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Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology

Jared E Knickelbein, H Nida Sen
The white dot syndromes encompass a group of rare posterior uveitis conditions that are characterized by outer retinal and/or choroidal hypopigmented lesions that are thought to be inflammatory in nature. The size, shape, and location of lesions in the fundus aid in differentiating these conditions. Multimodal imaging, including modalities such as fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography, among others, has become integral in diagnosing and monitoring many of the white dot syndromes...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Sean J Lee, D'Anne S Duncan, Franklin D Echevarria, William M McLaughlin, Jeremy B Hatcher, Rebecca M Sappington
INTRODUCTION: Alterations in neuron-glia signaling are implicated in glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted protein with potential neuroprotective qualities in retinal disease, including chronic ocular hypertension. Here we sought to determine whether moderate, short-term elevations in IOP alter PEDF signaling and whether pressure-induced PEDF signaling directly impacts RGC apoptosis...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Riyaz Mohamed, Azza B El-Remessy
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age in US and worldwide. Neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) are known to be essential for growth, differentiation and survival of neurons in the developing and mature retina. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence supports an emerging role of neurotrophins in retinal diseases and in particular, diabetic retinopathy. Neurotrophins are initially synthesized in a pro-form and undergo proteolytic cleavage to produce the mature form that activates two distinctive receptors, the tyrosine kinase tropomycin receptor (Trk) and, to lesser extent, the common low affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR))...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Shanta Sarfare, Yann Dacquay, Syed Askari, Steven Nusinowitz, Jean-Pierre Hubschman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the retinal safety and toxicity of a novel synthetic biopolymer to be used as a patch to treat rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: Thirty one adult wild type albino mice were divided in 2 groups. In Group A (n=9) 0.2 μl balanced salt solution (BSS) and in Group B (n=22), 0.2 μl biopolymer was injected in the subretinal space. Trans-scleral subretinal injection was performed in one eye and the fellow eye was used as control...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Rebecca Salowe, Julia Salinas, Neil H Farbman, Aishat Mohammed, Joshua Z Warren, Allison Rhodes, Alexander Brucker, Meredith Regina, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Prithvi S Sankar, Amanda Lehman, Joan M O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: To identify the major risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals of African descent. METHODS: We searched PubMed for relevant articles, with results spanning April 1947 to present. All abstracts were reviewed and, where relevant to POAG and race, articles were catalogued and analyzed. Additional sources were identified through citations in articles returned by our search. RESULTS: Numerous potential POAG risk factors were identified and organized into categories by demographics (age, sex, and skin color), lifestyle choices (smoking, alcohol), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), ophthalmic findings (eye structure, central corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, elevated intraocular pressure, myopia, cataract, and vascular abnormalities), family history, socioeconomic status, and adherence...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Jerry Y Niederkorn
Corneal transplantation stands alone as the most common and successful form of solid organ transplantation. Even though HLA matching and systemic antirejection drugs are not routinely used, 90% of the first time corneal allografts will succeed. By contrast, all other major categories of organ transplantation require HLA matching and the use of systemically administered immunosuppressive drugs. This remarkable success of corneal transplants under these conditions is an example of "immune privilege" and is the primary reason for the extraordinary success of corneal transplantation...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Kristen Harris Nwanyanwu, Paula-Anne Newman-Casey, Thomas W Gardner, Jennifer I Lim
Diabetic retinopathy affects 4.2 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, cost-effective interventions to decrease blindness from diabetic retinopathy will be paramount. While HbA1c and duration of disease are known risk factors, they account for only 11% of the risk of developing microvascular complications from the disease. The assessment of environmental risk factors for diabetic eye disease allows for the determination of modifiable population-level challenges that may be addressed to facilitate the end of blindness from diabetes...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Erick Rivera-Grana, Phoebe Lin, Eric B Suhler, James T Rosenbaum
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is generally treated with oral corticosteroid therapy. A steroid sparing drug could be a useful adjunct. We reviewed our experience with methotrexate as a corticosteroid sparing agent to treat TED. METHODS: Retrospective chart review from two eye inflammation clinics. Patients with TED who were unable to discontinue prednisone therapy without disease recurrence were included. RESULTS: 14 patients who were receiving an average of 32 mg/day of prednisone were treated with methotrexate, usually 15 mg/week orally or 20 mg/week subcutaneously...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Nicole Stuebiger, William Smiddy, Jianhua Wang, Hong Jiang, Delia Cabrera DeBuc
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is notorious for causing retinal microangiopathy, but bulbar conjunctival microangiopathy (CM) mirroring the established retinal vessel changes, has also been observed. Recent studies suggest that CM occurs in all DM patients in various degrees depending on disease severity and occur even before non-proliferative retinopathy develops. Thus, CM might provide a means of early detection or even form a basis for early intervention of disease progression in DM patients. Herein we present - to our knowledge for the first time-the feasibility and applicability in diagnostic imaging of CM in a diabetic patient using a commercially available Retinal Function Imager (RFI, Optical Imaging Ltd, Rehovot, Israel)...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Justyna Widomska, Witold K Subczynski
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a low level of macular carotenoids in the eye retina. Only two carotenoids, namely lutein and zeaxanthin are selectively accumulated in the human eye retina from blood plasma where more than twenty other carotenoids are available. The third carotenoid which is found in the human retina, meso-zeaxanthin is formed directly in the retina from lutein. All these carotenoids, named also macular xanthophylls, play key roles in eye health and retinal disease...
