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Nutrition and Metabolic Insights

Maria C Della Vedova, Marcos D Muñoz, Lucas D Santillan, Maria G Plateo-Pignatari, Maria J Germanó, Martín E Rinaldi Tosi, Silvina Garcia, Nidia N Gomez, Miguel W Fornes, Sandra E Gomez Mejiba, Dario C Ramirez
Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Hiromi Iwakawa, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tomiho Fukui, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Yukio Doi, Katsumi Shibata
We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Salma A Abdelmagid, Jessica L MacKinnon, Sarah M Janssen, David W L Ma
Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Syed Asher Hussain Zaidi, Gurjit Singh, Olukolade Owojori, Ram Kela, Shirley Spoors, Mohamed Abbas, Florence Barton, Caroline Rogers
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency may further increase fracture risk in patients with decreased bone mineral density. A cross-sectional study on serum vitamin D concentrations in medical inpatients was conducted at Bassetlaw District General Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015 (10 months), and the relationship of serum vitamin D concentrations with calcium and alkaline phosphatase was evaluated. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D immunoassays were used and analyzed in the local laboratory. The total number of patients analyzed was 200, age range 18-99 years, with mean age of 76 years...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Juliano Garavaglia, Melissa M Markoski, Aline Oliveira, Aline Marcadenti
Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Melissa M Markoski, Juliano Garavaglia, Aline Oliveira, Jessica Olivaes, Aline Marcadenti
Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Melissa A Babcook, Aditya Joshi, Jeniece A Montellano, Eswar Shankar, Sanjay Gupta
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords "statin and prostate cancer" within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Ayumi Yanagisawa, Noriko Sudo, Yukiko Amitani, Yuko Caballero, Makiko Sekiyama, Christine Mukamugema, Takuya Matsuoka, Hiroaki Imanishi, Takayo Sasaki, Hirotaka Matsuda
This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs) from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Janelle L Davis, Hunter L Paris, Joseph W Beals, Scott E Binns, Gregory R Giordano, Rebecca L Scalzo, Melani M Schweder, Emek Blair, Christopher Bell
Intravenous administration of vitamin C has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and, in some instances, improve physiological function in adult humans. Oral vitamin C administration is typically less effective than intravenous, due in part to inferior vitamin C bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral delivery of vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes. On 4 separate randomly ordered occasions, 11 men and women were administered an oral placebo, or 4 g of vitamin C via oral, oral liposomal, or intravenous delivery...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Wen Zhu Yang, Mao Long He
Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Xinyin Jiang, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts
Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose (5 mM) and high-glucose (35 mM) conditions...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Amritpal S Bhullar, Charles T Putman, Vera C Mazurak
Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Aifric O'Sullivan, Marie Farver, Jennifer T Smilowitz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S29530.].
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Angela C Flynn, Caroline Schneeberger, Paul T Seed, Suzanne Barr, Lucilla Poston, Louise M Goff
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) behavioral intervention on dietary patterns in obese pregnant women. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived from Food Frequency Questionnaires using principal component analysis in 183 UPBEAT pilot study participants. RESULTS: Two unhealthy dietary patterns, processed and traditional, predominantly characterized by foods high in sugar and fat, improved [processed -0...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Frances Jurnak
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Genomic studies have not revealed dominant genetic errors common to all forms of ASD. So ASD is assumed to be a complex disorder due to mutations in hundreds of common variants. Other theories argue that spontaneous DNA mutations and/or environmental factors contribute to as much as 50% of ASD. In reviewing potential genetic linkages between autism and alcoholism, it became apparent that all theories of ASD are consistent with aldehyde toxicity, in which endogenous and exogenous aldehydes accumulate as a consequence of mutations in key enzymes...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Veronica Luque, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Joaquín Escribano, Natalia Ferré
This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Aisling A Geraghty, Karen L Lindsay, Goiuri Alberdi, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Eileen R Gibney
Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Iris J Grooten, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
Nausea and occasional vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP) are common. When vomiting is severe or protracted, it is referred to as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). HG affects up to 3% of pregnancies and is characterized by weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and the need for hospital admission. HG has significant consequences for maternal well-being, is associated with adverse birth outcomes, and leads to major health care costs. Treatment options are symptomatic, hampered by the lack of evidence-based options including studies on nutritional interventions...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Iris J Grooten, Margot E Vinke, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids (CCS) are effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, but it is unknown whether CCS are effective in treating hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). METHODS: We searched PubMed and from inception to May 15, 2015, for randomized controlled trials examining the effects of CCS in HG. RESULTS: We identified five trials (n = 310) examining the effects of CCS in women with HG. Meta-analysis was possible for one outcome (n = 214) and showed no significant effect of CCS on readmission rates (odds ratio, 0...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Saranya Palaniswamy, Dylan Williams, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Sylvain Sebert
Studies linking vitamin D and long-term metabolic health have generated much debate. Recommendations for the intake of vitamin D by the general public and by the health care professionals have been complicated by a number of inconsistencies in the literature. These caveats relate to the methodological approaches, differences in the populations (and the species) of study, and the definitions used for thresholds of vitamin D status. This review addresses current evidence available for assessing the potential programming of long-term metabolic health of offspring by maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy...
2015: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
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