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Infectious Disease Reports

Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen, Bjørn Blomberg, Shahin Gaïni, Steinar Lundemoen
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has an economic impact in animal husbandry by causing infection in swine, sheep and poultry. E. rhusiopathiae is present in the surface mucoid slime on fish, although fishes do not seem to be affected. Humans can get infected, maost often through occupational exposure and may suffer typical erysipeloid infection on exposed skin such as on hands and fingers, or deeper skin infections, and sometimes sepsis and endocarditis, associated with high case-fatality rate. We describe a case of aortic valve endocarditis caused by E...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Sung Ae Koh
We present a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis with bilateral adrenalitis resulting in Addison's disease. The 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) was performed, which revealed increased FDG uptake in the neck, mediastinal, and abdominal lymph nodes, and both adrenal glands, similar to the lesions noted on CT. We suspected the patient to have a lymphoma; therefore, axillary biopsy was performed, which revealed chronic granulomatous lesion with focal caseous necrosis...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Maria N Chitasombat, Pimjai Niparuck
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening disease requiring multimodal treatment with antifungals and surgery. The mortality rate remains high, prompting consideration of alternative treatment strategies. Deferiprone has in vitro activity against Mucorales , but its efficacy has never been evaluated in humans. Here, we retrospectively analyzed patients with confirmed mucormycosis who received deferiprone from 2011 to 2017. Five patients had hematologic malignancies and one was diabetic. The sites of infection included sinus-orbit-cerebral (67%), lung (17%), and disseminated infection (17%)...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Joseph M Rocco, Maggie K Benson
Aspergillus is a common environmental mold most often recognized as an infectious agent in patients with severe immune compromise. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis in the absence of other infectious symptoms. The search for a systemic source revealed an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm. Surgical resection and pathology revealed angioinvasive aspergillus aortitis. Recent cardiac surgery has been noted to be a risk factor for angioinvasive aspergillosis...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Daisy Torres-Miranda, Mahdi Moshgriz, Marc Siegel
Streptobacillus moniliformis , the cause of rat-bite fever (RBF) in the United States, has rarely been reported as a cause of infectious endocarditis. In the majority of previously reported cases, the diagnosis was clinically- based in patients with underlying valvular abnormalities in the setting of positive blood culture for Streptobacillus moniliformis . We report a case of native valve endocarditis secondary to Streptobacillus moniliformis in a woman with a mitral valve vegetation but negative blood cultures where the diagnosis was established using molecular diagnostics on the valvular tissue...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Paris A Cook, Aimee Mishler, Dan Quan, Ashley Parrish-Garcia
Botulism is caused by toxin production from many species of Clostridium , most commonly Clostridium botulinum as well as C. baratii and C. butyricum . Development of wound botulism is associated with injection drug users but has also been described in traumatic injuries with exposure to soil. A patient presented to the emergency department with a complaint of descending, progressive weakness. He recently reported skin popping with heroin injections. Heptavalent botulinum antitoxin was obtained from the [Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Damiano Larnè, Manuela Ceccarelli, Fabrizio Condorelli, Emmanuele Venanzi Rullo, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni Francesco Pellicanò
Pasteurella species reside in the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, especially in pets such as cats or dogs. Zoonotic transmission of Pasteurella to human is documented. We describe a case of meningitis in a 66-year-old woman with positive blood culture for Pasteurella multocida. Meningitis caused by zoonosis agents is a rare event, but it should be suspected in patients that have recreational or professional exposure to animals. In this case, not only the etiologic agent was rare, but the microorganism was also resistant to firstline antibiotic drugs...
