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Nature and Science of Sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214331/role-of-normal-sleep-and-sleep-apnea-in-human-memory-processing
#1
REVIEW
Shilpi Ahuja, Rebecca K Chen, Korey Kam, Ward D Pettibone, Ricardo S Osorio, Andrew W Varga
A fundamental problem in the field of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and memory is that it has historically minimized the basic neurobiology of sleep's role in memory. Memory formation has been classically divided into phases of encoding, processing/consolidation, and retrieval. An abundance of evidence suggests that sleep plays a critical role specifically in the processing/consolidation phase, but may do so differentially for memories that were encoded using particular brain circuits. In this review, we discuss some of the more established evidence for sleep's function in the processing of declarative, spatial navigational, emotional, and motor/procedural memories and more emerging evidence highlighting sleep's importance in higher order functions such as probabilistic learning, transitive inference, and category/gist learning...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197545/from-pillow-to-podium-a-review-on-understanding-sleep-for-elite-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Shannon O'Donnell, Christopher M Beaven, Matthew W Driller
Sleep is considered vital to human health and well-being, and is critical to physiological and cognitive functioning. Elite athletes experience high training and competition demands, and are often exposed to various factors, situations, and environments that can cause sleep impairments. Previous research has shown that athletes commonly experience sleep loss in the lead up to and following competition, which could have significant impacts on their preparation, performance, and recovery. In particular, the results from previous research show significant reductions in total sleep time (~1:40 h:min) and significant increases in sleep latency (~45 minutes) following evening competition...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174467/blood-pressure-variability-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Oreste Marrone, Maria R Bonsignore
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Blood pressure (BP) variability is part of the assessment of cardiovascular risk. In OSA, BP variability has been studied mainly as very short-term (beat-by-beat) and short-term (24-hour BP profile) variability. BP measured on consecutive heartbeats has been demonstrated to be highly variable, due to repeated peaks during sleep, so that an accurate assessment of nocturnal BP levels in OSA may require peculiar methodologies...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123016/sleep-disturbance-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-critical-knowledge-gaps-remain-for-the-critically-injured
#4
EDITORIAL
Cydni N Williams, Miranda M Lim, Steven A Shea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123015/the-prevalence-and-awareness-of-sleep-apnea-in-patients-suffering-chronic-pain-an-assessment-using-the-stop-bang-sleep-apnea-questionnaire
#5
Gregory S Tentindo, Scott M Fishman, Chin-Shang Li, Qinlu Wang, Steven D Brass
Purpose: Some patient subsets are at higher risk of sleep apnea, including patients with chronic pain. However, it is unclear whether patients and their caregivers are aware of the possibly increased risk of sleep apnea in this population. Chronic pain is often treated with opioids which may decrease both the central respiratory drive and the patency of the upper airway, potentially contributing to this sleep disorder. Using a self-reporting questionnaire approach in the chronic pain population, this study surveyed patient and caregiver awareness surrounding the risk of sleep apnea...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046256/chronic-treatment-with-dexamethasone-alters-clock-gene-expression-and-melatonin-synthesis-in-rat-pineal-gland-at-night
#6
Daniela Meneses-Santos, Daniella do Carmo Buonfiglio, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia, Angela Maria Ramos-Lobo, Divanízia do Nascimento Souza, Angelo Rafael Carpinelli, Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho, Rogério Antônio Laurato Sertie, Sandra Andreotti, Fabio Bessa Lima, Solange Castro Afeche, Emerson Ticona Fioretto, José Cipolla-Neto, Anderson Carlos Marçal
Background: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone that regulates many functions involving energy metabolism and behavior in mammals throughout the light/dark cycle. It is considered an output signal of the central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Melatonin synthesis can be influenced by other hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids in pathological conditions or during stress. Furthermore, glucocorticoids appear to modulate circadian clock genes in peripheral tissues and are associated with the onset of metabolic diseases...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046255/hyperarousal-and-sleep-reactivity-in-insomnia-current-insights
#7
REVIEW
David A Kalmbach, Andrea S Cuamatzi-Castelan, Christine V Tonnu, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Jason R Anderson, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
