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Infectious Disease Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403271/a-new-era-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis
#1
Enrico Girardi, Giuseppe Ippolito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403270/active-tuberculosis-case-finding-interventions-among-immigrants-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-italy
#2
Monica Sañé Schepisi, Gina Gualano, Pierluca Piselli, Marta Mazza, Donatella D'Angelo, Francesca Fasciani, Alberto Barbieri, Giorgia Rocca, Filippo Gnolfo, Piefranco Olivani, Maurizio Ferrarese, Luigi Ruffo Codecasa, Fabrizio Palmieri, Enrico Girardi
In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403269/tuberculosis-2015-burden-challenges-and-strategy-for-control-and-elimination
#3
REVIEW
Mario Raviglione, Giorgia Sulis
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for about 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths annually. The poorest and socially excluded groups carry the largest burden of disease, which makes it essential to properly address the social determinants of health through poverty reduction measures and targeted interventions on high-risk populations. The spread of multidrug-resistance TB requires special attention and highlights the need to foster research on TB diagnostics, new drugs and vaccines...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403268/new-antituberculosis-drugs-from-clinical-trial-to-programmatic-use
#4
REVIEW
Gina Gualano, Susanna Capone, Alberto Matteelli, Fabrizio Palmieri
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403267/tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-diagnosis-to-protection
#5
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Elisa Petruccioli, Simone A Joosten, Tom H M Ottenhoff
New approaches to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide are needed. In particular, new tools for diagnosis and new biomarkers are required to evaluate both pathogen and host key elements of the response to infection. Non-sputum based diagnostic tests, biomarkers predictive of adequate responsiveness to treatment, and biomarkers of risk of developing active TB disease are major goals. Here, we review the current state of the field. Although reports on new candidate biomarkers are numerous, validation and independent confirmation are rare...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403266/molecular-typing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-a-fundamental-tool-for-tuberculosis-control-and-elimination
#6
REVIEW
Angela Cannas, Antonio Mazzarelli, Antonino Di Caro, Giovanni Delogu, Enrico Girardi
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An improvement of the strategies for disease control is necessary in both low- and high-incidence TB countries. Clinicians, epidemiologists, laboratory specialists, and public health players should work together in order to achieve a significant reduction in TB transmission and spread of drug-resistant strains. Effective TB surveillance relies on early diagnosis of new cases, appropriate therapy, and accurate detection of outbreaks in the community, in order to implement proper TB control strategies...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103975/pityriasis-rosea-gianotti-crosti-syndrome-asymmetric-periflexural-exanthem-papular-purpuric-gloves-and-socks-syndrome-eruptive-pseudoangiomatosis-and-eruptive-hypomelanosis-do-their-epidemiological-data-substantiate-infectious-etiologies
#7
REVIEW
Antonio Chuh, Vijay Zawar, Gabriel F Sciallis, Werner Kempf, Albert Lee
Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies...
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103974/erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-bacteremia-without-endocarditis-rapid-identification-from-positive-blood-culture-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Luigi Principe, Silvia Bracco, Carola Mauri, Silvia Tonolo, Beatrice Pini, Francesco Luzzaro
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid) caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type of disease has been previously associated with a high incidence of endocarditis. Here we report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia in a 74-year-old man, probably started from an erysipeloid form, in which endocarditis did not develop...
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103973/first-report-of-acute-postoperative-endophthalmitis-caused-by-rothia-mucilaginosa-after-phacoemulsification
#9
Pablo Álvarez-Ramos, Amparo Del Moral-Ariza, José M Alonso-Maroto, Pilar Marín-Casanova, José M Calandria-Amigueti, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Enrique Rodríguez de la Rúa
We aimed at reporting the first case of rapidly progressive acute postoperative endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. An immunocompetent patient manifested endophthalmitis signs 48 hours after an uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A bacteria of the family Micrococcaceae was cultured in the vitreous biopsy, namely R. mucilaginosa. The patient did not show a favorable clinical response after vitrectomy and systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics...
