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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423150/primary-and-repeated-respiratory-viral-infections-among-infants-in-rural-nepal
#1
Jim Boonyaratanakornkit, Janet A Englund, Amalia S Magaret, Yunqi Bu, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Joanne Katz, Jane Kuypers, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
Background: Respiratory viruses cause significant morbidity and death in infants; 99% of such deaths occur in resource-limited settings. Risk factors for initial and repeated respiratory viral infections in young infants in resource-limited settings have not been well described. Methods: From 2011 to 2014, a birth cohort of infants in rural Nepal was enrolled and followed with weekly household-based active surveillance for respiratory symptoms until 6 months of age...
November 12, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423147/severe-progressive-mycobacterium-avium-complex-infection-associated-with-brentuximab-vedotin-therapy
#2
Sheena Mukkada, Monika L Metzger, Teresa Santiago, Joshua Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407519/change-in-bacterial-causes-of-community-acquired-parapneumonic-effusion-and-pleural-empyema-in-children-6-years-after-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation
#3
Fouad Madhi, Corinne Levy, Laurence Morin, Philippe Minodier, François Dubos, Ferielle Zenkhri, Marie Aliette Dommergues, Ellia Mezgueldi, Karine Levieux, Stéphane Béchet, Emmanuelle Varon, Robert Cohen
We describe here changes in the bacterial causes of pleural empyema before and after implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) program in France (2009-2017). For 220 (39.3%) of 560 children, a bacterial cause was found. The frequency of pneumococcal infection decreased during the study from 79.1% in 2009 to 36.4% in 2017 (P < .001). Group A streptococcus is now the leading cause of documented empyema (45.5%).
November 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395239/pharmacokinetics-of-first-line-drugs-among-children-with-tuberculosis-in-rural-tanzania
#4
Museveni Justine, Anita Yeconia, Ingi Nicodemu, Domitila Augustino, Jean Gratz, Estomih Mduma, Scott K Heysell, Sokoine Kivuyo, Sayoki Mfinanga, Charles A Peloquin, Theodore Zagurski, Gibson S Kibiki, Blandina Mmbaga, Eric R Houpt, Tania A Thomas
Background: Dosing recommendations for treating childhood tuberculosis (TB) were revised by the World Health Organization, yet so far, pharmacokinetic studies that have evaluated these changes are relatively limited. We evaluated plasma drug concentrations of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) among children undergoing TB treatment in Tanzania when these dosing recommendations were being implemented. Methods: At the end of intensive-phase TB therapy, blood was obtained 2 hours after witnessed medication administration to estimate the peak drug concentration (C2h), measured using high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods...
November 5, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380088/the-time-has-come-to-stop-using-vancomycin-as-part-of-empiric-therapy-for-meningitis
#5
Ravi Jhaveri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364958/compromise-of-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-due-to-high-rates-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-mozambican-treatment-experienced-children-with-virologic-failure
#6
Paula Vaz, W Chris Buck, Nilesh Bhatt, Dulce Bila, Andrew Auld, James Houston, Loide Cossa, Charity Alfredo, Kebba Jobarteh, Jennifer Sabatier, Eugénia Macassa, Amina Sousa, Josh DeVos, Ilesh Jani, Chunfu Yang
Background: Virologic failure (VF) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (DR). Most children still lack access to routine viral load (VL) monitoring for early identification of treatment failure, with implications for the efficacy of second-line ART. Methods: Children aged 1 to 14 years on ART for ≥12 months at 6 public facilities in Maputo, Mozambique were consecutively enrolled after informed consent...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358877/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-immunocompromised-children-hospitalized-with-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-in-the-united-states-2011-2015
#7
Jennifer P Collins, Angela P Campbell, Kyle Openo, Monica M Farley, Charisse Nitura Cummings, Pam Daily Kirley, Rachel Herlihy, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Maya L Monroe, Macey Ladisky, Ruth Lynfield, Joan Baumbach, Nancy Spina, Nancy Bennett, Laurie Billing, Ann Thomas, William Schaffner, Andrea Price, Shikha Garg, Evan J Anderson
Background: Existing data on the clinical features and outcomes of immunocompromised children with influenza are limited. Methods: Data from the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons were collected as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET). We compared clinical features and outcomes between immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised children (<18 years old) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed community-acquired influenza...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346573/association-of-previous-measles-infection-with-markers-of-acute-infectious-disease-among-9-to-59-month-old-children-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#8
