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Applied Neuropsychology. Child

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116821/memory-and-linguistic-executive-functions-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#1
Andrea B Água Dias, Cristina P Albuquerque, Mário R Simões
Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) have received a minimal amount of research attention and have been studied in conjunction with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The present study intends to broaden the knowledge of BIF, by analyzing domains such as verbal memory and visual memory, as well as tasks that rely simultaneously on memory, executive functions, and language. A cross-sectional, comparison study was carried out between a group of 40 children with BIF (mean age = 10...
November 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111781/cognitive-disorders-in-a-patient-with-an-arachnoid-cyst-of-the-sylvian-fissure-and-improvement-after-surgical-treatment-case-description
#2
Karolina Kwiatkowska, Agata Hałabuda, Justyna Rybus, Stanisław Kwiatkowski
Arachnoid cysts cause a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. Often it is difficult to clearly establish the relation between the presence of an arachnoid cyst and problems reported by the patient, which may, although not necessarily, be due to chronically elevated intracranial pressure. In recent years, increasing attention is paid to cognitive disorders accompanying arachnoid cysts, such as memory disorders, attention disorders, or language function disorders. This article presents a case of an 11-year-old patient, treated at the University Children's Hospital in Cracow for an arachnoid cyst, located in the left middle cranial fossa...
November 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111773/factors-to-consider-when-reviewing-and-reconciling-research-findings-methodological-statistical-and-theoretical
#3
Sally J Robinson
Neuroscience is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field that is changing the way research is conducted and theories are developed. However, variability between studies and apparently discrepant findings may contribute to difficulties identifying commonalities that can help inform and enhance clinical practice. This article presents a framework to consider when reviewing neuropsychological studies, such that apparent discrepancies in findings may be considered in unison to provide informed theoretical understanding...
November 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058552/executive-and-nonexecutive-demands-of-constructional-measures-within-a-children-s-psychiatric-inpatient-setting
#4
Jane Studeny, Elyssa Weber, Brian C Kavanaugh, Jennifer A Dupont-Frechette, Perrin P Tellock, Isolde D Maher, Lauren D Haisley, Kyle McCurdy, Karen A Holler
This study examined the role of executive functioning in constructional task performance (measured with the Rey Complex Figure Test-Copy Condition [RCFT] and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration [Beery-VMI]) within a children's psychiatric inpatient setting. A chart review was conducted for 88 children (aged 6-12) who received a neuropsychological evaluation during a psychiatric inpatient hospitalization. Multiple regression analyses investigated the role of executive and nonexecutive demands on RCFT and Beery-VMI performance...
October 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058480/clinical-and-demographic-predictors-of-concussion-resolution-in-adolescents-a-retrospective-study
#5
Seema S Aggarwal, Summer D Ott, Nikhil S Padhye, Janet C Meininger, Terri S Armstrong
Concussions in adolescents are a growing public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify clinical (e.g., concussion history, migraine history, learning disabilities/ADHD) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex, race, health insurance status, mechanism of injury, education) that predict concussion recovery times. In a retrospective cohort study of 118 adolescents 13-19 years old who were evaluated for an acute concussion (≤10 days from injury), recovery times were calculated from the date of concussive injury to the date of clearance to return to play and/or normal activities...
October 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058469/preliminary-validation-study-of-the-sydney-post-traumatic-amnesia-scale-syptas-in-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury-aged-4-to-7-years
#6
Suncica Lah, Pamela David, Adrienne Epps, Robyn Tate, Naomi Brookes
The aim of this study was to assess the validity (developmental, concurrent, and predictive) of the Sydney Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale (SYPTAS) for assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) in 4 to 7 year old children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The design of this study is a retrospective cohort study. The SYPTAS was administered to 35 children (26 boys) aged 4.0 to 7.8 years who were consecutively admitted to a children's hospital with mild (n = 26), moderate (n = 3), or severe (n = 7) TBI...
October 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058467/utility-of-matrix-reasoning-as-an-embedded-performance-validity-indicator-in-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Zachary W Sussman, Robin L Peterson, Amy K Connery, David A Baker, Michael W Kirkwood
The present study examined the utility of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II) Matrix Reasoning (MR) subtest in detecting suspect effort among a pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) sample. The sample consisted of 526 clinically referred patients aged 8-16 years. Sixteen percent of participants failed the Medical Symptom Validity Test, which was used to categorize the sample into adequate and suspect effort groups. No background or injury-related variables differentiated the two groups...
October 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023138/measurement-of-expressive-vocabulary-in-school-age-children-development-and-application-of-the-kilifi-naming-test-knt
#8
Patricia Kitsao-Wekulo, Penny A Holding, Jane D Kvalsvig, Katherine J Alcock, H Gerry Taylor
The dearth of locally developed measures of language makes it difficult to detect language and communication problems among school-age children in sub-Saharan African settings. We sought to describe variability in vocabulary acquisition as an important element of global cognitive functioning. Our primary aims were to establish the psychometric properties of an expressive vocabulary measure, examine sources of variability, and investigate the measure's associations with non-verbal reasoning and educational achievement...
October 12, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956632/effectiveness-of-a-working-memory-intervention-program-in-children-with-language-disorders
#9
Victor Acosta, Sergio Hernandez, Gustavo Ramirez
The aim of this study was twofold: first, to obtain a neuropsychological characterization of children with language disorders, and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on working memory. We used a pretest-instruction-posttest design, carefully identifying a sample of 32 children with language disorders whom we then evaluated for short-term verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, attention, processing speed, and lexical-semantic skills. We then implemented an intervention program on working memory consisting of 72 sessions of 15 minutes each, after which we repeated the neuropsychological assessment of these functions...