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103972/interleukin-6-kinetics-can-be-useful-for-early-treatment-monitoring-of-severe-bacterial-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#10
Thomas Klag, Giulio Cantara, Udo Sechtem, Anastasios Athanasiadis
Early appropriate anti-microbial therapy is necessary to improve outcomes of septic patients. We describe 20 case histories of patients with severe bacterial sepsis regarding kinetics of several biomarkers. We found that interleukin-6 is able to predict survival and might be able to evaluate appropriateness of anti-microbial therapy.
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103971/thoracic-actinomycosis-a-rare-occurrence
#11
Waqas Jehangir, Bhumesh Vaidya, Souad Enakuaa, Nazar Raoof, John R Middleton, Abdalla Yousif
Actinomyces israelii is a branching anaerobic bacilli microorganism that can be identified as normal flora throughout various portions of the human alimentary canal. It is crucial to establish a diagnosis as treatment will vary depending on the clinical form of the disease. We report a case of a 78-year-old man who initially presented with an acute onset of respiratory distress displayed contrast leakage on computed tomography from the site of a previously inserted esophageal stent for an unsuccessful surgical repair of an esophageal rupture...
March 21, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753089/reply-to-the-possible-role-of-anti-methicillin-resistant-staphylococus-aureus-antimicrobial-agents-in-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#12
Marco Falcone, Alessandro Russo, Manuela Merli, Mario Venditti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753088/post-liposuction-mycobacterium-abscessus-surgical-site-infection-in-a-returned-medical-tourist-complicated-by-a-paradoxical-reaction-during-treatment
#13
Siong H Hui, Lisa Noonan, Ruchir Chavada
Rapidly growing mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infections are known to complicate cosmetic surgical procedures. Treatment consists of more surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. Paradoxical reactions occurring during antibiotic therapy can further complicate treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of post liposuction Mycobacterium abscessus surgical site infection in a returned medical tourist and occurrence of paradox during treatment...
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753087/the-possible-role-of-anti-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-antimicrobial-agents-in-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#14
Marco Fiore, Lorenzo Andreana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753086/acute-acalculous-cholecystitis-by-epstein-barr-virus-infection-a-rare-association
#15
Liliana Branco, Maria Vieira, Cristiana Couto, Maria D Coelho, Carla Laranjeira
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient...
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753085/reversible-deafness-and-blindness-in-a-patient-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-tanzania
#16
Matt Douglas-Vail, Taylor Bechamp, Simran Gohal, Robert Soegtrop, Sarah Vitali, Joan Rugemalila, Neil R H Stone
Cryptococcal meningitis is a common and devastating complication of advanced HIV, and is most prevalent in low resource settings in sub Saharan Africa. Raised intracranial pressure is one of the hallmarks of the disease, which can lead to visual and hearing loss and ultimately death. We present the case of a patient with visual and hearing impairment secondary to Cryptococcal meningitis successfully managed by serial cerebrospinal fluid drainage. This case highlights some of the challenges of managing this severe opportunistic infection in a low resource setting...
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753084/access-to-safe-water-and-personal-hygiene-practices-in-the-kulandia-refugee-camp-jerusalem
#17
Mohamad Issa, Michael McHenry, Abdul Aziz Issa, R Alexander Blackwood
Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices...
December 22, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26500743/spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-patient-with-cirrhosis-the-potential-role-for-daptomycin-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Marco Falcone, Alessandro Russo, Giovanni Pacini, Manuela Merli, Mario Venditti
Gram-positive cocci are emerging causes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), especially in patients with healthcare-associated infections. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with hepatitis C virus and alcohol-related cirrhosis who developed SBP due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with daptomycin. We discuss the potential role of daptomycin in this setting with a review of the literature about the use of daptomycin in primary or secondary bacterial peritonitis.
August 11, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26500742/importance-of-coryneform-bacteria-in-infective-endocarditis
#19
Alexander von Graevenitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26500741/gastrointestinal-mucormycosis-resulting-in-a-catastrophic-outcome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#20
Suresh J Antony, Monisha S Parikh, Ruben Ramirez, Bruce Applebaum, Glen Friedman, Jennifer Do
We present a case of a middle-aged female who was admitted to the hospital with a respiratory infection and subsequently developed an acute surgical abdomen secondary to a perforated viscous. She was found to have mucormycosis of the intestinal tract and eventually succumbed to the sequelae of the infection.
August 11, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
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