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Oncogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058695/dna-methylation-signal-has-a-major-role-in-the-response-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-to-the-microenvironment
#1
P Mathot, M Grandin, G Devailly, F Souaze, V Cahais, S Moran, M Campone, Z Herceg, M Esteller, P Juin, P Mehlen, R Dante
Breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapeutic resistance by secreting various growth factors, cytokines, protease and extracellular matrix components. Soluble factors secreted by CAFs are involved in many pathways including inflammation, metabolism, proliferation and epigenetic modulation, suggesting that CAF-dependent reprograming of cancer cells affects a large set of genes. This paracrine signaling has an important role in tumor progression, thus deciphering some of these processes could lead to relevant discoveries with subsequent clinical implications...
October 23, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991261/esrp1-is-overexpressed-in-ovarian-cancer-and-promotes-switching-from-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-phenotype-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
H M Jeong, J Han, S H Lee, H-J Park, H J Lee, J-S Choi, Y M Lee, Y-L Choi, Y K Shin, M J Kwon
Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) and 2 (ESRP2), epithelial cell-specific regulators of alternative splicing, are downregulated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These factors have roles in tumor progression and metastasis in some cancers; however, their expression and function in ovarian cancer (OC) remain unclear. We found that ESRP1 and ESRP2 mRNAs were expressed at higher levels in OC cells than in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cells, and confirmed their overexpression in OC tissues at the protein level...
October 9, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991260/protein-and-chemotherapy-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-harvested-from-therapeutic-induced-senescent-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#3
E L Kavanagh, S Lindsay, M Halasz, L C Gubbins, K Weiner-Gorzel, M H Z Guang, A McGoldrick, E Collins, M Henry, A Blanco-Fernández, P O' Gorman, P Fitzpatrick, M J Higgins, P Dowling, A McCann
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype with relatively poor clinical outcomes and limited treatment options. Chemotherapy, while killing cancer cells, can result in the generation of highly chemoresistant therapeutic induced senescent (TIS) cells that potentially form stem cell niches resulting in metastases. Intriguingly, senescent cells release significantly more extracellular vesicles (EVs) than non-senescent cells. Our aim was to profile EVs harvested from TIS TNBC cells compared with control cells to identify a potential mechanism by which TIS TNBC cells maintain survival in the face of chemotherapy...
October 9, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991259/impaired-p65-degradation-by-decreased-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-activity-facilitates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#4
J Tang, M-N Zhan, Q-Q Yin, C-X Zhou, C-L Wang, L-L Wo, M He, G-Q Chen, Q Zhao
Aberrant activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been observed in a wide range of human cancers and is thought to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. As a central component of NF-κB pathway, p65 protein level is tightly regulated and could be subjected to proteasome degradation. Here we demonstrated that p65 can bind to HSC70 with four consensus recognition motif in its RHD domain and be constitutively transported to the lysosome membrane to bind with lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A and degraded within the lysosome in two epithelial cell lines, proposing that p65 can be degraded by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)...
October 9, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991258/vertical-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-is-synergistic-in-breast-cancer
#5
S-U Woo, T Sangai, A Akcakanat, H Chen, C Wei, F Meric-Bernstam
Deregulation and activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway have a major role in proliferation and cell survival in breast cancer. However, as single agents, mTOR inhibitors have had modest antitumor efficacy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of vertical inhibition of mTOR and Akt in breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. We assessed the effects of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and Akt inhibitor MK-2206, given as single drugs or in combination, on cell signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis in a panel of cancer cell lines in vitro...
October 9, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967875/combination-curcumin-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-colorectal-carcinoma-microenvironment-induced-angiogenesis-by-jak-stat3-il-8-pathway
#6
G Jin, Y Yang, K Liu, J Zhao, X Chen, H Liu, R Bai, X Li, Y Jiang, X Zhang, J Lu, Z Dong
Tumor microenvironment has a crucial role in cancer development and progression, whereas the mechanism of how it regulates angiogenesis is unclear. In this study, we simulated the colorectal carcinoma microenvironment by conditioned medium (CM) of colorectal carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HT-29, HCT116) supernatant or colorectal carcinoma tissue homogenate supernatant to induce normal endothelial cells (NECs). We found that colorectal carcinoma CM promoted tumor angiogenesis by coercing NECs toward tumor endothelial cells (TECs) with the activation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway...
October 2, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945219/pras40-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcriptional-activity-through-association-with-p65
#7
G Zhu, Q Qi, J J Havel, Z Li, Y Du, X Zhang, H Fu
PRAS40 has been shown to have a crucial role in the repression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Nonetheless, PRAS40 appears to have an oncogenic function in cancer cells. Whether PRAS40 mediates signaling independent of mTOR inhibition in cancer cells remains elusive. Here PRAS40 overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma and cutaneous melanoma was significantly correlated to worse prognosis. And we identified an unexpected role for PRAS40 in the regulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. P65, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor complex, was confirmed to associate with PRAS40 by glutathione S-transferase co-precipitation...