September 5, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Sara Tedeschi, Pierluigi Viale
Liver cirrhosis is the 10th most common cause of death in Western world and infection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and represents the leading cause of acute liver decompensation. Patients with end-stage liver disease exhibit an important impairment of immune system. This condition, called cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction, summarizes both local and systemic immune system alterations in liver cirrhosis that play a pivotal role in determining both the high incidence of infections and the ominous infections related mortality in this population...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Tilemachos Fountoukis, Nikolaos Tsatsanidis, Maria Tilkeridou, Ioannis Konstantinou, Pantelis Fytas, Ioannis Skandalos
Pyomyositis is an uncommon primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscles, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Predisposing factors for pyomyositis include immunodeficiency, trauma, injection drug use, concurrent infection and malnutrition. The diagnosis, staging of the disease and differential diagnosis are established by ultrasound, CT and MRI. Treatment involves surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. We report a case of abdominal rectus muscle pyomyositis, which constitutes, as far as we know, the second reported in bibliography, while Prevotella disiens is firstly reported as causative agent...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Athina Lioni, Markela-Pagonitsa Zorzou, Christina Kollia, Dimitrios Loulakis, Fotini Ntziora, Fotini Stergiou, Maria Boboli, Maria Chini
Leukemoid reaction (LR) is an uncommon though dreadful sign for the treating physician, as it is related to increased mortality. In the few series that have addressed its incidence and clinical significance, infectious causes count for about half of the cases of LR, the rest accounting for cancer, drugs or rarer causes. In the HIV setting, it represents an even rarer event, owing probably to the impaired granulocytic response of AIDS patients to bacterial agents. However no report exists as to the incidence of LR to the immune-restored HIV patients adequately treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
José Antonio Mata-Marín, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza, María de Los Ángeles Berrospe-Silva, Alberto Chaparro-Sánchez, Ana Gil-Avila, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low andmiddle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIVinfected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Shahin Gaini, David Gudnason, Bjarni Á Steig, Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen
A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X-ray confirmed left lobar pneumonia. Two years later she was diagnosed with a pneumococcal pneumonia in her left lung with septic shock. An immune deficiency screen revealed slightly reduced IgA levels, low IgG2 levels, low IgG3 levels and high IgG1 levels...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Adriana Vince, Neven Papic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Ruchir Chavada, Harry N Walker, Deborah Tong, Amy Murray
The introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program is associated with a change in antimicrobial prescribing behavior. A proposed mechanism for this change is by impacting the prescribing etiquette described in qualitative studies. This study sought to detect a change in prescribing attitudes 12 months after the introduction of AMS and gauge utility of various AMS interventions. Surveys were distributed to doctors in two regional Australian hospitals on a convenience basis 6 months before, and 12 months after, the introduction of AMS...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Sebastian Noe, Celia Oldenbuettel, Silke Heldwein, Hans Jaeger, Eva Wolf
Risk factors for bone loss in HIV patients might differ or have a different impact in African descent compared to Caucasian populations. The aim of the paper is to analyze the relevance of risk factors on surrogate markers of bone metabolism in HIV-infected African descent and Caucasian patients. This is a cross-sectional study in a single HIV-specialized research and clinical care center in Munich, Germany. We included 889 patients in the study, among them 771 Caucasians (86.7%). Only in Caucasians lower vitamin D levels [OR: 2...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Thomas Taylor, Marcus Coe, Ana Mata-Fink, Richard Zuckerman
Propionibacterium species are associated with normal skin flora and cultures may be dismissed as contaminants. They are increasingly recognized as a cause of septic arthritis following shoulder arthroplasty and arthrotomy. We identified three cases of Propionibacterium septic arthritis in native joints mimicking atypical osteoarthritis and review the literature, clinical course, and treatment of 18 cases. Two cases of Propionibacterium acne in native knee joints and one in a sternoclavicular joint are described...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Genevieve Kerkerian, Arshia Alimohammadi, Tyler Raycraft, Brian Conway
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are global pandemics that affect 170 million and 35 million individuals, respectively. Up to 45% of individuals infected with HCV clear their infections spontaneously - correlating to factors like aboriginal descent and some host specific immune factors. HIV, however, establishes true latency in infected cells and cannot be cured. In the setting of longterm non-progressors (LTNPs) of HIV, a state of immune preservation and low circulating viral load is established...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Diego M Cecchini, Marina G Martinez, Laura M Morganti, Claudia G Rodriguez
We conducted a retrospective study in a general hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2009-2015) aimed at evaluating outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women (HIPW), who were prescribed raltegravir (RAL)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 239 HIPW were enrolled in our study; among them 31 received RAL (12.9%) at different clinical stages: i) intensification (INS): addition of RAL to current ART because of detectable antepartum viral load, 13 (41.9%); ii) late presenter (LP): standard ART + RAL as fourth drug, 15 (48...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Kheder Mohamed Altayep, Hussain Gadelakrim Ahmed, Amjad Tallaa A Tallaa, Ahmad Soud Alzayed, Aqeel Jazzaa Alshammari, Ayman Talla Ali Talla
The aim of the present study is to describe epidemiologic and clinical presentation, clinical complications and outcomes of patients diagnosed with influenza A infection (H1N1) during a one-year period. We retrospectively investigated 300 patients with influenza-like clinical presentation during the period January 2015 - January 2016 in King Khalid Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Fifty-four patients out of 300 (18%) were diagnosed with H1N1 virus infection; their age ranged from 7 months to 85 years, with a mean age of 25 years...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
Nurul I Hariadi, R Alexander Blackwood
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequent nontuberculous mycobacteria implicated in opportunistic infections that define acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With highly active antiretroviral therapy, disseminated MAC (dMAC) has become a rare entity. This unique case of dMAC was diagnosed in an adolescent with newly diagnosed perinatally-acquired HIV infection whose initial CD4 cell count was severely depleted and viral load was extremely high. While maximized treatment regimen had not been able to control his dMAC, improvement was noted when granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was added...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
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