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Nutrition and Metabolic Insights

Mohammad Altamimi
Background: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It is believed that the cause of autism is multifactorial, where genetic predispositions interact with environmental factors. In this context, micronutrients play a crucial role. Objective: To present evidence on current micronutrient status in Palestine and highlight its possible role in increasing problems of neurodevelopment disorders in general and autism in particular. Method: Analytical review of results...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Mykola D Khalangot, Volodymir A Kovtun, Nadia V Okhrimenko, Vitaly G Gurianov, Victor I Kravchenko
A relationship between childhood starvation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in adulthood was previously indicated. Ukraine suffered a series of artificial famines between 1921 and 1947. Famines of 1932 to 1933 and 1946 were most severe among them. Long-term health consequences of these famines remain insufficiently investigated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus screening was conducted between June 2013 and December 2014. A total of 198 rural residents of Kyiv region more than 44 years of age, not registered as patients with T2D, were randomly selected...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Shirley F Evans, Maureen Beebe, Maryam Mahmood, Sawanya Janthachotikun, Heba Eldoumi, Sandra Peterson, Mark Payton, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Brenda J Smith, Edralin A Lucas
This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango ( Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometric measurements, lipid parameters, and inflammatory mediators in obese individuals. A total of 20 obese (body mass index [BMI]: 30-35 kg/m2 ) adults (11 men and 9 women), aged 20 to 50 years, received 10 g/d of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, lipids, and inflammatory mediators were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of mango supplementation. There were no differences between baseline and final visits in inflammatory mediators, lipids, diet, physical activity, and anthropometrics...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Suhad M Bahijri, Lubna Alsheikh, Ghada Ajabnoor, Anwar Borai
The aim was to investigate effect of chitosan on markers of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in rats fed normal chow (NC) or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HF/HCD). Forty male rats were fed NC or HF/HCD for 3 months, then divided into 4 groups: group A fed NC, group B: NC + chitosan, group C: HF/HCD, and group D: HF/HCD + chitosan. Food intake and weight were recorded, and serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, leptin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and tumor necrosis factor α were measured at beginning and after 12 weeks...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Ai Tsuji, Toshinobu Nakamura, Katsumi Shibata
We investigated the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR) mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group) or a vitamin B1-free diet (test group). The vitamin B1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Virginia Luchini, Salma M Musaad, Sharon M Donovan, Soo-Yeun Lee
Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE) is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC) and home-based childcare (HBCC), or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Carina Ladeira, Elisabete Carolino, Manuel C Gomes, Miguel Brito
The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Maria C Della Vedova, Marcos D Muñoz, Lucas D Santillan, Maria G Plateo-Pignatari, Maria J Germanó, Martín E Rinaldi Tosi, Silvina Garcia, Nidia N Gomez, Miguel W Fornes, Sandra E Gomez Mejiba, Dario C Ramirez
Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Hiromi Iwakawa, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tomiho Fukui, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Yukio Doi, Katsumi Shibata
We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Salma A Abdelmagid, Jessica L MacKinnon, Sarah M Janssen, David W L Ma
Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Syed Asher Hussain Zaidi, Gurjit Singh, Olukolade Owojori, Ram Kela, Shirley Spoors, Mohamed Abbas, Florence Barton, Caroline Rogers
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency may further increase fracture risk in patients with decreased bone mineral density. A cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D concentrations in medical inpatients was conducted at Bassetlaw District General Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015 (10 months), and the relationship of serum vitamin D concentrations with calcium and alkaline phosphatase was evaluated. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D immunoassays were used and analyzed in the local laboratory. The total number of patients analyzed was 200, age range 18-99 years, with mean age of 76 years...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Juliano Garavaglia, Melissa M Markoski, Aline Oliveira, Aline Marcadenti
Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Melissa M Markoski, Juliano Garavaglia, Aline Oliveira, Jessica Olivaes, Aline Marcadenti
Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Melissa A Babcook, Aditya Joshi, Jeniece A Montellano, Eswar Shankar, Sanjay Gupta
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords "statin and prostate cancer" within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Ayumi Yanagisawa, Noriko Sudo, Yukiko Amitani, Yuko Caballero, Makiko Sekiyama, Christine Mukamugema, Takuya Matsuoka, Hiroaki Imanishi, Takayo Sasaki, Hirotaka Matsuda
This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs) from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Janelle L Davis, Hunter L Paris, Joseph W Beals, Scott E Binns, Gregory R Giordano, Rebecca L Scalzo, Melani M Schweder, Emek Blair, Christopher Bell
Intravenous administration of vitamin C has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and, in some instances, improve physiological function in adult humans. Oral vitamin C administration is typically less effective than intravenous, due in part to inferior vitamin C bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral delivery of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes. On 4 separate randomly ordered occasions, 11 men and women were administered an oral placebo, or 4 g of vitamin C via oral, oral liposomal, or intravenous delivery...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Wen Zhu Yang, Mao Long He
Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Xinyin Jiang, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts
Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose (5 mM) and high-glucose (35 mM) conditions...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Amritpal S Bhullar, Charles T Putman, Vera C Mazurak
Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Aifric O'Sullivan, Marie Farver, Jennifer T Smilowitz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S29530.].
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
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