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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Chikara Ogimi, Janet A Englund, Miranda C Bradford, Xuan Qin, Michael Boeckh, Alpana Waghmare
Background: Immunocompromised children might be predisposed to serious infections from human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including strains OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E; however, the virologic and clinical features of HCoV infection in immunocompromised children have not been compared to those in nonimmunocompromised children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children who presented to Seattle Children's Hospital and in whom HCoV was detected by a multiplex respiratory polymerase chain reaction assay of a nasal sample between October 2012 and March 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Sara R Saporta-Keating, Eric A F Simões, Guixia Yu, Scot Federman, David Mirsky, Samuel R Dominguez, Charles Y Chiu, Kevin Messacar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Scott A Halperin, Catherine Donovan, Gary S Marshall, Vitali Pool, Michael D Decker, David R Johnson, David P Greenberg
Background: Reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended in many countries for boosting immunity in adolescents and adults. Although immunity to these antigens wanes with time, currently available Tdap products are not labeled for repeat administration in the United States. Methods: We performed an observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 1330 adults aged 18 to <65 years who received either the Tdap (n = 1002) or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) (n = 328) vaccine 8 to 12 years after a dose of Tdap vaccine administered previously...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Eric W Christensen, Alicen Burns Spaulding, William F Pomputius, Steven P Grapentine
Background: Hospital practice patterns vary for switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, but it is unknown how these practice patterns affect hospital lengths of stay and costs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 78673 pediatric patients (aged 3 months to 17 years) hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Analyses were performed with data from the Pediatric Health Information System between 2007 and 2016, including discharge data from 48 freestanding children's hospitals...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Gary J Noel, Sumathi Nambiar, John Bradley
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened with several groups in the pediatric antibacterial drug development community with the goal of identifying challenges and recommending ways to improve current practice. Attention to 5 major areas hold the promise of making new antibiotics available for use in children as soon as possible after they are approved for use in adults.
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Paul Edgar Gray, Bella Shadur, Susan Russell, Richard Mitchell, Kerri Gallagher, Kevin Thia, Pamela Palasanthiran, Ilia Voskoboinik
Single gene defects that impair lymphocyte cytotoxicity can predispose to severe viral infection that normally remains subclinical. The classic severe presentation is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Here, we report the case of a neonate who presented with cytomegalovirus palatal ulceration and bocavirus pneumonitis secondary to impaired cytotoxicity caused by biallelic mutations in the UNC13D gene.
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Emily Vancor, Eugene D Shapiro, Jaspreet Loyal
Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss. By law, newborns in Connecticut who fail newborn hearing screening are tested for infection with CMV. This targeted screening is controversial, because most children with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic, and CMV-related hearing loss can have a delayed onset. Our hospital uses a saliva polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (confirmed by a urine PCR assay) to detect CMV. Here, we report the results of the first year of our screening program...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Madan Kumar, Barbara Jantausch, Clarivet Torres, Joseph Campos, Adrian Zelazny
We report here the isolation of Mucor velutinosus from multiple blood cultures performed on samples from Broviac catheters and culture of a Broviac insertion-site wound sample from a 6-year-old boy with a history of intestinal failure secondary to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, parenteral nutrition, and jejunostomy tube dependence. Examination of a slide from the culture revealed the presence of wide nonseptate hyphae with sporangiophores, columella, and chlamydospores. The fungal isolate was sent to the National Institutes of Health for further evaluation and was identified as Mucor velutinosus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genomic sequencing...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Stephen Arpadi, Faeezah Patel, Francoise Pinillos, Wei-Yann Tsai, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine Abrams, Louise Kuhn
Objectives. : Abacavir has replaced stavudine in antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens because it has largely been phased out as a result of toxicity concerns; this loss has reduced further the already-limited drug options for children. Few data regarding virologic and metabolic outcomes among children who undergo substitution of stavudine exist. We evaluated the effects of preemptive substitution of abacavir for stavudine in children initially without lipodystrophy and virally suppressed on a stavudine-containing regimen...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Ibukunoluwa C Akinboyo, Genevieve M Crane, Lingling Chen, Ravit Arav-Boger
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), an infection that is endemic in certain parts of Asia, Africa, and South America, has been associated with malignancy and neurological deficits. Here, we describe a pediatric patient with chronic HTLV-I infection who developed complications associated with HTLV-I (ie, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis). To our knowledge, this presentation in a child has never been described. The patient underwent a bone marrow transplant and, at the time of this writing, was in remission...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jasmeen S Dara, David B Hanna, Kathryn Anastos, Rodney Wright, Betsy C Herold
