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Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217783/stem-cell-technology-in-breast-cancer-current-status-and-potential-applications
#1
REVIEW
Rena Chiotaki, Hara Polioudaki, Panayiotis A Theodoropoulos
Breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer among females, is supported by the presence of a rare subset of undifferentiated cells within the tumor, identified as breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). BCSCs underlie the mechanisms of tumor initiation and sustenance and are implicated in the dissemination of the primary tumor to metastatic sites, as they have been found circulating in the blood of breast cancer patients. The discovery of BCSCs has generated a great amount of interest among the scientific community toward their isolation, molecular characterization, and therapeutic targeting...
2016: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143939/characterization-of-neural-stemness-status-through-the-neurogenesis-process-for-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Maeda H Mohammad, Ahmed M Al-Shammari, Ahmad Adnan Al-Juboory, Nahi Y Yaseen
The in vitro isolation, identification, differentiation, and neurogenesis characterization of the sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated to produce two types of cells in culture: neural cells and neural stem cells (NSCs). These types of stem cells were used as successful sources for the further treatment of central nervous system defects and injuries. The mouse bone marrow MSCs were used as the source of the stem cells in this study. β-Mercaptoethanol (BME) was used as the main inducer of the neurogenesis pathway to induce neural cells and to identify NSCs...
2016: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715856/stem-cell-technology-for-tendon-regeneration-current-status-challenges-and-future-research-directions
#3
REVIEW
Pauline Po Yee Lui
Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604802/human-adipose-stem-cell-and-asc-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cellular-therapy-improves-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#4
Philip Mc Davy, Kevin D Lye, Juanita Mathews, Jesse B Owens, Alice Y Chow, Livingston Wong, Stefan Moisyadi, Richard C Allsopp
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well as induced cardiac-like progenitors (iCPs) derived from ASCs for the treatment of myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, ASCs, and iCPs generated from ASCs using three defined cardiac lineage transcription factors were assessed in an immune-compromised mouse myocardial infarction model...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586955/from-bench-to-bedside-use-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Vaughan Feisst, Sarah Meidinger, Michelle B Locke
Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage. Standardization of nomenclature around the different cell types used is finally being adopted, which facilitates comparison of results between research groups. In vitro studies have assessed the ability of ASC to undergo mesenchymal differentiation as well as differentiation along alternate lineages (transdifferentiation)...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451119/mesenchymal-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-general-insights-and-clinical-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Helena D Zomer, Atanásio S Vidane, Natalia N Gonçalves, Carlos E Ambrósio
Mesenchymal stem cells have awakened a great deal of interest in regenerative medicine due to their plasticity, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. They are high-yield and can be acquired through noninvasive methods from adult tissues. Moreover, they are nontumorigenic and are the most widely studied. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be derived directly from adult cells through gene reprogramming. The new iPS technology avoids the embryo destruction or manipulation to generate pluripotent cells, therefore, are exempt from ethical implication surrounding embryonic stem cell use...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26357483/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-osteoarthritis-current-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Cody C Wyles, Matthew T Houdek, Atta Behfar, Rafael J Sierra
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26251620/progress-toward-curing-hiv-infection-with-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Lawrence D Petz, John C Burnett, Haitang Li, Shirley Li, Richard Tonai, Milena Bakalinskaya, Elizabeth J Shpall, Sue Armitage, Joanne Kurtzberg, Donna M Regan, Pamela Clark, Sergio Querol, Jonathan A Gutman, Stephen R Spellman, Loren Gragert, John J Rossi
HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-∆32/∆32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26185458/embryonic-maternal-cross-talk-via-exosomes-potential-implications
#9
Islam M Saadeldin, Hyun Ju Oh, Byeong Chun Lee
A myriad of locally produced factors into the microenvironment of the reproductive tract is regulated, not one-way but rather, through embryonic-maternal cross-talk. In this mini-review, we focused on the exosomes, which are cell-derived vesicles of 30-100 nm in diameter, as a communicating language facilitating this dialog. These nanovesicles are secreted from pre-implantation embryos, oviduct epithelium, and endometrium as well as from the placenta, and contain proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA, and DNA cargoes, and have pleiotropic effects on both embryonic and maternal environments...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999743/cardiac-tissue-engineering-and-regeneration-using-cell-based-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad T Alrefai, Divya Murali, Arghya Paul, Khalid M Ridwan, John M Connell, Dominique Shum-Tim
Stem cell therapy and tissue engineering represent a forefront of current research in the treatment of heart disease. With these technologies, advancements are being made into therapies for acute ischemic myocardial injury and chronic, otherwise nonreversible, myocardial failure. The current clinical management of cardiac ischemia deals with reestablishing perfusion to the heart but not dealing with the irreversible damage caused by the occlusion or stenosis of the supplying vessels. The applications of these new technologies are not yet fully established as part of the management of cardiac diseases but will become so in the near future...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25960670/regulators-of-pluripotency-and-their-implications-in-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Ahmed El-Badawy, Nagwa El-Badri
The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to replace damaged tissues with new functioning ones. This can potentially be accomplished by stem cell transplantation. While stem cell transplantation for blood diseases has been increasingly successful, widespread application of stem cell therapy in the clinic has shown limited results. Despite successful efforts to refine existing methodologies and to develop better ones for reprogramming, clinical application of stem cell therapy suffers from issues related to the safety of the transplanted cells, as well as the low efficiency of reprogramming technology...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25926746/regenerative-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-position