Hayley R Ashbaugh, James D Cherry, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Vivian H Alfonso, Adva Gadoth, Patrick Mukadi, Stephen G Higgins, Roger Budd, Christina Randall, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Sue K Gerber, Anne W Rimoin
Background: Transient immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections after measles infection is well known, but recent studies have suggested the occurrence of an "immune amnesia" that could have long-term immunosuppressive effects. Methods: We examined the association between past measles infection and acute episodes of fever, cough, and diarrhea among 2350 children aged 9 to 59 months whose mothers were selected for interview in the 2013-2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339241/unusual-presentation-of-severe-endobronchial-obstruction-caused-by-cryptococcus-gattii-in-a-child-case-report-and-literature-review-severe-endobronchial-cryptococcosis-in-a-child
#9
Julie Huynh, Vishal Saddi, Peter Cooper, Alan T Cheng, Weiland Meyer, Sharon Chen, David Isaacs
Disease caused by Cryptococcus gattii typically manifests as meningoencephalitis or pulmonary nodules. Endobronchial lesions are rare, and most cases are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. We describe here a case of endobronchial disease in a child caused by C gattii. The disease spectrum in this patient was notable for the discovery of anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies.
October 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307524/impact-of-pharmacy-initiated-interventions-on-influenza-vaccination-rates-in-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#10
Sara Gattis, Inci Yildirim, Andi L Shane, Staci Serluco, Courtney McCracken, Rochelle Liverman
Background: In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, influenza infection can lead to subsequent graft dysfunction and death. Vaccination is the most effective approach to preventing influenza infection; however, vaccination rates are low, and interventions to optimize vaccine coverage are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if pharmacy-initiated screening and recommendations for influenza immunization improve the rate of vaccination in pediatric SOT recipients. Methods: We performed a retrospective pre-post chart review of all kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients followed by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta/Emory University transplant services between September 1, 2011, and February 16, 2017...
October 11, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299497/a-4-year-old-boy-with-an-unusual-bacterial-meningitis-infection
#11
Justin Searns, Jessica R Cataldi, Katherine McCormack, Eric Simões, Kevin Messacar, Samuel R Dominguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299489/evaluation-of-intravenous-posaconazole-dosing-and-pharmacokinetic-target-attainment-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Jenna R Nickless, Kathryn E Bridger, Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers
Limited data exist on intravenous (IV) posaconazole dosing and the risk for hepatotoxicity it confers to children. In this study, we evaluated dosing and resulting trough levels in 10 pediatric patients on IV posaconazole. A therapeutic level in these patients was achieved 95% of the time. We found a median minimum effective dose of 6.55 mg/kg of body weight. No correlation was found between the duration or posaconazole trough level and an increased alanine transaminase level.
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299491/immunogenicity-and-reactogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-among-infants-toddlers-and-children-in-western-burkina-faso-results-from-a-clinical-trial-of-alternative-immunization-schedules
#13
Jennifer C Moïsi, Seydou Yaro, Sita S Kroman, Clarisse Gouem, Dramane Bayane, Seydou Ganama, Bertrand Meda, Boubacar Nacro, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Issaka Ouedraogo, Souleymane Sakande, Francois Sawadogo, Sylvie Zida, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Bradford D Gessner
Background: Many African countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into their routine immunization program to reduce the burden of morbidity and death that results from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, yet immunogenicity and reactogenicity data from the region are limited for the 2 available PCV products. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Infants received 3 doses of PCV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age or at 6 weeks, 14 weeks, and 9 months of age; toddlers received 2 doses 2 months apart or 1 dose beginning at 12 to 15 months of age; and children received 1 dose between 2 and 4 years of age...
