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Nature and Science of Sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950910/larks-owls-swifts-and-woodcocks-among-fruit-flies-differential-responses-of-four-heritable-chronotypes-to-long-and-hot-summer-days
#1
Lyudmila P Zakharenko, Dmitrii V Petrovskii, Arcady A Putilov
Purpose: Drosophila melanogaster and our own species share ( Homo sapiens ) the history of relatively rapid out-of-Africa dispersal. In Eurasia, they had faced a novel adaptive problem of adjustment of their circadian rhythmicity and night sleep episode to seasonal variation in day length and air temperature. Both species usually respond to heat and a short duration of night by reduction of the amount of night sleep and prolongation of "siesta". To further explore similarities between the two species in the ways of adjustment of their sleep-wake behavior to extreme environmental factors, this study examined the possibility to distinguish four extreme chronotypes among fruit flies and the possibility of the differential response of such chronotypes to light and heat stressors...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942169/sleeping-tongue-current-perspectives-of-genioglossus-control-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer M Cori, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Amy S Jordan
The focus of this review was on the genioglossus (GG) muscle and its role in maintaining upper airway patency in both healthy individuals and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This review provided an overview of GG anatomy and GG control and function during both wakefulness and sleep in healthy individuals and in those with OSA. We reviewed evidence for the role of the GG in OSA pathogenesis and also highlighted abnormalities in GG morphology, responsiveness, tissue movement patterns and neurogenic control that may contribute to or result from OSA...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942168/use-of-blood-biomarkers-to-screen-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Wesley Elon Fleming, Jon-Erik C Holty, Richard K Bogan, Dennis Hwang, Aliya S Ferouz-Colborn, Rohit Budhiraja, Susan Redline, Edith Mensah-Osman, Nadir Ishag Osman, Qing Li, Armaghan Azad, Susann Podolak, Michael K Samoszuk, Amabelle B Cruz, Yang Bai, Jiuliu Lu, John S Riley, Paula C Southwick
Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Unfortunately, up to 90% of individuals with OSA remain without a diagnosis or therapy. We assess the relationship between OSA and blood biomarkers, and test the hypothesis that combinations of markers provide a characteristic OSA signature with diagnostic screening value. This validation study was conducted in an independent cohort in order to replicate findings from a prior feasibility study...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881316/relevance-of-deprivation-studies-in-understanding-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#4
REVIEW
Rachna Mehta, Shafa Khan, Birendra N Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a unique phenomenon essential for maintaining normal physiological processes and is expressed at least in species higher in the evolution. The basic scaffold of the neuronal network responsible for REMS regulation is present in the brainstem, which may be directly or indirectly influenced by most other physiological processes. It is regulated by the neurons in the brainstem. Various manipulations including chemical, elec-trophysiological, lesion, stimulation, behavioral, ontogenic and deprivation studies have been designed to understand REMS genesis, maintenance, physiology and functional significance...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750062/mask-humidity-during-cpap-influence-of-ambient-temperature-heated-humidification-and-heated-tubing
#5
Georg Nilius, Ulrike Domanski, Maik Schroeder, Holger Woehrle, Andrea Graml, Karl-Josef Franke
Purpose: Mucosal drying during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is problematic for many patients. This study assessed the influence of ambient relative humidity (rH) and air temperature (T) in winter and summer on mask humidity during CPAP, with and without mask leak, and with or without heated humidification ± heated tubing. Methods: CPAP (8 and 12 cmH2 O) without humidification (no humidity [nH]), with heated humidification controlled by ambient temperature and humidity (heated humidity [HH]) and HH plus heated tubing climate line (CL), with and without leakage, were compared in 18 subjects with OSA during summer and winter...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731671/the-level-of-observed-physical-movement-accompanying-periodic-limb-movements-measured-in-a-clinical-sleep-population
#6
Robert G Hooper
Study objectives: Periodic limb movements (PLMs) are routinely measured during polysomnogram (PSG) testing. During the early years of sleep testing, physical movements were identified and over time, consensus ultimately led to the current definitions of movement disorders including criteria used to measure PLMs on PSG testing. There has been considerable debate about the clinical importance of the PLMs measured during PSG testing. Over the last decade, the author has observed significant variations in the actual visible physical movements observed with a PLM event...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719424/heart-rate-phenotypes-and-clinical-correlates-in-a-large-cohort-of-adults-without-sleep-apnea
#7
Zhaoyang Huang, Balaji Goparaju, He Chen, Matt T Bianchi
Background: Normal sleep is associated with typical physiological changes in both the central and autonomic nervous systems. In particular, nocturnal blood pressure dipping has emerged as a strong marker of normal sleep physiology, whereas the absence of dipping or reverse dipping has been associated with cardiovascular risk. However, nocturnal blood pressure is not measured commonly in clinical practice. Heart rate (HR) dipping in sleep may be a similar important marker and is measured routinely in at-home and in-laboratory sleep testing...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670412/the-effect-of-tonsillectomy-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Lauren K Reckley, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Macario Camacho
Objective: Tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy is a combination surgery that has been used to treat pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For adults, tonsillectomy has also been reported as a primary treatment modality when the tissue is hypertrophied. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy as used in the treatment of OSA in children and adults. Data sources: Nine databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576733/spotlight-on-daytime-napping-during-early-childhood
#9
REVIEW
Klára Horváth, Kim Plunkett
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445307/sleep-problems-during-the-menopausal-transition-prevalence-impact-and-management-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Fiona C Baker, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Ian M Colrain, Bei Bei
