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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165636/reducing-redundant-anaerobic-therapy-through-spaced-education-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions
#1
Kelly B Flett, Athos Bousvaros, Jane Carpenter, Carly E Millrinen, Patricia Martin, Thomas J Sandora
Background: Decreasing the use of redundant anaerobic therapy is a key target for antimicrobial stewardship. Education techniques that optimize knowledge retention could be an important component of reducing these regimens. Methods: We implemented a quality improvement project that incorporated spaced education to reduce the use of redundant anaerobic therapy. The initial interventions (November through December 2015) included education in a hospital-wide newsletter and review of redundant anaerobic regimens by the antimicrobial stewardship program...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165632/relevance-of-neonatal-anaerobic-blood-cultures-new-information-for-an-old-question
#2
Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Karen M Puopolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165624/cost-and-potential-avoidability-of-antibiotic-associated-adverse-drug-reactions-in-children
#3
Julie N Beck, Sarah L Suppes, Claire R Smith, Brian R Lee, J Steven Leeder, Michelle VanDoren, Jason G Newland, Jennifer L Goldman
We identified 375 children who visited the emergency department or urgent care clinic at Children's Mercy Hospitals & Clinics for antibiotic adverse drug reactions over a 1-year period, and the total cost for these visits was $170 893.20. Of these ADRs, 17% were likely avoidable. The potential negative consequences of antibiotics should be considered at the point of prescribing.
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165616/work-system-assessment-to-facilitate-the-dissemination-of-a-quality-improvement-program-for-optimizing-blood-culture-use-a-case-study-using-a-human-factors-engineering-approach
#4
Anping Xie, Charlotte Z Woods-Hill, Anne F King, Heather Enos-Graves, Judy Ascenzi, Ayse P Gurses, Sybil A Klaus, James C Fackler, Aaron M Milstone
Background: Work system assessments can facilitate successful implementation of quality improvement programs. Using a human factors engineering approach, we conducted a work system assessment to facilitate the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use in pediatric intensive care units at 2 hospitals. Methods: Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with clinicians from Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and University of Virginia Medical Center...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165580/role-of-anaerobic-blood-cultures-in-neonatal-bacteremia
#5
Nathan Messbarger, Kari Neemann
Background: Evaluation for neonatal sepsis routinely includes performing both aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures despite our lack of knowledge of the true incidence of anaerobic bacteremia in this age group and the consequences of not performing these paired cultures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all blood cultures performed for neonates in a children's hospital. Clinically significant pathogens were defined as microorganisms that rarely are considered to be contaminants, that were recovered from multiple blood cultures or sites, or were considered significant according to the patient's attending physician...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#6
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096027/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-policy-to-restrict-palivizumab-use
#7
Torsten Joerger, Shannon Chan, Sanjeev K Swami, Lori K Handy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096017/tuberculous-pericardial-effusions-in-children
#8
Ndidi J Obihara, Elisabetta Walters, John Lawrenson, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Anneke C Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
Current data on tuberculous pericardial effusion in children are limited. In this study, the cases of 30 children with tuberculous pericardial effusion were reviewed retrospectively. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was high. Chest radiography provided lower diagnostic sensitivity than sonography but detected all large and complicated effusions. Outcomes were generally good, and residual complications were mainly due to comorbidity.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096014/effects-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-infants-aged-0-to-90-days-in-madrid-spain
#9
Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, María Del Amo, Juan Picazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#10
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096002/balamuthia-mandrillaris-granulomatous-amebic-encephalitis-with-renal-dissemination-in-a-previously-healthy-child-case-report-and-review-of-the-pediatric-literature
#11
Kareem W Shehab, Khalid Aboul-Nasr, Sean P Elliott
Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently described ameba known to cause a subacute to chronic central nervous system infection called granulomatous amebic encephalitis. Evidence suggests that apparently immunocompetent persons are at risk for disease and show a similar nonspecific presentation to that of immunodeficient persons. However, evidence of hematogenous dissemination, which has been found in immunodeficient patients, has been lacking in immunocompetent patients. Here, we describe a previously healthy patient with B mandrillaris-associated granulomatous amebic encephalitis in whom both central nervous system and renal disease were found during autopsy, which suggests hematogenous dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045693/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftaroline-in-a-preterm-infant-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#12
Sara N Salerno, Janice Bernhardt, Matthew Laughon, Ravi Jhaveri, Matthew Massaro, Daniel Gonzalez
We report here the first pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship for ceftaroline in a preterm infant born at <28 weeks' gestational age who was given ceftaroline (8.5 mg/kg every 8 hours) for pneumonia attributable to methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus. This dose of ceftaroline was adequate to achieve the pharmacodynamic endpoint associated with efficacy for methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus.
