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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771360/patient-and-treatment-characteristics-by-infecting-organism-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunt-infection
#1
Tamara D Simon, Matthew P Kronman, Kathryn B Whitlock, Samuel R Browd, Richard Holubkov, John R W Kestle, Abhaya V Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D Limbrick, Thomas G Luerssen, Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis N Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C Wellons Iii, William E Whitehead, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett
Background: Previous studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection treatment have been limited in size and unable to compare patient and treatment characteristics by infecting organism. Our objective was to describe variation in patient and treatment characteristics for children with first CSF shunt infection, stratified by infecting organism subgroups outlined in the 2017 Infectious Disease Society of America's (IDSA) guidelines. Methods: We studied a prospective cohort of children <18 years of age undergoing treatment for first CSF shunt infection at one of 7 Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network hospitals from April 2008 to December 2012...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741721/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#2
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741652/erratum
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741717/influenza-associated-acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-in-siblings
#4
Ashley Howard, Timothy M Uyeki, Jaime Fergie
Encephalopathy is an important complication associated with influenza, most frequently observed in young children, with a wide range of severity. The most severe category of influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE), characterized by high frequency of neurologic sequelae and fatal outcomes. We report two young siblings who developed fever and seizures with altered mental status. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was identified in upper respiratory tract specimens from both patients, and neuroimaging revealed bilateral inflammatory lesions, consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718415/experience-with-continuous-infusion-vancomycin-dosing-in-a-large-pediatric-hospital
#5
Amanda L Hurst, Christine Baumgartner, Christine E MacBrayne, Jason Child
Background: There is a paucity of data on dosing of continuous infusion of vancomycin (CIV) in pediatric patients, despite it being an attractive treatment option for limiting escalating doses of intermittent infusion of vancomycin. The purpose of this study was to determine the total daily dose of CIV required to attain therapeutic serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) in pediatric patients according to age (≥31 days to <2 years, 2 to <8 years, and 8 to <18 years). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients who were transitioned from intermittent infusion of vancomycin to CIV between January 2013 and December 2016...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718326/mumps-a-pain-in-the-neck
#6
Stanley A Plotkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718310/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-children-with-culture-negative-septic-arthritis
#7
Evangelos Spyridakis, Jeffrey S Gerber, Emily Schriver, Robert W Grundmeier, Eric A Porsch, Joseph W St Geme, Kevin J Downes
Background: Septic arthritis is a serious infection, but the results of blood and joint fluid cultures are often negative in children. We describe here the clinical features and management of culture-negative septic arthritis in children at our hospital and their outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of children with septic arthritis who were hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between January 2002 and December 2014. Culture-negative septic arthritis was defined as a joint white blood cell count of >50000/μL with associated symptoms, a clinical diagnosis of septic arthritis, and a negative culture result...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718302/caution-needed-molecular-diagnosis-of-pediatric-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#8
Robert R Tanz, Xiaotian T Zheng, Donna M Carter, Molly C Steele, Stanford T Shulman
Among throat swabs processed in the microbiology laboratory as back-up for negative rapid antigen detection test results, we found a significant increase in the proportion that tested positive for group A streptococci after changing from throat culture to a molecular test.For group A streptococcus testing, our hospital laboratory replaced throat cultures with a stand-alone molecular diagnostic test that takes no more than 1 hour to perform. The prevalence of positive laboratory test results increased significantly (P < ...
April 27, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718291/molecular-testing-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-to-test-or-not-to-test-that-is-the-question
#9
Preeti Jaggi, Amy Leber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688554/effect-of-gestational-age-at-tenofovir-emtricitabine-efavirenz-initiation-on-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-botswana
#10
Rebecca Zash, Kathryn Rough, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Among human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in Botswana on the recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen, tenofovir-emtricitabine-efavirenz, initiated within the first or early second trimester, we found no increased risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm/very preterm delivery, or the infant being born small or very small for gestational age. Treatment with tenofovir-emtricitabine-efavirenz <1 year before conception increased the risk of preterm delivery slightly over late-second-trimester treatment initiation (adjusted risk ratio, 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688433/antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#11
Yuta Aizawa, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Tetsuji Kaneko, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Kaoru Okazaki, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
We conducted an antimicrobial stewardship program in a pediatric intensive care unit. An interrupted time-series analysis revealed a significant reduction in level and trend of days of therapy per 1000 patient-days for antipseudomonal agents. No increase in adverse patient outcomes was found.
