeal, Dennis Clements
This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) administered on an alternative schedule (initiated at 2-5 weeks of age) with those of RV5 administered on the recommended standard schedule. Our findings support the future conduct of larger clinical trials to confirm the safety and efficacy of rotavirus vaccination in the neonatal period.
March 3, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339955/procalcitonin-in-childhood-pneumonia
#20
Samir S Shah, Todd A Florin, Lilliam Ambroggio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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