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Applied Neuropsychology. Child

Martin Knoll, Kirsten Arnett, Jeremy Hertza
The minimal amount known regarding chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions presents a fascinating new direction of research into better understanding misunderstood symptoms and overall genomic influence. Specifically, the 16p11.2 microduplication has been associated with a myriad of possible cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms. The purpose of this study is to inform the reader of the biological basis of the 16p11.2 microduplication, review sources that suggest a link between the microduplication and clinically relevant diagnoses/sources of impairment, and to better understand the implications and development of symptoms through the illustration of a case example...
May 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Arthur MacNeill Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Phillip Kent
The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed...
May 16, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Pauline Prince
How and when does fluid reasoning develop and what does it look like at different ages, from a neurodevelopmental and functional perspective? The goal of this article is to discuss the development of fluid reasoning from a practical perspective of our children's lives: from play to problem solving to Common Core Curriculum. A review of relevant and current literature supports a connection between movement, including movement through free play, and the development of novel problem solving. As our children grow and develop, motor routines can become cognitive routines and can be evidenced not only in games, such as chess, but also in the acquisition and demonstration of academic skills...
May 12, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Alisa M Williams, Pauline Prince
Does anxiety influence fluid reasoning, either negatively or positively? The purpose of this article was to review much of the relevant current literature to answer this question. An individual's ability to employ fluid reasoning to solve novel problems must include the context of the circumstances, the individual's unique set of cognitive resources, one's ability to utilize previously acquired knowledge from similar situations, and to create a solution in a quick and effective manner. Working memory and creativity are cognitive skill sets that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of novel problem solving, while anxiety can be a crippling factor for some...
May 12, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Lisa M Grant, Pauline Prince
The purpose of this paper is to examine the Fluid Reasoning Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), and determine how fluid-reasoning skills relate to academic skill acquisition in the classroom setting. We also examine the myriad of ways within which learning and learning disabilities can be defined. Also, we plan to examine a brief review of the definition of a Specific Learning Disability and review some of the leading theories related to the Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses model...
May 12, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Theodore Wasserman, Lori Drucker Wasserman
Many constructs that we take for granted in modern neuropsychology, fluid intelligence among them, can best be explained by conceptionalizing them as a collection of task specific processes engaged in by an integrated recruited network involved in problem solving. Fractionalizing the network in an attempt to describe elements of its function leads to arbitrarily defined segments that may be interesting to discuss abstractly, but never occur independently in the real world operation of the system. We will seek to demonstrate that the construct of fluid intelligence is like that...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Arthur W Joyce
The constructs of fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence represent an early attempt to describe the mechanisms of problem solving in the vertebrate brain. Modern neuroscience demonstrates that problem solving involves interplay between the mechanisms of automaticity and anticipatory control, enabling nature's elegant solution to the challenges animals face in their environment. Studies of neural functioning are making clear the primary role of cortical-subcortical interactions in the manifestation of intelligent behavior in humans and other vertebrates...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Tulio M Otero
In the early part of the twentieth century the value of nonverbal tests was initially recognized by Yoakum and Yerkes when they wrote how examinees could fail a verbal test of general ability because of limited skills in English. When these examinees were then tested with a nonverbal test of ability, they often performed well, and therefore this approach avoided "injustice by reason of relative unfamiliarity with English." Measuring cognitive ability with nonverbal measures that do not require verbal skills has been supported now for nearly a century...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Milton J Dehn
The strong relation between fluid reasoning (Gf) and working memory (WM) is well established. Gf depends on WM to hold necessary information in a span of awareness until the reasoning task is completed. The influence of time constraints on the Gf-WM relation indicates that the abilities to control attention and inhibit interference may be the underlying traits that account for the Gf-WM relation. Neuroanatomy also explains the interrelations among these cognitive processes. Neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have confirmed that the same regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are active during Gf and WM functioning...
May 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Renata Kochhann, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Janice da Rosa Pureza, Vanisa Fante Viapiana, Flavia Dos Passos Fonseca, Jerusa Fumagali Salles, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains...
April 20, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Alaa Al-Nemr, Faten Abdelazeim
Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy can be accompanied by a myriad of symptoms affecting other body systems including cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between cognitive functions in the form of selective attention and figural memory domains with standing and walking motor abilities in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. The research design was a correlational study. Tasks assessing cognitive function and gross motor abilities were carried out with a sample of 50 children...
April 18, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Suncica Lah, Pamela David, Hayley Donohue, Adrienne Epps, Robyn Tate, Naomi Brookes
The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing...
April 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Nikolaos C Zygouris, Elias Avramidis, Argyris V Karapetsas, George I Stamoulis
Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected specific and persistent failure to acquire efficient reading skills despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity. This article reports the outcomes of a study that evaluated the implementation of a 4-month intervention program. The intervention consisted of structured activities aiming at improving (a) the children's phonological awareness, (b) their visual and auditory memory, (c) their visual discrimination ability, and (d) their text comprehension...
March 17, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Ramona Cardillo, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Irene C Mammarella, Cesare Cornoldi
The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Chrystelle Remigereau, Arnaud Roy, Orianne Costini, Sébastien Barbarot, Marie Bru, Didier Le Gall
This study aimed at examining motor and ideomotor praxis skills in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The impact of executive dysfunction, frequently described in children with NF1, on the expression of praxis impairments was also studied. Eighteen children with NF1 were included and matched with 20 control children for age (7-14 years), sex, laterality, and parental education level. Both groups of children underwent an assessment based on cognitive models of apraxia including visuomotor tasks, executive tests, and everyday life questionnaires...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Julio César Flores-Lázaro, María Alejandra Salgado Soruco, Igor I Stepanov
Word-list learning tasks are among the most important and frequently used tests for declarative memory evaluation. For example, the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test provide important information about different cognitive-neuropsychological processes. However, the impact of test length (i.e., number of words) and semantic organization (i.e., type of words) on children's and adolescents' memory performance remains to be clarified, especially during this developmental stage...
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Dalin T Pulsipher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Hyunjoo Song, An Jinyu
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects...
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Christine Limbers, Danielle Young, Stephanie Jernigan, William Bryant, Matt Stephen
Behavioral rating scales represent one potential method for screening of cognitive functioning in routine clinical care. It is not yet known if objective performance based measures and behavioral rating scales of cognitive functioning completed by parents yield similar information in pediatric endocrinology patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations between performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales of memory and attention/concentration completed by parents of pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity...
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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