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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637326/treatment-of-pertussis-2017
#1
James D Cherry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575438/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-children-with-periorbital-or-orbital-cellulitis
#2
Catherine E Foster, Elizabeth Yarotsky, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan, Kristina G Hulten
Background.: Periorbital and orbital cellulitis cause significant pediatric morbidity. Here, we define the clinical features of and characterize isolates from children with periorbital or orbital cellulitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. Methods.: Patients were identified from a prospective S aureus study database from January 2002 to July 2015. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV [pvl]) genes were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575523/safety-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-fidaxomicin-in-children-with-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-a-phase-2a-multicenter-clinical-trial
#3
Molly A O'Gorman, Marian G Michaels, Sheldon L Kaplan, Anthony Otley, Larry K Kociolek, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kwang Sik Kim, Sharon Nachman, Marian D Pfefferkorn, Timothy Sentongo, Janice E Sullivan, Pamela Sears
Background.: Fidaxomicin is an approved therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in adults. The safety of fidaxomicin in children has not been reported. Methods.: In this study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01591863), pediatric patients with CDAD received twice-daily oral fidaxomicin at a dose of 16 mg/kg per day (up to 200 mg) for 10 days in an open-label study. Plasma and fecal samples were collected for pharmacokinetic assessments. The primary outcome measure was safety, which was assessed by adverse-event (AE), laboratory, and physical examination/vital-sign monitoring...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379561/rule-out-outbreak-24-hour-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-for-characterizing-respiratory-virus-source-for-infection-prevention
#4
Alexander L Greninger, Alpana Waghmare, Amanda Adler, Xuan Qin, Janet L Crowley, Janet A Englund, Jane M Kuypers, Keith R Jerome, Danielle M Zerr
Background.: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been used to uncover unusual causes of infectious diseases but has not been used routinely for the investigation of putative nosocomial outbreaks. Here, we describe the use of mNGS during investigation of a cluster of human rhinovirus (HRV)-positive infections on a high-risk pulmonary ward. Methods.: We performed mNGS on 6 midnasal turbinate swabs from 4 case-patients and 10 swabs from 9 control outpatients that tested positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus by the FilmArray system...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340194/painful-foot-nodules-and-rash-in-a-teenager
#5
Gwenn Skar, Kari A Simonsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339568/varicella-in-a-previously-immune-patient-with-leukemia
#6
Michelle Sewnarine, Sujatha Rajan, Arlene Redner, Lorry G Rubin
Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in oncology patients can result in severe disease with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Among patients on cancer chemotherapy, only nonimmune persons are considered to be susceptible to varicella [1]. We present a case of varicella in a child with leukemia that occurred despite immunity as defined by 2 doses of varicella vaccine and documentation of positive VZV immunoglobulin G titer before initiation of chemotherapy.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204577/strep-where-do-we-go-from-here
#7
Stanford T Shulman, Robert R Tanz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204556/determinants-and-impact-of-giardia-infection-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#8
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Luther A Bartelt, James A Platts-Mills, Jessica C Seidman, Amidou Samie, Alexandre Havt, Sudhir Babji, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Shahida Qureshi, Sadia Shakoor, Rashidul Haque, Estomih Mduma, Samita Bajracharya, S M Abdul Gaffar, Aldo A M Lima, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N Kosek, Tahmeed Ahmed, Erling Svensen, Carl Mason, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Eric R Houpt, Pascal O Bessong
Background.: Giardia are among the most common enteropathogens detected in children in low-resource settings. We describe here the epidemiology of infection with Giardia in the first 2 years of life in the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project (MAL-ED), a multisite birth-cohort study. Methods.: From 2089 children, 34916 stool samples collected during monthly surveillance and episodes of diarrhea were tested for Giardia using an enzyme immunoassay...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204534/prospective-longitudinal-analysis-of-immune-responses-in-pediatric-subjects-after-pharyngeal-acquisition-of-group-a-streptococci
#9
Nicholas D Hysmith, Edward L Kaplan, P Patrick Cleary, Dwight R Johnson, Thomas A Penfound, James B Dale
Background.: Despite the significant burden of disease associated with infection by group A streptococcus (GAS), little is known about the human immune response to GAS antigens after natural infection. Methods.: We evaluated 195 serum samples obtained prospectively over a consecutive 24-month period from 41 pediatric subjects who experienced a new pharyngeal GAS acquisition. An enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to determine the kinetics and antigen specificity of antibodies against 13 shared GAS antigens and 18 type-specific M peptides...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204517/incidence-of-tuberculosis-and-associated-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Nicolas Salvadori, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Chloé Duclercq, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Achara Puangsombat, Julie Figoni, Jean-Yves Mary, Intira J Collins, Tim R Cressey, Sophie Le Cœur, Wasna Sirirungsi, Marc Lallemant, Kenneth McIntosh, Gonzague Jourdain
Background.: We assessed the incidence of tuberculosis, risk factors for tuberculosis, and the contribution of tuberculosis on mortality in a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children <15 years of age initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1999 and 2012 in Thailand, one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries. Methods.: A physician reviewed and classified tuberculosis cases. Incidence was the number of children with incident tuberculosis, defined as a first or recurrent tuberculosis diagnosis >30 days after ART initiation, divided by the total person-years of follow-up (PYFU)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201768/first-reported-case-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-sepsis-caused-by-cedecea-lapagei-in-a-brazilian-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#11
Charbell Miguel Haddad Kury, Aline Azevedo Yabrudi, Thyara Boechat de Souza, Elisa Carvalhal de Souza, Ludmyla Tavares E Silva Costa, Charles Bruno Soares, Gabrielle Assumpção Calixto, Mariana Rodrigues Gramático
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422867/diagnostic-lumbar-puncture-among-children-with-facial-palsy-in-a-lyme-disease-endemic-area
#12
Niloufar Paydar-Darian, Amir A Kimia, Paul M Lantos, Andrew M Fine, Caroline D Gordon, Catherine R Gordon, Assaf Landschaft, Lise E Nigrovic
We identified 620 children with peripheral facial palsy of which 211 (34%) had Lyme disease. The 140 children who had a lumbar puncture performed were more likely to be hospitalized (73% LP performed vs 2% no LP) and to receive parenteral antibiotics (62% LP performed vs 6% no LP).
