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Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794662/erratum-hepatitis-c-infection-in-egypt-prevalence-impact-and-management-strategies-corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 17 in vol. 9, PMID: 28553150.].
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652827/role-of-intrafamilial-transmission-in-high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-egypt
#2
Maha Z Omar, Mohamed A Metwally, Hala M El-Feky, Inas A Ahmed, Mohamed A Ismail, Amal Idris
BACKGROUND: Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Although an effective HCV treatment program has been adopted, it is estimated that the number of newly reported cases in Egypt is still high. Intrafamilial transmission may play a role in the high prevalence of HCV in Egypt. Identification of risk factors for the transmission of HCV may help in decreasing its prevalence and eliminating its infection. AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection among the household contacts of HCV patients and identify the possible risk factors associated with intrafamilial transmission...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553150/hepatitis-c-infection-in-egypt-prevalence-impact-and-management-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Asmaa Gomaa, Naglaa Allam, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mohamed El Kassas, Imam Waked
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden in Egypt, where it bears the highest prevalence rate in the world. Estimates for prevalence are based upon data reported from the 2008 and 2015 Egypt Demographic Health Surveys. In this review, we demonstrate the prevalence results of both surveys and analyze the difference in the results. The overall HCV prevalence is estimated to be declining. However, the clinical impact of chronic HCV infection is expected to grow considerably. A mathematical model shows that by increasing the rate of treatment, the expected number of patients will decline significantly in 2030...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356778/decreasing-racial-disparity-with-the-combination-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c
#4
REVIEW
Paul H Naylor, Milton Mutchnick
African Americans (AA) in the US are twice as likely to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the non-Hispanic-white US population (Cau). They are also more likely to be infected with HCV genotype 1, more likely to develop hepatocellular carcinoma, and, in addition, have a lower response rate to interferon-based therapies. With the increase in response rates reported for combinations of direct-acting antivirals, the possibility that racial disparity would be eliminated by agents that directly inhibit virus replication has become a reality...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280398/interrelationship-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-with-patient-characteristics-in-bahrain
#5
Maheeba A Abdulla, Eman A Murad, Hend A Aljenaidi, Duha R Aljowder, Omar Ik Aljeeran, Eman Farid, Jehad R Al Qamish
AIM: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows genotype-based variation in prevalence across geographical regions. This study was conducted to understand the clinical interrelationship of HCV genotypes with patient characteristics. METHODS: Medical records of 122 patients positive for HCV RNA test collected during 2013 and 2014 were included for analysis. Only adults were included in the study. HCV RNA extraction and genotyping was done as part of the routine diagnostic requirements...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203111/unresectable-hepatoblastoma-current-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Angela D Trobaugh-Lotrario, Rebecka L Meyers, Allison F O'Neill, James H Feusner
Although rare, hepatoblastoma is the most common pediatric liver tumor. Complete resection is a critical component for cure; however, most patients will have tumors that are not resected at diagnosis. For these patients, administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy renders tumors resectable in most patients. For patients whose tumors remain unresectable after chemotherapy, liver transplantation is indicated (in the absence of active unresectable metastatic disease). In patients whose tumors remain unresectable after conventional chemotherapy, interventional techniques may serve as a promising option to reduce tumor size, decrease systemic toxicity, decrease need for liver transplantation, and increase feasibility of tumor resection...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008291/knowledge-and-attitude-of-health-care-professionals-regarding-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-vaccination-university-of-gondar-hospital-ethiopia
#7
Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Boressa Adugna Horssa, Nardose Getachew, Sitotaw Amare, Ashenafi Getnet
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting approximately 10% of the world population. Health care professionals (HCPs) are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection due to occupational exposure. Having enough knowledge and proper attitudes toward the infection and its vaccination is crucial in preventing the infection. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as its vaccination among HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942238/targeted-transplantation-of-mitochondria-to-hepatocytes
#8
Nidhi Gupta, Catherine H Wu, George Y Wu
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial defects in hepatocytes can result in liver dysfunction and death. Hepatocytes have cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptors (AsGRs) which internalize AsGs within endosomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondria could be targeted to hepatocytes by AsGR-mediated endocytosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An AsG, AsOR, was linked to polylysine to create a conjugate, AsOR-PL, and complexed with healthy and functional mitochondria (defined by normal morphology, cytochrome c assays, and oxygen-consumption rates)...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843363/defibrotide-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Fulgenzi, Maria Elena Ferrero
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), represents the most frequent complication in patients in early phase following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). In its severe form, VOD/SOS can be associated with multiorgan failure and with a mortality rate >80% by day +100. Defibrotide (DF) (a mixture of 90% single-stranded phosphodiester oligonucleotides and 10% double-stranded phosphodiester oligonucleotides derived from controlled depolarization of porcine intestinal mucosal DNA) has been proposed for the treatment of SOS due to its ability to restore thrombo-fibrinolytic balance and protect endothelial cells...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695370/presence-and-consequence-of-tooth-periapical-radiolucency-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#10
Lea Ladegaard Grønkjær, Palle Holmstrup, Søren Schou, Kristoffer Schwartz, Johanne Kongstad, Peter Jepsen, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Periapical radiolucency is the radiographic sign of inflammatory bone lesions around the apex of the tooth. We determined the prevalence and predictors of periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis and the association with systemic inflammation status and cirrhosis-related complications. METHODS: A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621676/obeticholic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-in-adult-patients-clinical-utility-and-patient-selection
