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Biochemistry Insights

Moses Z Zaruwa, Nne I Ibok, Ibokabasi U Ibok, Emmanuel C Onyenonachi, C Danchal, Aisha G Ahmed, Maryam U Ahmed, Ismaila Y Sudi
Africa is rich in a wide range of flora that are exploited as herbal medicines and remedies. Several diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery and jaundice have been successfully managed using herbal medicines. Herbal decoctions or concoctions have been used as pain killers, antibiotics, and hematinics. This study evaluated the hematopoietic and biochemical properties of the stem bark of Sterculia setigera Del. in Wistar rats. Results showed that S. setigera decoction has copiously high tannin and cardiac glycoside levels...
2016: Biochemistry Insights
Unal Bakal, Suleyman Aydin, Mehmet Sarac, Tuncay Kuloglu, Mehmet Kalayci, Gokhan Artas, Meltem Yardim, Ahmet Kazez
A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls...
2016: Biochemistry Insights
Hong Zheng, Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Liang-Jun Yan
Diabetes and its complications are hyperglycemic toxicity diseases. Many metabolic pathways in this array of diseases become aberrant, which is accompanied with a variety of posttranslational protein modifications that in turn reflect diabetic glucotoxicity. In this review, we summarize some of the most widely studied protein modifications in diabetes and its complications. These modifications include glycation, carbonylation, nitration, cysteine S-nitrosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ADP-ribosylation, O-GlcNAcylation, and succination...
2016: Biochemistry Insights
Md Ziaul Karim, Daisuke Uesugi, Noriyuki Nakayama, M Monzur Hossain, Kohji Ishihara, Hiroki Hamada
Stevioside is a natural sweetener from Stevia leaf, which is 300 times sweeter than sugar. It helps to reduce blood sugar levels dramatically and thus can be of benefit to diabetic people. Tissue culture is a very potential modern technology that can be used in large-scale disease-free stevia production throughout the year. We successfully produced stevia plant through in vitro culture for identification of stevioside in this experiment. The present study describes a potential method for identification of stevioside from tissue culture-derived stevia leaf...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Darin Abbadessa, Cameron A Smurthwaite, Connor W Reed, Roland Wolkowicz
Infectious diseases affect human health despite advances in biomedical research and drug discovery. Among these, viruses are especially difficult to tackle due to the sudden transfer from animals to humans, high mutational rates, resistance to current treatments, and the intricacies of their molecular interactions with the host. As an example of these interactions, we describe a cell-based approach to monitor specific proteolytic events executed by either the viral-encoded protease or by host proteins on the virus...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Jianmin Chen, Zheng Yang, Xiao Zhang
[This corrects the article on p. 25 in vol. 8, PMID: 26862298.].
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Jianmin Chen, Zheng Yang, Xiao Zhang
Carbamylated erythropoietin (cEpo), which is neuroprotective but lacks hematopoietic activity, has been attracting rising concerns. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the process of neuroprotection of cEpo are not well known. Based on several recent reports, the neuroprotective effects of cEpo are illustrated, and signaling pathways involved in the different effects of erythropoietin and cEpo are discussed. These newly reported researches may shed new light on the development and application of cEpo, a prospective drug candidate for neuroprotection...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Yanling Zhang, Jianrui Song, Xiaojun Zhang, Yuanyuan Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Yanjiao Jin
Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl3, a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Yuning Chen, Wen Dong, Li Tan, Michael A Held, Marcia J Kieliszewski
Extensins (EXTs) are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that are structural components of the plant primary cell wall. They are basic proteins and are highly glycosylated with carbohydrate accounting for >50% of their dry weight. Carbohydrate occurs as monogalactosyl serine and arabinosyl hydroxyproline, with arabinosides ranging in size from ~1 to 4 or 5 residues. Proposed functions of EXT arabinosylation include stabilizing the polyproline II helix structure and facilitating EXT cross-linking. Here, the involvement of arabinosylation in EXT cross-linking was investigated by assaying the initial cross-linking rate and degree of cross-linking of partially or fully de-arabinosylated EXTs using an in vitro cross-linking assay followed by gel permeation chromatography...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Han Wang, Xie Luo, Jake Leighton
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells with great therapeutic potentials. The in vitro differentiation of ESC was designed by recapitulating embryogenesis. Significant progress has been made to improve the in vitro differentiation protocols by toning soluble maintenance factors. However, more robust methods for lineage-specific differentiation and maturation are still under development. Considering the complexity of in vivo embryogenesis environment, extracellular matrix (ECM) cues should be considered besides growth factor cues...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Onder Celik, Nilufer Celik, Sami Gungor, Esra Tustas Haberal, Suleyman Aydin
