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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045693/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftaroline-in-a-preterm-infant-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Sara N Salerno, Janice Bernhardt, Matthew Laughon, Ravi Jhaveri, Matthew Massaro, Daniel Gonzalez
We report here the first pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship for ceftaroline in a preterm infant born at <28 weeks' gestational age who was given ceftaroline (8.5 mg/kg every 8 hours) for pneumonia attributable to methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus. This dose of ceftaroline was adequate to achieve the pharmacodynamic endpoint associated with efficacy for methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus.
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045666/quality-improvement-feature-series-article-4-advanced-designs-for-quality-improvement-studies
#2
Lilliam Ambroggio, Amanda Schondelmeyer, Erik Hoefgen, Patrick Brady, Erin Shaughnessy
Each quality improvement (QI) project has an implicit study design, although these designs are not discussed as commonly as they are in clinical research. Most QI projects fall under the quasi-experimental study category, in which observations are made before and after the implementation of an intervention(s). The simplest and most commonly used for QI studies is the pre-post design, in which observations are made before and after each intervention that was implemented over a specified period. More sophisticated designs for QI studies enable a study team to draw stronger inferences about the system that is being changed and the individual effects of the interventions that are implemented...
October 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045692/seasonal-variation-and-weather-changes-related-to-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-acute-hematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-children
#3
Eduardo A Lindsay, Naureen Tareen, Chan-Hee Jo, Lawson A Copley
Background: Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) demonstrates regional variability in incidence and severity. In this study, we evaluated seasonal variations of AHO and assessed the effects of weather trends on the occurrence and severity of illness in affected children. Methods: National Weather Service data from the dates of symptom onset and of admission of children with AHO were gathered. Seasonal occurrence rates and the weather patterns were studied according to severity-of-illness category...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045690/clinical-characteristics-of-hospitalized-infants-with-laboratory-confirmed-pertussis-in-guatemala
#4
Varun K Phadke, John P McCracken, Jennifer L Kriss, Maria R Lopez, Kim A Lindblade, Joe P Bryan, Miguel E Garcia, Carlos E Funes, Saad B Omer
Background: Pertussis is an important cause of hospitalization and death in infants too young to be vaccinated (aged <2 months). Limited data on infant pertussis have been reported from Central America. The aim of this study was to characterize acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) attributable to Bordetella pertussis among infants enrolled in an ongoing surveillance study in Guatemala. Methods: As part of a population-based surveillance study in Guatemala, infants aged <2 months who presented with ARI and required hospitalization were enrolled, and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were obtained...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040710/writing-and-reviewing-quality-improvement-manuscripts
#5
Amanda C Schondelmeyer, Laura H Brower, Angela M Statile, Christine M White, Patrick W Brady
Achieving rapid and meaningful improvement in healthcare requires the dissemination of quality improvement project results via publication. Doing this well requires detailed descriptions of the complex interventions and of the context in which the improvement took place. This report builds on the first 2 articles in the series to cover important considerations in writing quality improvement manuscripts with a focus on how it differs from writing traditional clinical research reports. The recommendations we outline here also apply to reviewing quality improvement manuscripts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040661/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#6
Hira Bluestone, Matthew P Kronman, David L Suskind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040644/displaying-and-analyzing-quality-improvement-data
#7
Patrick W Brady, Michael J Tchou, Lilliam Ambroggio, Amanda C Schondelmeyer, Erin E Shaughnessy
In this second article in the quality improvement (QI) methods series, we discuss how data are best displayed and analyzed in QI projects while focusing on some similarities with and differences from traditional clinical research. We demonstrate why displaying data over time on a run or control chart is superior to using pre-post analysis for QI studies. We introduce several types of statistical process control charts for data commonly collected during QI programs and provide guidance on how to use the proper chart...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#8
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036471/immunization-completion-in-infants-born-at-low-birth-weight
#9
Matt Nestander, Jay Dintaman, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with underimmunization. We sought to understand the effect of LBW on immunization completion after controlling for previously hypothesized mediators, including prematurity, neonatal illness, well-child care, non-well-child visits, and provider consistency. Methods: We formed a retrospective cohort of infants born between 2008 and 2011 with ≥2 years of military healthcare follow-up. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify LBW, preterm birth, neonatal illnesses, well-child visits, non-well-child visits, provider consistency, and parental rank in the inpatient and outpatient records...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036336/missed-opportunities-for-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-initiation-in-an-insured-adolescent-female-population
#10
Claudia M Espinosa, Gary S Marshall, Charles R Woods, Qianli Ma, Derek Ems, Irene Nsiah, Laura E Happe, Michael J Smith
Background: This study assessed the initiation of HPV vaccination in insured adolescent females in relation to physician visits and receipt of other vaccines routinely given at the same age. Methods: January 1, 2010, and September 31, 2015. Vaccination administration was determined by using Current Procedural Terminology codes. A missed opportunity was defined as the absence of an HPV vaccine at the following encounter types: visits with a 4-valent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) or tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine claim; well adolescent visits; or any encounter with a primary care provider (PCP)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992325/congenital-babesiosis-after-maternal-infection-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-and-babesia-microti
#11
Kirsten Saetre, Neetu Godhwani, Mazen Maria, Darshan Patel, Guiqing Wang, Karl I Li, Gary P Wormser, Sheila M Nolan
We describe the cases of 2 infants with congenital babesiosis born to mothers with prepartum Lyme disease and subclinical Babesia microti infection. The infants both developed anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, and 1 infant required red blood cell transfusion. Both infants recovered with treatment. Additional studies are warranted to define the optimal management strategy for pregnant women with early Lyme disease in geographic areas in which B microti infection is endemic.