A substantial number of women experience sleep difficulties in the approach to menopause and beyond, with 26% experiencing severe symptoms that impact daytime functioning, qualifying them for a diagnosis of insomnia. Here, we review both self-report and polysomnographic evidence for sleep difficulties in the context of the menopausal transition, considering severity of sleep complaints and links between hot flashes (HFs) and depression with poor sleep. Longitudinal population-based studies show that sleep difficulties are uniquely linked with menopausal stage and changes in follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol, over and above the effects of age...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440942/mandibular-positioning-techniques-to-improve-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Sofie Wilkens Knappe, Liselotte Sonnesen
The purpose of this article is to review 1) mandibular advancement device (MAD) - indication, treatment success, and side effects; 2) maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery of the jaws - indication, treatment success, and side effects; and 3) current perspectives. Both MAD and MMA are administered to increase the upper airway volume and reduce the collapsibility of the upper airway. MAD is noninvasive and is indicated as a first-stage treatment in adult patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in patients with severe OSA unable to adhere to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440941/sleep-disturbances-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-prevalence-pathophysiology-impact-and-management-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Renae C Fernandez, Vivienne M Moore, Emer M Van Ryswyk, Tamara J Varcoe, Raymond J Rodgers, Wendy A March, Lisa J Moran, Jodie C Avery, R Doug McEvoy, Michael J Davies
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430200/exploring-sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Gaurav Nigam, Macario Camacho, Edward T Chang, Muhammad Riaz
Kidney disorders have been associated with a variety of sleep-related disorders. Therefore, researchers are placing greater emphasis on finding the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. Unfortunately, the presence of other sleep-related disorders with CKDs and non-CKDs has not been investigated with the same clinical rigor. Recent studies have revealed that myriad of sleep disorders are associated with CKDs. Furthermore, there are a few non-CKD-related disorders that are associated with sleep disorders...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416383/obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Amal M Osman, Sophie G Carter, Jayne C Carberry, Danny J Eckert
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) continues to rise. So too do the health, safety, and economic consequences. On an individual level, the causes and consequences of OSA can vary substantially between patients. In recent years, four key contributors to OSA pathogenesis or "phenotypes" have been characterized. These include a narrow, crowded, or collapsible upper airway "anatomical compromise" and "non-anatomical" contributors such as ineffective pharyngeal dilator muscle function during sleep, a low threshold for arousal to airway narrowing during sleep, and unstable control of breathing (high loop gain)...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403321/actigraphy-based-sleep-estimation-in-adolescents-and-adults-a-comparison-with-polysomnography-using-two-scoring-algorithms
#15
Mirja Quante, Emily R Kaplan, Michael Cailler, Michael Rueschman, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Elsie M Taveras, Susan Redline
Objectives: Actigraphy is widely used to estimate sleep-wake time, despite limited information regarding the comparability of different devices and algorithms. We compared estimates of sleep-wake times determined by two wrist actigraphs (GT3X+ versus Actiwatch Spectrum [AWS]) to in-home polysomnography (PSG), using two algorithms (Sadeh and Cole-Kripke) for the GT3X+ recordings. Subjects and methods: Participants included a sample of 35 healthy volunteers (13 school children and 22 adults, 46% male) from Boston, MA, USA...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391838/spotlight-on-dream-recall-the-ages-of-dreams
#16
REVIEW
Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro
Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184454/sleep-quality-and-circadian-rhythm-disruption-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Yuliya Boyko, Poul Jennum, Palle Toft
Sleep and circadian rhythm are reported to be severely abnormal in critically ill patients. Disturbed sleep can lead to the development of delirium and, as a result, can be associated with prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and increased mortality. The standard criterion method of sleep assessment, polysomnography (PSG), is complicated in critically ill patients due to the practical challenges and interpretation difficulties. Several PSG sleep studies in the ICU reported the absence of normal sleep characteristics in many critically ill patients, making the standard method of sleep scoring insufficient in this patient group...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138608/sleep-positions-and-nocturnal-body-movements-based-on-free-living-accelerometer-recordings-association-with-demographics-lifestyle-and-insomnia-symptoms
#18
Eivind Schjelderup Skarpsno, Paul Jarle Mork, Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen, Andreas Holtermann
Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and insomnia symptoms. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised data on a working population (363 men and 301 women) who participated in the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements (DPHACTO)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123432/a-pictorial-sleepiness-and-sleep-apnoea-scale-to-recognize-individuals-with-high-risk-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#19
Cathrin Edelmann, Ramesh Ghiassi, Deborah R Vogt, Martyn R Partridge, Ramin Khatami, Jörg D Leuppi, David Miedinger
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new pictorial form of a screening test for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) - the pictorial Sleepiness and Sleep Apnoea Scale (pSSAS). Validation was performed in a sample of patients admitted to sleep clinics in the UK and Switzerland. Patients and methods: All study participants were investigated with objective sleep tests such as full-night-attended polysomnography or polygraphy. The pSSAS was validated by taking into account the individual result of the sleep study, sleep-related questionnaires and objective parameters such as body mass index (BMI) or neck circumference...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089789/recent-legalization-of-cannabis-use-effects-on-sleep-health-and-workplace-safety
#20
EDITORIAL
Nicole P Bowles, Maya X Herzig, Steven A Shea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
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