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been highly successful. However, HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants might be at increased risk for low birth weight and/or preterm birth. We compared the birth weights and gestational ages of HIV-EU infants to those of HIV-unexposed control infants in Bronx, New York, an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Methods: This study was performed with a retrospective cohort of HIV-EU infants born at Montefiore Medical Center between 2008 and 2012 and HIV-unexposed control infants...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Adam Frymoyer, Chris Stockmann, Adam L Hersh, Srijib Goswami, Ron J Keizer
Background: Vancomycin dosing in neonates is challenging because of the large variation in pharmacokinetics. Existing empiric dosing recommendations use table-based formats, within which a neonate is categorized on the basis of underlying characteristics. The ability to individualize dosing is limited because of the small number of "dose categories," and achieving narrow exposure targets is difficult. Our objective was to evaluate a model-based dosing approach (which we designated Neo-Vanco) designed to individualize empiric vancomycin dosing in neonates...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Joshua R Francis, Paola Villanueva, Penelope Bryant, Christopher C Blyth
Mucormycosis represents the third most common invasive fungal infection in children, and recent studies have suggested a rising incidence. Its case fatality rate is high, especially for neonates. Clinical presentation is influenced by underlying risk factors; associations with immunosuppression, neutropenia, diabetes, and prematurity have been described. It has been implicated in several hospital outbreaks. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and evaluation with histopathology, culture, and, increasingly, molecular identification...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jeffrey L Butler, Amanda L Hurst
Concomitant administration of enteral fluoroquinolones (FQs) with divalent or trivalent cation-containing compounds results in a reduction in FQ bioavailability. A review of enteral FQ administration with regards to the timing of divalent or trivalent cation-containing compounds in pediatric patients revealed a high number of inappropriately administered FQs. Suggestions for reducing the number of inappropriately timed FQ administrations are presented here.
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Peter F Wright, Margaret E Ackerman, Elizabeth B Brickley
The 2017 Stanley A. Plotkin Lecture in Vaccinology was delivered by Professor Peter F. Wright at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting in San Francisco, California, in May 2017. The presentation provided an overview of the mucosal immune system as it applies to vaccinology. Specifically, Professor Wright's lecture highlighted the remarkable opportunities for mucosal immunity research afforded by having both topically administered live vaccines and systemically administered inactivated vaccines available for the same pathogen...
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Melanie G Kitagawa, Nick Ettinger, Day Breen, Jennifer Erklauer, Emmanuel Chang, Honey Herce, Katherine King, Swati Naik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Natasha S Ching, Nigel Crawford, Alissa McMinn, Ciara Baker, Kristy Azzopardi, Kate Brownlee, Donna Lee, Margaret Gibson, Pierre Smeesters, Gena Gonis, Samar Ojaimi, Jim Buttery, Andrew C Steer
Background: Invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) disease has an incidence in high-income countries of 3 to 5 per 100000 per annum and a case-fatality ratio of 10% to 15%. Although these rates are comparable to those of invasive meningococcal disease in Australia before vaccine introduction, invasive GAS disease currently requires reporting in only 2 jurisdictions. Methods: Data were collected prospectively through active surveillance at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (October 2014 to September 2016)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Scott P Grytdal, Dana L Haberling, Jordan L Kennedy, Jeffrey T McCollum, Umesh D Parashar
We examined the uptake of rotavirus vaccine and compared trends in acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years before and after introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. The rates of AGE-associated hospitalization and outpatient visits among AI/AN children remained below prevaccine levels.
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Sylvia H Yeh, Vini Vijayan, Andrea Hahn, Holly Ruch-Ross, Suzanne Kirkwood, Terri Christene Phillips, Christopher J Harrison
Background: Almost 20 years have elapsed since the last workforce survey of pediatric infectious disease (PID) subspecialists was conducted in 1997-1998. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Infectious Diseases in collaboration with the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society sought to assess the status of the current PID workforce. Methods: A Web-based survey conducted in 2015 collected data on demographics, practice patterns, and job satisfaction among the PID workforce, and identified factors related to job placement among recent fellowship graduates...
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Matthew P Kronman, Ritu Banerjee, Jennifer Duchon, Jeffrey S Gerber, Michael D Green, Adam L Hersh, David Hyun, Holly Maples, Colleen B Nash, Sarah Parker, Sameer J Patel, Lisa Saiman, Pranita D Tamma, Jason G Newland
The prevalence of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) is increasing in acute care facilities across the United States. Over the past several years, the evidence base used to inform effective stewardship practices has expanded, and regulatory interest in stewardship programs has increased. Here, we review approaches for established, hospital-based pediatric ASPs to adapt and report standardized metrics, broaden their reach to specialized populations, expand to undertake novel stewardship initiatives, and implement rapid diagnostics to continue their evolution in improving antimicrobial use and patient outcomes...
December 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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