#11
REVIEW
Christopher L Bowlus
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary "cirrhosis", is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555800/idiopathic-noncirrhotic-portal-hypertension-current-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Oliviero Riggio, Stefania Gioia, Ilaria Pentassuglio, Valeria Nicoletti, Michele Valente, Giulia d'Amati
The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418860/role-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-combination-for-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Vinay Sundaram, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common etiologies of liver-related mortality throughout the world. Among the six HCV genotypes, genotype 1 was significantly more aggressive when utilizing the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin, as genotype 1-infected patients had the lowest likelihood of achieving cure (40%-50%) and required twice as long duration of treatment, as compared to genotypes 2 and 3. Recently, however, significant advances have been made with the advent of all-oral direct-acting antiviral agents, which have significantly improved the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of the treatment of HCV genotype 1...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382341/transarterial-chemoembolization-with-drug-eluting-beads-versus-conventional-transarterial-chemoembolization-in-locally-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Johannes Baur, Christian O Ritter, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Ingo Klein, Ralph Kickuth, Ulrich Steger
PURPOSE: In hepatocellular carcinoma patients with large or multinodal tumors, where curative treatment options are not feasible, transarterial therapies play a major role. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) is a promising new approach due to higher intratumoral and lower systemic concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent compared to conventional TACE (cTACE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 32 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who received either DEB or a cTACE were compared regarding survival time, disease recurrence, and side effects such as pain and fever...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274322/paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-the-3d-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-concise-review
#15
REVIEW
Trana Hussaini
The treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been revolutionized with the development of direct-acting antiviral agents. Several regimens have been approved and are currently used in clinical practice, treating a wide range of patient populations infected with hepatitis C. The interferon-free combination of paritaprevir/ritonavir-ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD or the three-drug [3D] regimen) with or without ribavirin is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in both treatment-naïve and experienced patients infected with genotype 1, including those coinfected with HIV and patients post-liver transplantation...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217802/hepatitis-c-in-the-russian-federation-challenges-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Sergey Mukomolov, Galina Trifonova, Irina Levakova, Daria Bolsun, Eugenia Krivanogova
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Official registration of HCV infections in the Russian Federation started in 1994. Two clinical forms of infection - acute and chronic hepatitis C - are registered separately. Moreover, the HCV national surveillance system also includes reports from laboratories on results from testing ∼20 population risk groups for antibodies to HCV; approximately 15-16 million tests are performed annually. Modern epidemiological features of HCV infection in the Russian Federation are characterized by low incidence of the acute form of infection (acute HCV; one to two per 100,000) and a dramatic increase in chronic HCV (CHCV) cases...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186144/the-pathophysiology-of-thrombocytopenia-in-chronic-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Oscar Mitchell, David M Feldman, Marla Diakow, Samuel H Sigal
Thrombocytopenia is the most common hematological abnormality encountered in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). In addition to being an indicator of advanced disease and poor prognosis, it frequently prevents crucial interventions. Historically, thrombocytopenia has been attributed to hypersplenism, which is the increased pooling of platelets in a spleen enlarged by congestive splenomegaly secondary to portal hypertension. Over the past decade, however, there have been significant advances in the understanding of thrombopoiesis, which, in turn, has led to an improved understanding of thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099536/autophagy-a-new-target-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Yuqing Mao, Fujun Yu, Jianbo Wang, Chuanyong Guo, Xiaoming Fan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gained importance in recent decades due to drastic changes in diet, especially in Western countries. NAFLD occurs as a spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis to cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD have been intensively investigated, many issues remain to be resolved. Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism for disposing of excess or defective organelles, and has become a hot spot for research...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019602/daclatasvir-sofosbuvir-combination-therapy-with-or-without-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-from-the-clinical-trials-to-real-life
#19
REVIEW
Stanislas Pol, Marion Corouge, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard
The treatment of hepatitis C virus has changed dramatically with the rapid advent of numerous new antiviral agents, including direct-acting antivirals and agents with non-viral targets (cyclophilin inhibitors, interferon-lambda, vaccine therapy). Given the better safety profile and high antiviral potency of direct-acting antivirals, their combination in interferon-free oral regimens is becoming the standard of care for hepatitis C virus infection, tailored to individual patients according to the degree of disease progression (fibrosis), hepatitis C virus genotype and subtype, resistance profile, and prior therapeutic history...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955295/autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-response
#20
REVIEW
Srikanta Dash, Srinivas Chava, Partha K Chandra, Yucel Aydin, Luis A Balart, Tong Wu
Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation process performed by the cells to maintain energy balance. The autophagy response plays an important role in the progression of liver disease due to hepatitis virus infection, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An increased autophagy response also contributes to the pathogenesis of liver disease through modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses; a defective cellular autophagy response leads to the development of HCC...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
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