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688511/a-16-year-old-girl-with-eye-pain
#12
Katherine M Richardson, Kevin S Chen, Derrick L Goubeaux, C Scott Atkinson, Abraham Poulose, Gerald Woods, Jennifer L Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635419/bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-rate-of-hospitalization-for-infection-until-15-months-of-age-in-danish-children-a-randomized-clinical-multicenter-trial
#13
Lone Graff Stensballe, Henrik Ravn, Nina Marie Birk, Jesper Kjærgaard, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Gitte Thybo Pihl, Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Gorm Greisen, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Ole Pryds, Signe Sørup, Peter Aaby, Christine Stabell Benn
Background: The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis might reduce the non-tuberculosis-related child mortality rate in low-income settings. We tested the hypothesis that BCG vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalization for infection in Denmark, a high-income setting. Hospitalization for infection was a secondary outcome in a randomized trial with the primary aim to estimate the potential non-specific effects of BCG vaccination at birth on all-cause hospitalization...
April 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617871/clinical-and-laboratory-predictors-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-in-children-with-bloody-diarrhea
#14
Ryan S McKee, Phillip I Tarr, Dennis J Dietzen, Rachit Chawla, David Schnadower
Objectives: Children with acute bloody diarrhea are at risk of being infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and of progression to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our objective was to identify clinical and laboratory factors associated with STEC infection in children who present with acute bloody diarrhea. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of consecutive children younger than 18 years who presented with acute (<2-week duration) bloody diarrhea between August 1, 2013, and August 1, 2014...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590376/incidence-of-nephrotoxicity-among-pediatric-patients-receiving-vancomycin-with-either-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime-a-cohort-study
#15
Kathryn M Cook, Jessica Gillon, Alison G Grisso, Ritu Banerjee, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Elizabeth J Phillips, Sara L Van Driest
Background: Recent studies in adults have found an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) that is greater than that expected with either medication alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP is associated with an incidence of AKI in pediatric patients higher than that in those on combination therapy with vancomycin and cefepime. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center matched-cohort study of pediatric patients who received vancomycin in combination with TZP or cefepime between January 2015 and June 2016...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579288/clinical-characterization-of-invasive-disease-caused-by-haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-b-in-a-high-vaccination-coverage-setting
#16
Susana Monge, Liesbeth Mollema, Hester de Melker, Elisabeth Sanders, Arie van der Ende, Mirjam Knol
This national study characterized invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infections. Vaccinated (n = 41) and nonvaccinated (n = 10) cases were similar regarding presentation as meningitis (68.8% vs 90.0%; P = .25), predisposing factors (29.3% vs 20.0%; P = .76), admission to intensive care unit or death (22.0% vs 10.0%; P = 1.00), or sequelae (21.6% vs 10.0%; P = .81). Haemophilus influenzae serotype b occurred in vaccinated, healthy children with comparable disease course.
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579259/high-rates-of-prescribing-antimicrobials-for-prophylaxis-in-children-and-neonates-results-from-the-antibiotic-resistance-and-prescribing-in-european-children-point-prevalence-survey
#17
Markus Hufnagel, Ann Versporten, Julia Bielicki, Nico Drapier, Mike Sharland, Herman Goossens
Background: This study was conducted to assess the variation in prescription practices for systemic antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized in 41 countries worldwide. Methods: Using the standardized Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Point Prevalence Survey protocol, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was conducted at 226 pediatric hospitals in 41 countries from October 1 to November 30, 2012...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579251/incidence-of-healthcare-associated-influenza-like-illness-after-a-primary-care-encounter-among-young-children
#18
Kristen Feemster, Russell Localio, Robert Grundmeier, Joshua P Metlay, Susan E Coffin
Background: Despite potential respiratory virus transmission in pediatric clinics, little is known about the risk of healthcare-associated viral infections attributable to outpatient encounters. We evaluated whether exposure to a pediatric clinic visit was associated with subsequent influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: Using electronic health record data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children aged <6 years who presented to a provider in a 29-clinic pediatric primary care network for a non-ILI-related encounter over 2 respiratory virus seasons (September 1, 2012, to April 30, 2014)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579216/acinetobacter-baumannii-resistance-trends-in-children-in-the-united-states-1999-2012
#19
Latania K Logan, Sumanth Gandra, Anna Trett, Robert A Weinstein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) A baumannii is a significant threat globally. We used a large reference laboratory database to study the epidemiology of A baumannii in children in the United States. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility data from The Surveillance Network were used to phenotypically identify antibiotic resistance in A baumannii isolates in children 1-17 years of age between January 1999 and July 2012...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554325/the-burden-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-20-000-infants-in-finland
#20
Laura Puhakka, Maija Lappalainen, Tuula Lönnqvist, Riina Niemensivu, Päivi Lindahl, Tea Nieminen, Raija Seuri, Irmeli Nupponen, Sunil Pati, Suresh Boppana, Harri Saxen
Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection and causes significant morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of screening newborns for cCMV and to understand the cCMV disease burden in Finland. Methods: Infants born in Helsinki area hospitals were screened for CMV by testing their saliva with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The CMV-positive infants and matched controls were monitored to determine their neurodevelopmental, audiological, and ophthalmological outcomes at 18 months of age...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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