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045666/quality-improvement-feature-series-article-4-advanced-designs-for-quality-improvement-studies
#13
Lilliam Ambroggio, Amanda Schondelmeyer, Erik Hoefgen, Patrick Brady, Erin Shaughnessy
Each quality improvement (QI) project has an implicit study design, although these designs are not discussed as commonly as they are in clinical research. Most QI projects fall under the quasi-experimental study category, in which observations are made before and after the implementation of an intervention(s). The simplest and most commonly used for QI studies is the pre-post design, in which observations are made before and after each intervention that was implemented over a specified period. More sophisticated designs for QI studies enable a study team to draw stronger inferences about the system that is being changed and the individual effects of the interventions that are implemented...
October 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045692/seasonal-variation-and-weather-changes-related-to-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-acute-hematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-children
#14
Eduardo A Lindsay, Naureen Tareen, Chan-Hee Jo, Lawson A Copley
Background: Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) demonstrates regional variability in incidence and severity. In this study, we evaluated seasonal variations of AHO and assessed the effects of weather trends on the occurrence and severity of illness in affected children. Methods: National Weather Service data from the dates of symptom onset and of admission of children with AHO were gathered. Seasonal occurrence rates and the weather patterns were studied according to severity-of-illness category...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045690/clinical-characteristics-of-hospitalized-infants-with-laboratory-confirmed-pertussis-in-guatemala
#15
Varun K Phadke, John P McCracken, Jennifer L Kriss, Maria R Lopez, Kim A Lindblade, Joe P Bryan, Miguel E Garcia, Carlos E Funes, Saad B Omer
Background: Pertussis is an important cause of hospitalization and death in infants too young to be vaccinated (aged <2 months). Limited data on infant pertussis have been reported from Central America. The aim of this study was to characterize acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) attributable to Bordetella pertussis among infants enrolled in an ongoing surveillance study in Guatemala. Methods: As part of a population-based surveillance study in Guatemala, infants aged <2 months who presented with ARI and required hospitalization were enrolled, and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were obtained...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040710/writing-and-reviewing-quality-improvement-manuscripts
#16
Amanda C Schondelmeyer, Laura H Brower, Angela M Statile, Christine M White, Patrick W Brady
Achieving rapid and meaningful improvement in healthcare requires the dissemination of quality improvement project results via publication. Doing this well requires detailed descriptions of the complex interventions and of the context in which the improvement took place. This report builds on the first 2 articles in the series to cover important considerations in writing quality improvement manuscripts with a focus on how it differs from writing traditional clinical research reports. The recommendations we outline here also apply to reviewing quality improvement manuscripts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040661/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#17
Hira Bluestone, Matthew P Kronman, David L Suskind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040644/displaying-and-analyzing-quality-improvement-data
#18
Patrick W Brady, Michael J Tchou, Lilliam Ambroggio, Amanda C Schondelmeyer, Erin E Shaughnessy
In this second article in the quality improvement (QI) methods series, we discuss how data are best displayed and analyzed in QI projects while focusing on some similarities with and differences from traditional clinical research. We demonstrate why displaying data over time on a run or control chart is superior to using pre-post analysis for QI studies. We introduce several types of statistical process control charts for data commonly collected during QI programs and provide guidance on how to use the proper chart...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#19
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036471/immunization-completion-in-infants-born-at-low-birth-weight
#20
Matt Nestander, Jay Dintaman, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with underimmunization. We sought to understand the effect of LBW on immunization completion after controlling for previously hypothesized mediators, including prematurity, neonatal illness, well-child care, non-well-child visits, and provider consistency. Methods: We formed a retrospective cohort of infants born between 2008 and 2011 with ≥2 years of military healthcare follow-up. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify LBW, preterm birth, neonatal illnesses, well-child visits, non-well-child visits, provider consistency, and parental rank in the inpatient and outpatient records...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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