Hyperarousal is a key component in all modern etiological models of insomnia disorder. Overall patterns in the literature suggest that over-active neurobiological and psychological systems contribute to difficulty sleeping. Even so, mixed results regarding the specific mechanisms linking hyperarousal to sleep disturbance limit current etiological conceptualizations. Similar basal arousal profiles between individuals with high vs low risk for insomnia in the absence of stress exposure suggest that dysregulated stress "response" rather than general hyperarousal may be a more pertinent marker of risk...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950910/larks-owls-swifts-and-woodcocks-among-fruit-flies-differential-responses-of-four-heritable-chronotypes-to-long-and-hot-summer-days
#8
Lyudmila P Zakharenko, Dmitrii V Petrovskii, Arcady A Putilov
Purpose: Drosophila melanogaster and our own species share ( Homo sapiens ) the history of relatively rapid out-of-Africa dispersal. In Eurasia, they had faced a novel adaptive problem of adjustment of their circadian rhythmicity and night sleep episode to seasonal variation in day length and air temperature. Both species usually respond to heat and a short duration of night by reduction of the amount of night sleep and prolongation of "siesta". To further explore similarities between the two species in the ways of adjustment of their sleep-wake behavior to extreme environmental factors, this study examined the possibility to distinguish four extreme chronotypes among fruit flies and the possibility of the differential response of such chronotypes to light and heat stressors...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942169/sleeping-tongue-current-perspectives-of-genioglossus-control-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer M Cori, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Amy S Jordan
The focus of this review was on the genioglossus (GG) muscle and its role in maintaining upper airway patency in both healthy individuals and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This review provided an overview of GG anatomy and GG control and function during both wakefulness and sleep in healthy individuals and in those with OSA. We reviewed evidence for the role of the GG in OSA pathogenesis and also highlighted abnormalities in GG morphology, responsiveness, tissue movement patterns and neurogenic control that may contribute to or result from OSA...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942168/use-of-blood-biomarkers-to-screen-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
Wesley Elon Fleming, Jon-Erik C Holty, Richard K Bogan, Dennis Hwang, Aliya S Ferouz-Colborn, Rohit Budhiraja, Susan Redline, Edith Mensah-Osman, Nadir Ishag Osman, Qing Li, Armaghan Azad, Susann Podolak, Michael K Samoszuk, Amabelle B Cruz, Yang Bai, Jiuliu Lu, John S Riley, Paula C Southwick
Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Unfortunately, up to 90% of individuals with OSA remain without a diagnosis or therapy. We assess the relationship between OSA and blood biomarkers, and test the hypothesis that combinations of markers provide a characteristic OSA signature with diagnostic screening value. This validation study was conducted in an independent cohort in order to replicate findings from a prior feasibility study...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881316/relevance-of-deprivation-studies-in-understanding-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#11
REVIEW
Rachna Mehta, Shafa Khan, Birendra N Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a unique phenomenon essential for maintaining normal physiological processes and is expressed at least in species higher in the evolution. The basic scaffold of the neuronal network responsible for REMS regulation is present in the brainstem, which may be directly or indirectly influenced by most other physiological processes. It is regulated by the neurons in the brainstem. Various manipulations including chemical, elec-trophysiological, lesion, stimulation, behavioral, ontogenic and deprivation studies have been designed to understand REMS genesis, maintenance, physiology and functional significance...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750062/mask-humidity-during-cpap-influence-of-ambient-temperature-heated-humidification-and-heated-tubing
#12
Georg Nilius, Ulrike Domanski, Maik Schroeder, Holger Woehrle, Andrea Graml, Karl-Josef Franke
Purpose: Mucosal drying during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is problematic for many patients. This study assessed the influence of ambient relative humidity (rH) and air temperature (T) in winter and summer on mask humidity during CPAP, with and without mask leak, and with or without heated humidification ± heated tubing. Methods: CPAP (8 and 12 cmH2 O) without humidification (no humidity [nH]), with heated humidification controlled by ambient temperature and humidity (heated humidity [HH]) and HH plus heated tubing climate line (CL), with and without leakage, were compared in 18 subjects with OSA during summer and winter...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731671/the-level-of-observed-physical-movement-accompanying-periodic-limb-movements-measured-in-a-clinical-sleep-population