September 28, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937800/when-is-neuropsychological-testing-medically-necessary-for-children-on-medicaid-in-new-mexico
#10
Noah K Kaufman, Carola Mullins, Andrew S Davis, Silvina Tonarelli, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran
Healthcare for poor children, also known as Medicaid, is disproportionately relied upon by citizens of poor states such as New Mexico, where (a) there are more unintended pregnancies, (b) domestic violence during and after pregnancies occurs with regularity, (c) youth substance use is much more common, (d) crime rates are some of the worst in the country, (e) many never graduate from high school, and (f) incarceration is often inevitable. Yet, there is a dearth of research into the neuropsychological health of these children...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261058/effects-of-prenatal-substance-exposure-on-neurocognitive-correlates-of-inhibitory-control-success-and-failure
#11
Leslie E Roos, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Katherine C Pears, Philip A Fisher, Elliot T Berkman, Deborah Capaldi
Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17)...
October 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707986/developing-adhd-in-preschool-testing-the-dual-pathway-model-of-temperament
#12
Julia Kerner Auch Koerner, Nicole Gust, Franz Petermann
The dual pathway model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggests that effortful control and positive approach, or surgency, are independent pathways leading to ADHD. This model has been proven on the basis of temperament in school children, however not in preschool children. In this study we tested whether the dual pathway model of ADHD can be replicated in preschool children using temperamental measures. One hundred and nineteen children (59 girls, M-age = 4.97 years, SD = 0.96) participated in a study...
July 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707956/use-of-the-21-item-test-with-children-and-adolescents-5-to-16-years-of-age
#13
Joseph J Ryan, Jennifer L Blacksmith, David S Kreiner, Laura Glass Umfleet
The goals of the present study were to: (a) collect preliminary normative data on the 21-Item Test in children and adolescents and to determine if cutoffs for biased responding in adults can be generalized to a younger population; (b) determine if Caucasian and Hispanic children perform differently on the test; and (c) ascertain the relationships of age and verbal intelligence with effort test performance. The 21-Item Test was administered to 153 children attending either a public (n = 96) or private (n = 57) school...
July 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682117/separating-math-from-anxiety-the-role-of-inhibitory-mechanisms
#14
Irene C Mammarella, Sara Caviola, David Giofrè, Erika Borella
Deficits in executive functions have been hypothesized and documented for children with severe mathematics anxiety (MA) or developmental dyscalculia, but the role of inhibition-related processes has not been specifically explored. The main aim of the present study was to shed further light on the specificity of these profiles in children in terms of working memory (WM) and the inhibitory functions involved. Four groups of children between 8 and 10 years old were selected: one group with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and no MA, one with severe MA and developmental dyscalculia (MA-DD), one with severe MA and no DD (MA), and one with typical development (TD)...
July 6, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521521/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-fluid-intelligence
#15
Arthur MacNeill Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506124/fluid-intelligence-a-brief-history
#16
Phillip Kent
The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498010/from-play-to-problem-solving-to-common-core-the-development-of-fluid-reasoning
#17
Pauline Prince
How and when does fluid reasoning develop and what does it look like at different ages, from a neurodevelopmental and functional perspective? The goal of this article is to discuss the development of fluid reasoning from a practical perspective of our children's lives: from play to problem solving to Common Core Curriculum. A review of relevant and current literature supports a connection between movement, including movement through free play, and the development of novel problem solving. As our children grow and develop, motor routines can become cognitive routines and can be evidenced not only in games, such as chess, but also in the acquisition and demonstration of academic skills...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497992/how-does-anxiety-influence-fluid-reasoning
#18
Alisa M Williams, Pauline Prince
Does anxiety influence fluid reasoning, either negatively or positively? The purpose of this article was to review much of the relevant current literature to answer this question. An individual's ability to employ fluid reasoning to solve novel problems must include the context of the circumstances, the individual's unique set of cognitive resources, one's ability to utilize previously acquired knowledge from similar situations, and to create a solution in a quick and effective manner. Working memory and creativity are cognitive skill sets that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of novel problem solving, while anxiety can be a crippling factor for some...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497989/focus-on-fluid-reasoning-the-relationship-between-fluid-reasoning-and-the-pattern-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-model
#19
Lisa M Grant, Pauline Prince
The purpose of this paper is to examine the Fluid Reasoning Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), and determine how fluid-reasoning skills relate to academic skill acquisition in the classroom setting. We also examine the myriad of ways within which learning and learning disabilities can be defined. Also, we plan to examine a brief review of the definition of a Specific Learning Disability and review some of the leading theories related to the Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses model...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489432/touching-the-elephant-the-search-for-fluid-intelligence
#20
Theodore Wasserman, Lori Drucker Wasserman
Many constructs that we take for granted in modern neuropsychology, fluid intelligence among them, can best be explained by conceptionalizing them as a collection of task specific processes engaged in by an integrated recruited network involved in problem solving. Fractionalizing the network in an attempt to describe elements of its function leads to arbitrarily defined segments that may be interesting to discuss abstractly, but never occur independently in the real world operation of the system. We will seek to demonstrate that the construct of fluid intelligence is like that...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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