February 21, 2014: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Ava K Bittner, Sheryl Torr-Brown, Ellen Arnold, Antonia Nwankwo, Patricia Beaton, Radhika Rampat, Gislin Dagnelie, Mark Roser
OBJECTIVE: An educational, interactive journal [Vision and Memory Stimulating (VMS) journal] was developed to boost patient confidence and promote long-term adherence with weekly vision self-monitoring in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients at risk for vision loss from new-onset neovascularization. METHODS: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 198 subjects with intermediate stage, non-neovascular AMD received the VMS journal or followed usual care (e...
January 22, 2014: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Dianne Barrett, Jin Yang, Tharikarn Sujirakul, Stephen H Tsang
Vigabatrin is an effective antiepileptic drug (AED) typically used in the treatment of refractory partial seizures and infantile spasms. Its use, however, is limited due to the concern of retinal toxicity and subsequent visual field defects. Herewith in we describe a case of vigabatrin toxicity that illustrates electroretinographic (ERG) changes occur before imaging and visual field deterioration. Decrease in maximal ERG b: a ratio was observed before thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2014: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Jeremy Y Yu, Timothy J Lyons
Clinical epidemiological studies have revealed relatively weak, yet statistically significant, associations between dyslipidemia/dyslipoproteinemia and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Recent large interventional studies, however, demonstrated an unexpectedly robust efficacy of fenofibrate on the development of DR, possibly independent of plasma lipids. To unify the apparent discrepancies, we hypothesize that plasma lipoproteins play an indirect but important role in DR, contingent on the integrity of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB)...
December 18, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Grazyna Adamus, Dongseak Choi, Anitha Raghunath, Jade Schiffman
BACKGROUND: The presence of autoantibodies (AAbs) is the primary serological indicator of autoimmunity. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is associated with AAbs and different types of cancer. The goal of the study was to examine the profile of serum autoantibodies in women with gynecological cancers with and without paraneoplastic visual manifestation. METHODS: Retrospective studies of a cohort of 46 women with symptoms of CAR and gynecological tumors, including endometrial, cervical, ovarian, and fallopian tubes, 111 women with similar tumors without symptoms of CAR, and 60 age-matched healthy controls...
December 1, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Derrick J Feenstra, E Chepchumba Yego, Susanne Mohr
Cell death seems to be a prominent feature in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Several retinal cell types have been identified to undergo cell death in a diabetic environment. Most emphasis has been directed towards identifying apoptosis in the diabetic retina. However, new research has established that there are multiple forms of cell death. This review discusses the different modes of cell death and attempts to classify cell death of retinal cells known to die in diabetic retinopathy. Special emphasis is given to apoptosis, necrosis, autophagic cell death, and pyroptosis...
October 1, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Jacqueline Talea Desjardin, S Patricia Becerra, Preeti Subramanian
PURPOSE: Ensembl and other expressed sequence tag (EST) databases reveal putative alternative splice variants in mouse and rat for Pnpla2, the gene encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor-receptor (PEDF-R). The purpose of this study was to obtain experimental evidence for Pnpla2 splice variants in mouse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultures of a mouse cell line derived from photoreceptors (661W cells) and mouse eye, heart, adipose, kidney, and liver tissues were used...
October 1, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Nicholas Popp, Xi K Chu, Defen Shen, Jingsheng Tuo, Chi-Chao Chan
Although the mouse has no macula leutea, its neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can develop lesions mimicking certain features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Differences between the Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 double deficient mouse on Crb1(rd8) (rd8) background (DKO (rd8) ) and the Crb1(rd8) mouse in photoreceptor and RPE pathology, as well as ocularA2E contents and immune responses, show that DKO (rd8) recapitulates some human AMD-like features in addition to rd8 retinal dystrophy/degeneration...
October 1, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Lalit P Singh
Chronic hyperglycemia (HG)-associated reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) stress and low grade inflammation are considered to play critical roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Excess glucose metabolic flux through the aldose reductase/polyol pathway, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, elevated hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), diacyl glycerol/PKC activation, and mitochondrial ROS generation are all implicated in DR. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response (er-UPR) and deregulation of mitochondrial quality control by autophagy/mitophagy are observed causing cellular bioenergetic deficiency and injury...
August 5, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Fd Echevarria, Cc Walker, Sk Abella, M Won, Rm Sappington
OBJECTIVE: The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines is associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and glial reactivity in glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glaucoma-related changes in glycoprotein-130 (gp130), the common signal transducer of the IL-6 family of cytokines, as they relate to RGC health, glial reactivity and expression of IL-6 cytokine family members. METHODS: For all experiments, we examined healthy retina (young C57), aged retina (aged C57), retina predisposed to glaucoma (young DBA/2) and retina with IOP-induced glaucoma (aged DBA/2)...
June 30, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Shijia Zhang, Ladan Espandar, Kathleen M P Imhof, Bruce A Bunnell
PURPOSE: To evaluate differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to the keratocyte lineage by co-culture with primary keratocytes in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A co-culture system using transwell inserts to grow hASCs on bottom and keratocytes on top in keratocyte differentiating medium (KDM) was developed. hASCs that were cultured in complete culture medium (CCM) and KDM were used as control. After 16 days, hASCs were examined for morphologic changes and proliferation by cell count...
February 27, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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