#13
Robert G Hooper
Study objectives: Periodic limb movements (PLMs) are routinely measured during polysomnogram (PSG) testing. During the early years of sleep testing, physical movements were identified and over time, consensus ultimately led to the current definitions of movement disorders including criteria used to measure PLMs on PSG testing. There has been considerable debate about the clinical importance of the PLMs measured during PSG testing. Over the last decade, the author has observed significant variations in the actual visible physical movements observed with a PLM event...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719424/heart-rate-phenotypes-and-clinical-correlates-in-a-large-cohort-of-adults-without-sleep-apnea
#14
Zhaoyang Huang, Balaji Goparaju, He Chen, Matt T Bianchi
Background: Normal sleep is associated with typical physiological changes in both the central and autonomic nervous systems. In particular, nocturnal blood pressure dipping has emerged as a strong marker of normal sleep physiology, whereas the absence of dipping or reverse dipping has been associated with cardiovascular risk. However, nocturnal blood pressure is not measured commonly in clinical practice. Heart rate (HR) dipping in sleep may be a similar important marker and is measured routinely in at-home and in-laboratory sleep testing...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670412/the-effect-of-tonsillectomy-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Lauren K Reckley, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Macario Camacho
Objective: Tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy is a combination surgery that has been used to treat pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For adults, tonsillectomy has also been reported as a primary treatment modality when the tissue is hypertrophied. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy as used in the treatment of OSA in children and adults. Data sources: Nine databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576733/spotlight-on-daytime-napping-during-early-childhood
#16
REVIEW
Klára Horváth, Kim Plunkett
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445307/sleep-problems-during-the-menopausal-transition-prevalence-impact-and-management-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Fiona C Baker, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Ian M Colrain, Bei Bei
A substantial number of women experience sleep difficulties in the approach to menopause and beyond, with 26% experiencing severe symptoms that impact daytime functioning, qualifying them for a diagnosis of insomnia. Here, we review both self-report and polysomnographic evidence for sleep difficulties in the context of the menopausal transition, considering severity of sleep complaints and links between hot flashes (HFs) and depression with poor sleep. Longitudinal population-based studies show that sleep difficulties are uniquely linked with menopausal stage and changes in follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol, over and above the effects of age...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440942/mandibular-positioning-techniques-to-improve-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Sofie Wilkens Knappe, Liselotte Sonnesen
The purpose of this article is to review 1) mandibular advancement device (MAD) - indication, treatment success, and side effects; 2) maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery of the jaws - indication, treatment success, and side effects; and 3) current perspectives. Both MAD and MMA are administered to increase the upper airway volume and reduce the collapsibility of the upper airway. MAD is noninvasive and is indicated as a first-stage treatment in adult patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in patients with severe OSA unable to adhere to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440941/sleep-disturbances-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-prevalence-pathophysiology-impact-and-management-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Renae C Fernandez, Vivienne M Moore, Emer M Van Ryswyk, Tamara J Varcoe, Raymond J Rodgers, Wendy A March, Lisa J Moran, Jodie C Avery, R Doug McEvoy, Michael J Davies
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430200/exploring-sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Gaurav Nigam, Macario Camacho, Edward T Chang, Muhammad Riaz
Kidney disorders have been associated with a variety of sleep-related disorders. Therefore, researchers are placing greater emphasis on finding the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. Unfortunately, the presence of other sleep-related disorders with CKDs and non-CKDs has not been investigated with the same clinical rigor. Recent studies have revealed that myriad of sleep disorders are associated with CKDs. Furthermore, there are a few non-CKD-related disorders that are associated with sleep disorders...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
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