September 25, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945218/tnf%C3%AE-yap-p65-hk2-axis-mediates-breast-cancer-cell-migration
#8
Y Gao, Y Yang, F Yuan, J Huang, W Xu, B Mao, Z Yuan, W Bi
Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that macrophages could promote solid-tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we show that yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a transcriptional regulator that controls tissue growth and regeneration, has an important role in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α)-induced breast cancer migration. Mechanistically, macrophage conditioned medium (CM) or TNFα triggers IκB kinases (IKKs)-mediated YAP phosphorylation and activation in breast cancer cells...
September 25, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945217/xanthine-dehydrogenase-downregulation-promotes-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-cancer-stem-cell-related-gene-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
G-L Chen, T Ye, H-L Chen, Z-Y Zhao, W-Q Tang, L-S Wang, J-L Xia
Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in purine metabolism, has an essential role in inflammatory cascades. Researchers have known for decades that XDH activity is decreased in some cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of XDH in cancer pathogenesis has not been fully explored. In this study, we showed that low XDH mRNA levels were correlated with higher tumor stages and poorer prognoses in patients with HCC. Knocking down or inhibiting XDH promoted migration and invasion but not proliferation of HCC cells...
September 25, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945216/spatial-distribution-of-disease-associated-variants-in-three-dimensional-structures-of-protein-complexes
#10
A Gress, V Ramensky, O V Kalinina
Next-generation sequencing enables simultaneous analysis of hundreds of human genomes associated with a particular phenotype, for example, a disease. These genomes naturally contain a lot of sequence variation that ranges from single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large-scale structural rearrangements. In order to establish a functional connection between genotype and disease-associated phenotypes, one needs to distinguish disease drivers from neutral passenger variants. Functional annotation based on experimental assays is feasible only for a limited number of candidate mutations...
September 25, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920929/structural-investigation-of-nucleophosmin-interaction-with-the-tumor-suppressor-fbw7%C3%AE
#11
A Di Matteo, M Franceschini, A Paiardini, A Grottesi, S Chiarella, S Rocchio, C Di Natale, D Marasco, L Vitagliano, C Travaglini-Allocatelli, L Federici
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional nucleolar protein implicated in ribogenesis, centrosome duplication, cell cycle control, regulation of DNA repair and apoptotic response to stress stimuli. The majority of these functions are played through the interactions with a variety of protein partners. NPM1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors of different histological origin. Furthermore NPM1 is the most frequently mutated protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Mutations map to the C-terminal domain and lead to the aberrant and stable localization of the protein in the cytoplasm of leukemic blasts...
September 18, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920928/targeting-tumor-multicellular-aggregation-through-igpr-1-inhibits-colon-cancer-growth-and-improves-chemotherapy
#12
N Woolf, B E Pearson, P A Bondzie, R D Meyer, M Lavaei, A C Belkina, V Chitalia, N Rahimi
Adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucially important for survival of normal epithelial cells as detachment from ECM triggers specific apoptosis known as anoikis. As tumor cells lose the requirement for anchorage to ECM, they rely on cell-cell adhesion 'multicellular aggregation' for survival. Multicellular aggregation of tumor cells also significantly determines the sensitivity of tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutics. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of immunoglobulin containing and proline-rich receptor-1 (IGPR-1) is upregulated in human primary colon cancer...
September 18, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892104/synergistic-anti-aml-effects-of-the-lsd1-inhibitor-t-3775440-and-the-nedd8-activating-enzyme-inhibitor-pevonedistat-via-transdifferentiation-and-dna-rereplication
#13
Y Ishikawa, K Nakayama, M Morimoto, A Mizutani, A Nakayama, K Toyoshima, A Hayashi, S Takagi, R Dairiki, H Miyashita, S Matsumoto, K Gamo, T Nomura, K Nakamura
Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1, KDM1A) specifically demethylates di- and monomethylated histones H3K4 and K9, resulting in context-dependent transcriptional repression or activation. We previously identified an irreversible LSD1 inhibitor T-3775440, which exerts antileukemic activities in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines by inducing cell transdifferentiation. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor pevonedistat (MLN4924, TAK-924) is an investigational drug with antiproliferative activities in AML, and is also reported to induce cell differentiation...