September 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992328/what-parents-think-about-the-risks-and-benefits-of-antibiotics-for-their-child-s-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#12
Julia E Szymczak, Sarah B Klieger, Matthew Miller, Alexander G Fiks, Jeffrey S Gerber
Background: Parental pressure is often cited as a reason for why pediatricians overuse antibiotics for children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). We sought to capture parent perceptions of antibiotics at the time of their child's presentation with an ARTI. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with parents of children who presented with ARTI symptoms to 1 of 4 diverse practices in a large hospital-affiliated network of pediatric primary care practices...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992126/association-between-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-and-duration-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-children
#13
Alice J Hsu, Rana F Hamdy, Yanjie Huang, Jared A Olson, Shahira Ghobrial, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Pranita D Tamma
In a multicenter retrospective study, we sought to determine the optimal vancomycin trough concentration that would impact the duration of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children. We found that a median vancomycin trough concentration of <10 µg/mL within the first 72 hours may be associated with a longer duration of bacteremia compared to a median trough concentration of ≥10 µg/mL.
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992176/disproportionate-exposure-to-antibiotics-in-children-at-risk-for-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-potential-for-emerging-resistance-and-opportunity-for-antibiotic-stewardship
#14
Tamar F Barlam, Jake R Morgan, Warren A Kaplan, Kevin Outterson, Stephen I Pelton
We compared antibiotic prescribing for children with and those without an underlying chronic condition associated with increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. Children with a chronic condition had significantly greater cumulative exposure to antibiotics and higher rates of prescriptions per person-year than those without a chronic condition; this population is at increased risk for the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens.
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992068/cost-benefit-analysis-of-a-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccine-program-in-adolescent-girls-in-the-united-states
#15
Jared Ditkowsky, Afsana Rahman, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Stephan Kohlhoff, Tamar A Smith-Norowitz
Background: With >1.4 million cases in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a major public health concern. We examined the impact of a C trachomatis vaccination program using a decision-analysis model to estimate the effects of vaccination on C trachomatis-associated costs and morbidity. Methods: We developed a Markov model considering a cohort of 2158117 US females aged 9 to 26 years...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992083/cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-complicated-by-subdural-empyema-in-an-8-year-old-girl-with-neonatal-onset-multisystem-inflammatory-disease-syndrome-a-rare-sequela
#16
Scott Pangonis, Mark Dugan, Mary Beth Hogan, Sara Patrizi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992071/prenatal-screening-for-and-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women-and-prevention-of-transmission-to-infants-born-to-infected-mothers-guam-2014
#17
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Sarah Schillie, Melissa Collier, Bernadette Schumann, Michael Klemme, Mary Kamb
Background: Perinatal transmission is the major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and drives HBV endemicity in the US territory of Guam. We assessed correlates of prenatal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening and HBsAg positivity among pregnant women and evaluated the care of infants of HBsAg-positive women. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the maternal medical records of 966 randomly selected live infants born in 2014...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992185/accuracy-of-administrative-data-for-antimicrobial-administration-in-hospitalized-children
#18
Joshua D Courter, Sarah K Parker, Cary Thurm, Matthew P Kronman, Scott J Weissman, Samir S Shah, Adam L Hersh, Thomas V Brogan, Sameer J Patel, Michael J Smith, Brian R Lee, Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber
Administrative data are often used as a proxy for medication-administration record (MAR) data. Multicenter MAR data were compared retrospectively with administrative data from January 2010 through June 2013 from the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We found that administrative data were more concordant with bill-upon-administration than bill-upon-dispense data.
August 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992205/national-estimates-of-reductions-in-acute-gastroenteritis-related-hospitalizations-and-associated-costs-in-us-children-after-implementation-of-rotavirus-vaccines
#19
Eyal Leshem, Jacqueline E Tate, Claudia A Steiner, Aaron T Curns, Ben A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
We compared acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-related hospitalization rates among children <5 years of age during the pre-rotavirus vaccine (2000-2006) and post-rotavirus vaccine (2008-2013) periods to estimate national reductions in AGE-related hospitalizations and associated costs. We estimate that between 2008 and 2013, AGE-related hospitalizations declined by 382000, and $1.228 billion in medical costs were averted.
August 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992265/treatment-with-quadrivalent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-for-juvenile-onset-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Tomohiro Katsuta, Yusuke Miyaji, Paul A Offit, Kristen A Feemster
Although juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP) generally involves a benign tumor on the larynx and other respiratory tract areas, almost all patients with this disease require repeated surgical intervention (to prevent airway obstruction during the course of illness) and various adjuvant therapies such as interferon, cidofovir, acyclovir, ribavirin, indole-3-carbinol, HspE7, mumps vaccine, photodynamic therapy, propranolol, cimetidine, and bevacizumab. Some case reports recently described the effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) as an adjuvant therapy...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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