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342644/impact-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-and-ionization-time-of-flight-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-treatment-of-bloodstream-infections-in-hospitalized-children
#13
Caroline Malcolmson, Karen Ng, Shevaun Hughes, Niranjan Kissoon, Jillian Schina, Peter A Tilley, Ashley Roberts
Background.: Early definitive identification of infectious pathogens coupled with antimicrobial stewardship interventions allow for targeted and timely administration of antimicrobials. We investigated the combined impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology and an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in pediatric patients with blood stream infections (BSIs). Methods.: This is a single-center study comparing a control group of patients from October 2009 to July 2010 with BSIs to a cohort of patients postimplementation of MALDI-TOF and an ASP, from October 2013 to July 2014...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295973/low-risk-of-cd4-decline-after-immune-recovery-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-with-viral-suppression
#14
Pope Kosalaraksa, David C Boettiger, Torsak Bunupuradah, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Sarun Saramony, Viet C Do, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Nik K N Yusoff, Kamarul A M Razali, Lam V Nguyen, Revathy Nallusamy, Siew M Fong, Nia Kurniati, Khanh H Truong, Annette H Sohn, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load. Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273481/tolerability-of-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Shauna Butler, Deena Sutter, Ashley Maranich
Background.: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic to parts of Asia. Manufacture of JE-VAX, the mouse brain-derived vaccine against JEV, was discontinued in February 2011. IXIARO, an inactivated cell culture-derived vaccine, was approved in 2009 for use in adult patients. Although IXIARO was not licensed for pediatric patients until 2013, our clinic routinely used this vaccine in at-risk children starting in 2011. The purpose of this study was to review our experience as to the tolerability of the new IXIARO vaccine in children...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242191/clinical-utility-of-preimplantation-homograft-cultures-in-patients-undergoing-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#16
Preeti Mehrotra, Luis G Quinonez, Neeraj K Surana, Nira Pollock, Thomas J Sandora
Institutional practice at our hospital (Boston Children's Hospital) is to culture homografts before implantation during congenital cardiac surgery. Over a 4-year period, 5% (73 of 1376) of these cultures were positive, but the results had minimal clinical impact. Our experience demonstrates that there is limited utility in preimplantation cultures of cardiac homografts.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190172/impact-of-a-healthcare-provider-educational-intervention-on-frequency-of-clostridium-difficile-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-in-children-a-segmented-regression-analysis
#17
Larry K Kociolek, Maria Bovee, Donna Carter, Jody D Ciolino, Rupal Patel, Anna O'Donnell, Angela H Rupp, Xiaotian Zheng, Stanford T Shulman, Sameer J Patel
Background.: Although Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, many children diagnosed with CDI lack classic risk factors. Frequent use of highly sensitive tcdB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in low-risk patients leads to CDI misdiagnosis and unnecessary CDI antibiotic use in children with C difficile carriage. Methods.: For this quasi-experimental study, we developed and implemented an educational intervention (EI) to inform healthcare providers (HCPs) about tcdB PCR test limitations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147715/a-pragmatic-biomarker-driven-algorithm-to-guide-antibiotic-use-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-the-optimizing-antibiotic-strategies-in-sepsis-oasis-study
#18
Kevin J Downes, Scott L Weiss, Jeffrey S Gerber, Sarah B Klieger, Julie C Fitzgerald, Fran Balamuth, Sherri E Kubis, Pam Tolomeo, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Irving Nachamkin, Charles Garrigan, Jennifer H Han, Ebbing Lautenbach, Susan E Coffin
Background.: Biomarkers that identify critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at low risk for bacterial infection may help clinicians reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. Methods.: We conducted a prospective cohort study of children with SIRS and suspected infection admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from January 5, 2012 to March 7, 2014. We enrolled patients upon initiation of new antibiotics (Time 0) and measured a panel of 8 serum biomarkers daily over 72 hours...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147713/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-despite-dose-adjustment-for-renal-disease-a-brief-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Holly Lindsay, Stephanie Gruner, Julienne Brackett
Cefepime is increasingly used as empiric treatment for fever in the setting of neutropenia. We present a patient with acute-on-chronic renal disease who received cefepime at the appropriate dose for his glomerular filtration rate but developed cefepime-associated encephalopathy. Here, we review neurologic toxicities of cefepime and present suggestions for work-up and management.
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125271/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-using-an-emergency-database-system
#20
Guilhem Noel, Gilles Viudes, Remi Laporte, Philippe Minodier
Background.: A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) seems to be associated with a reduction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods.: To explore the link between PCV13 implementation and children' visits in emergency departments (EDs) for pneumonia, we analyzed mandatory Electronics Emergency Department Abstracts (EEDA), in 7 EDs, located in southern France, from 2009 to 2014. Diagnosis related to visits were coded using International Classification Diseases-10 codes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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