September 11, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869585/brca1-regulation-on-%C3%AE-hcg-a-mechanism-for-tumorigenicity-in-brca1-defective-breast-cancer
#14
S K Sengodan, R Nadhan, R S Nair, S K Hemalatha, V Somasundaram, R R Sushama, A Rajan, N R Latha, G R Varghese, R K Thankappan, J M Kumar, A Chil, T V Anilkumar, P Srinivas
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) has been implicated in breast tumorigenesis. However, the role of this hormone is highly controversial as certain studies suggest it has anti-tumor properties while others have found it to be pro-tumorigenic. To unveil the truth, we have analyzed the expression of β-hCG in breast cancer. We identified for the first time that β-hCG expression is linked to BRCA1 status and its overexpression is seen in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer cells, BRCA1 conditional knockout mouse breast cancer tissues and BRCA1 floxed basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissues...
September 4, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846080/growth-induced-stress-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-il-6-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-via-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#15
Q Chen, D Yang, H Zong, L Zhu, L Wang, X Wang, X Zhu, X Song, J Wang
Stromal cell populations in the tumor microenvironment (TME) play a critical role in the oncogenesis and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we found that there are α-smooth muscle actin positive (α-SMA (+)) cells in the stroma of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues, and their numbers are significantly associated with poor survival in ccRCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a critical diver that induces α-SMA (+) cells in ccRCC tissues via promotion of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulates migration and invasion in ccRCC...
August 28, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846079/e6-e7-oncogenes-in-epithelial-suprabasal-layers-and-estradiol-promote-cervical-growth-and-ear-regeneration
#16
C García, D Hernández-García, C Valencia, V Rojo-León, J-R Pérez-Estrada, M Werner, L Covarrubias
Tissue growth is a common characteristic of carcinogenesis and regeneration. Here we show that suprabasal expression of human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6/E7 oncogenes in Tg(K6b-E6/E7) mice, similar to that observed in HPV-infected human tissue, and estradiol increased cervical epithelium growth and ear-hole closure efficiency. Oncogenes in combination with estradiol had a significant contribution to the proliferation of suprabasal cells of cervical epithelium that correlated with an increased expression of keratin genes...
August 28, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846078/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-signaling-and-chemotherapy-resistance-in-solid-cancers
#17
REVIEW
T Avril, E Vauléon, E Chevet
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular program used by eukaryotic cells to cope with protein misfolding stress. During tumor development, cancer cells are facing intrinsic (oncogene activation) and extrinsic (limiting nutrient or oxygen supply) challenges, with which they must cope to survive. Moreover, chemotherapy represents an additional extrinsic challenge that cancer cells are facing and to which they adapt in the case of resistance. As of today, resistance to chemotherapy and targeted therapies is one of the important issues that oncologists have to deal with for treating cancer patients...
August 28, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825720/microrna-34a-egfr-axis-plays-pivotal-roles-in-lung-tumorigenesis
#18
Y-L Li, X-M Liu, C-Y Zhang, J-B Zhou, Y Shao, C Liang, H-M Wang, Z-Y Hua, S-D Lu, Z-L Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital in the regulation of tumor progression and invasion. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been linked to the development of various types of human cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the effect of miRNA-34a (miR-34a), a key regulator of tumor suppression, on the tumorigenesis of NSCLC has not been fully elaborated. Herein, we reveal that miR-34a is significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, suggesting that miR-34a might function as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer...
August 21, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805788/nrf2-keap1-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-diminishes-ferroptosis
#19
Z Fan, A-K Wirth, D Chen, C J Wruck, M Rauh, M Buchfelder, N Savaskan
Cancer cells are hallmarked by high proliferation and imbalanced redox consumption and signaling. Various oncogenic pathways such as proliferation and evading cell death converge on redox-dependent signaling processes. Nrf2 is a key regulator in these redox-dependent events and operates in cytoprotection, drug metabolism and malignant progression in cancer cells. Here, we show that patients with primary malignant brain tumors (glioblastomas, WHO °IV gliomas, GBM) have a devastating outcome and overall reduced survival when Nrf2 levels are upregulated...
August 14, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785074/low-dose-arsenite-confers-resistance-to-uv-induced-apoptosis-via-p53-mdm2-pathway-in-ketatinocytes
#20
Y Zhou, W Zeng, M Qi, Y Duan, J Su, S Zhao, W Zhong, M Gao, F Li, Y He, X Hu, X Xu, X Chen, C Peng, J Zhang
Chronic arsenite and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are associated with skin tumor. To investigate the details by low concentrations of arsenite and UV induced carcinogenesis in skin, hTERT-immortalized human keratinocytes were used as a cellular model with exposure to low concentrations of sodium arsenite and UV. The effect of NaAsO2 on UV treatment-induced apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. We found that the cell apoptosis induced by UV exposure was significantly attenuated after exposure to low-dose arsenite, and knockdown of p53 could block UV-induced apoptosis indicating that this phenomenon depended on p53...
August 7, 2017: Oncogenesis
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