#12
REVIEW
Diana Álvarez, Melanie Levine, Mauricio Rojas
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible disease of the lung that has no lasting option for therapy other than transplantation. It is characterized by replacement of the normal lung tissue by fibrotic scarring, honeycombing, and increased levels of myofibroblasts. The underlying causes of IPF are still largely unknown. The focus of the current review is the possible use of stem cell therapy, specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a multipotent stromal cell population, which have demonstrated promising data in multiple animal models of pulmonary fibrosis (PF)...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25848307/postnatal-oogenesis-in-humans-a-review-of-recent-findings
#13
REVIEW
Irma Virant-Klun
In spite of generally accepted dogma that the total number of follicles and oocytes is established in human ovaries during the fetal period of life rather than forming de novo in adult ovaries, some new evidence in the field challenges this understanding. Several studies have shown that different populations of stem cells, such as germinal stem cells and small round stem cells with diameters of 2 to 4 μm, that resembled very small embryonic-like stem cells and expressed several genes related to primordial germ cells, pluripotency, and germinal lineage are present in adult human ovaries and originate in ovarian surface epithelium...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25709479/stem-cell-technology-for-bone-regeneration-current-status-and-potential-applications
#14
REVIEW
Greg Asatrian, Dalton Pham, Winters R Hardy, Aaron W James, Bruno Peault
Continued improvements in the understanding and application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have revolutionized tissue engineering. This is particularly true within the field of skeletal regenerative medicine. However, much remains unknown regarding the native origins of MSC, the relative advantages of different MSC populations for bone regeneration, and even the biologic safety of such unpurified, grossly characterized cells. This review will first summarize the initial discovery of MSC, as well as the current and future applications of MSC in bone tissue engineering...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25691811/hedgehog-signaling-in-cancer-stem-cells-a-focus-on-hematological-cancers
#15
REVIEW
Victoria Campbell, Mhairi Copland
The stem cell paradigm was first demonstrated in hematopoietic stem cells. Whilst classically it was cytokines and chemokines which were believed to control stem cell fate, more recently it has become apparent that the stem cell niche and highly conserved embryonic pathways play a key role in governing stem cell behavior. One of these pathways, the hedgehog signaling pathway, found in all organisms, is vitally important in embryogenesis, performing the function of patterning through early stages of development, and in adulthood, through the control of somatic stem cell numbers...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609984/failure-of-y-27632-to-improve-the-culture-of-adult-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Nuno Jorge Lamas, Sofia C Serra, António J Salgado, Nuno Sousa
Y-27632 is a well-known inhibitor of the Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) and has been shown to significantly improve the culture of a variety of multipotent stem cell types. However, the effects of Y-27632 on the expansion of adult human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) cultures remain to be established. Here, we aimed to characterize the effects of Y-27632 on the culture of hADSCs. Adult hADSCs were isolated from subjects submitted to elective plastic surgery procedures and cultivated in vitro under optimized conditions...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25565870/fetal-exposure-to-a-diabetic-intrauterine-environment-resulted-in-a-failure-of-cord-blood-endothelial-progenitor-cell-adaptation-against-chronic-hypoxia
#17
U Deniz Dincer
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has long-term health consequences, and fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment increases cardiovascular risk for her adult offspring. Some part of this could be related to their endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Understanding the vessel-forming ability of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB)-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) against pathological stress such as GDM response to hypoxia could generate new therapeutic strategies. This study aims to investigate the role of chronic hypoxia in EPCs functional and vessel-forming ability in GDM subjects...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506229/some-aspects-of-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-advances-and-controversy
#18
REVIEW
Olga Blau, Igor Wolfgang Blau
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders. MDS remains a disease of elderly patients; moreover, the incidence of high risk MDS is proportionally greater in elderly patients, with increased frequency of secondary acute myeloid leukemia, as well as adverse cytogenetic abnormalities. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic approach with known curative potential for patients with MDS that allows the achievement of long-term disease control. Numerous controversies still exist regarding transplantation in MDS: timing of transplantation, disease status at transplantation and comorbidity, conditioning intensity, pretransplant therapy, and stem cell source...
2014: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506228/from-regenerative-dentistry-to-regenerative-medicine-progress-challenges-and-potential-applications-of-oral-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Li Xiao, Masanori Nasu
Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade...
2014: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25328412/specialized-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-for-studying-vascular-development
#20
Drew E Glaser, Andrew B Burns, Rachel Hatano, Magdalena Medrzycki, Yuhong Fan, Kara E McCloskey
Vascular progenitor cells are desirable in a variety of therapeutic strategies; however, the lineage commitment of endothelial and smooth muscle cell from a common progenitor is not well-understood. Here, we report the generation of the first dual reporter mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines designed to facilitate the study of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle development in vitro. These mESC lines express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the endothelial promoter, Tie-2, and Discomsoma sp. red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the promoter for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)...
2014: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
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