Following early embryonic germ cell migration, oocytes are surrounded by somatic cells and remain arrested at diplotene stage until luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Strict regulation of both meiotic arrest and meiotic resumption during dormant stage are critical for future fertility. Inter-cellular signaling system between the somatic compartment and oocyte regulates these meiotic events and determines the follicle quality. As well as the collected number of eggs, their qualities are also important for in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Vidhu Pachauri, Sjs Flora
Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only moderately beneficial against arsenic, (2) monotherapy with gallic acid is more effective than in combination with MiADMSA after arsenic exposure in reducing oxidative injury, and (3) MiADMSA monotherapy as reported previously provides significant therapeutic efficacy against arsenic...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Ke Wu, Wei Li, Jianrui Song, Tao Li
Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD) using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus) instead of whole-cell biocatalyst...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
Lisette P Yco, Gabor Mocz, John Opoku-Ansah, André S Bachmann
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor that has been implicated in many human cancers and has emerged as an ideal target for cancer therapy. Withaferin A (WFA) is a natural product with promising antiproliferative properties through its association with a number of molecular targets including STAT3. However, the effect of WFA in pediatric neuroblastoma (NB) and its interaction with STAT3 have not been reported. In this study, we found that WFA effectively induces dose-dependent cell death in high-risk and drug-resistant NB as well as multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells, prevented interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated and persistently activated STAT3 phosphorylation at Y705, and blocked the transcriptional activity of STAT3...
2014: Biochemistry Insights
Chera L Maarouf, Tyler A Kokjohn, Charisse M Whiteside, MiMi P Macias, Walter M Kalback, Marwan N Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach, Robert Vassar, Alex E Roher
Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively used to study the pathophysiology of this dementia and to test the efficacy of drugs to treat AD. The 5XFAD Tg mouse, which contains two presenilin-1 and three amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations, was designed to rapidly recapitulate a portion of the pathologic alterations present in human AD. APP and its proteolytic peptides, as well as apolipoprotein E and endogenous mouse tau, were investigated in the 5XFAD mice at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months...
2013: Biochemistry Insights
Shinsuke Kuwaki, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hidehiko Tanaka, Kohji Ishihara
A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals...
2012: Biochemistry Insights
Kei Shimoda, Manabu Hamada, Hiroshi Yokoi, Hiroki Hamada
Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ester-linked 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde-glucose conjugate (2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester) was achieved by using plant cell cultures as biocatalysts. The anticancer agent, 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde, induced apoptosis in cells, whereas 2-phenylindole-3-carboxyl-10″-O-β-D-glucosyl ester showed no cytotoxicity and induced no apoptosis.
2012: Biochemistry Insights
Kei Shimoda, Manabu Hamada, Masaharu Seno, Tadakatsu Mandai, Hiroki Hamada
Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of glycolyl-ester-linked taxol-glucose conjugate, ie, 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside, was achieved by using α-glucosidase as a biocatalyst. The water-solubility of 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside (21 μM) was 53 fold higher than that of taxol. The hepatitis B virus envelope L particles (bio-nanocapsules) are effective for delivering 7-glycolyltaxol 2″-O-α-D-glucoside to human hepatocellular carcinoma NuE cells.
2012: Biochemistry Insights
Hongjun Jin, Thomas C Squier, Philip E Long
Commonly used in biotechnology applications, filamentous M13 phage are non-lytic viruses that infect E. coli and other bacteria, with the potential to promote horizontal gene transfer in natural populations with synthetic biology implications for engineering community systems. Using the E. coli strain TG1, we have investigated how a selective pressure involving elevated levels of toxic chromate, mimicking that found in some superfund sites, alters population dynamics following infection with either wild-type M13 phage or an M13-phage encoding a chromate reductase (Gh-ChrR) capable of the reductive immobilization of chromate (ie, M13-phageGh-ChrR)...
2012: Biochemistry Insights
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