October 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289471/a-15-month-old-boy-with-a-rash-on-his-hands-and-feet
#14
Elizabeth C Lloyd, Elise Gross, Rebekah Diamond, Ashley Cobb, Brittany B Allen, Ying Li, Suzanne Dawid, Alison C Tribble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285124/carriage-of-the-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-gene-by-contemporary-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#15
Katelyn L Parrish, Kristine M Wylie, Patrick J Reich, Patrick G Hogan, Todd N Wylie, Colleen R Kennedy, William Lainhart, David A Hunstad, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Stephanie A Fritz
We report here the prevalence of the tst-1 gene among 252 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates and 458 methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from 531 subjects between 2008 and 2017, one of which was recovered from a child with MRSA toxic shock syndrome. tst-1 was encoded by 43 (6%) S aureus isolates overall: 42 (16.7%) MSSA isolates and 1 (0.2%) MRSA isolate (P < .001).
October 4, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272215/acute-abdomen-in-pediatric-patients-with-lassa-fever-prevalence-and-response-to-nonoperative-management
#16
George O Akpede, Adewale E Adetunji, Ernest O Udefiagbon, Sylvester O Eluehike, Angela I Odike, Rosemary O Ewah-Odiase, Folorunso O Omosofe, Johnbull M Akerele, Rebecca O Atafo, Martha O Okonofua, Imonifome Onyeke, Omobolaji A Oyedeji, Kaine Mbanefo, Ephraim Ogbaini-Emovon, Peter O Okokhere, Stephan Günther, Andrew E Dongo
Few reports on the prevalence of acute abdomen (AAbd) in pediatric patients with Lassa fever (LF) are available, and no firm policy on its management exists. Here, we report on its prevalence in and the response to treatment among a cohort of children with confirmed LF. Six (10.3%) of 58 children with LF had AAbd, whereas 6 (2.8%) of 215 children with AAbd had LF. Nonoperative treatment was successful in 5 of the 6 children with both AAbd and LF. We conclude that AAbd is not uncommon in pediatric patients with LF, and it could be responsive to nonoperative treatment...
September 28, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265347/invasive-curvularia-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-identified-by-fungal-sequencing
#17
Yeh-Chung Chang, Erin Graf, Abby M Green
Curvularia is a saprophytic dematiaceous mold and a rare human pathogen. Here, we report three severely immunocompromised pediatric patients who developed invasive Curvularia infection. Diagnosis was achieved or confirmed in all cases by fungal ribosome sequencing, which hastened species identification and targeted treatment for the patients reported. There are no treatment guidelines for invasive Curvularia infection, though we report three patients who were cured of their infection through a combination of surgical resection and various anti-fungal therapies, indicating a relatively low virulence and good prognosis in comparison to other angioinvasive molds...
September 27, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212842/lemons-and-lyme
#18
Stanley A Plotkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215763/temporal-trends-in-co-trimoxazole-use-among-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-and-the-impact-of-co-trimoxazole-on-mortality-rates-in-children-without-severe-immunodeficiency
#19
David C Boettiger, Matthew G Law, Annette H Sohn, Mary-Ann Davies, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Valeriane Leroy, Marcel Yotebieng, Michael Vinikoor, Rachel Vreeman, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Andrew Edmonds, Geoffrey Fatti, James Batte, Lorna Renner, Adebola Adedimeji, Azar Kariminia
Background: Co-trimoxazole is recommended for all children with human immunodeficiency virus. In this analysis, we evaluate trends in pediatric co-trimoxazole use and survival on co-trimoxazole in children using antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We used data collected between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2016, from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with using co-trimoxazole at ART initiation...
September 11, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189047/outcomes-of-pediatric-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-in-california-1993-2011
#20
Alexandra Duque-Silva, Varsha Hampole, Yi-Ning Cheng, Jennifer Flood, Pennan M Barry
Background: Our goal was to describe the characteristics and posttreatment outcomes of pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) and to identify factors associated with poor outcome. Methods: We included children aged 0 to 18 years with CNS TB reported to the California TB registry between 1993 and 2011. Demographics, clinical characteristics, severity of disease at presentation (Modified Medical Research Council stage I, II, or III [III is most severe]), treatment, and outcomes during the year after treatment completion were abstracted systematically from the medical and public health records...
September 4, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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