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Biomarkers in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721658/selecting-targets-for-tumor-imaging-an-overview-of-cancer-associated-membrane-proteins
#1
Martin C Boonstra, Susanna W L de Geus, Hendrica A J M Prevoo, Lukas J A C Hawinkels, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Peter J K Kuppen, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Cornelis F M Sier
Tumor targeting is a booming business: The global therapeutic monoclonal antibody market accounted for more than $78 billion in 2012 and is expanding exponentially. Tumors can be targeted with an extensive arsenal of monoclonal antibodies, ligand proteins, peptides, RNAs, and small molecules. In addition to therapeutic targeting, some of these compounds can also be applied for tumor visualization before or during surgery, after conjugation with radionuclides and/or near-infrared fluorescent dyes. The majority of these tumor-targeting compounds are directed against cell membrane-bound proteins...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721657/association-of-mthfr-c677t-gene-polymorphism-with-breast-cancer-in-north-india
#2
Mohammad Waseem, Syed Rizwan Hussain, Shashank Kumar, Mohammad Serajuddin, Farzana Mahdi, Satyendra Kumar Sonkar, Cherry Bansal, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and is associated with a variety of risk factors. The functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect the chemosensitivity of tumor cells. This study was designed to investigate the association of MTHFR gene polymorphism (SNP) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer among the North Indian women population...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679534/pet-metabolic-biomarkers-for-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Etienne Croteau, Jennifer M Renaud, Marie Anne Richard, Terrence D Ruddy, François Bénard, Robert A deKemp
The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication-all processes that require a large amount of energy...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486347/oncogenes-the-passport-for-viral-oncolysis-through-pkr-inhibition
#4
REVIEW
Janaina Fernandes
The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398030/quantitative-perfusion-and-permeability-biomarkers-in-brain-cancer-from-tomographic-ct-and-mr-images
#5
REVIEW
Armin Eilaghi, Timothy Yeung, Christopher d'Esterre, Glenn Bauman, Slav Yartsev, Jay Easaw, Enrico Fainardi, Ting-Yim Lee, Richard Frayne
Dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion and permeability imaging, using computed tomography and magnetic resonance systems, are important techniques for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of healthy brain parenchyma and tumors. These techniques can measure blood flow, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability surface area product and, thus, may provide information complementary to clinical and pathological assessments. These have been used as biomarkers to enhance the treatment planning process, to optimize treatment decision-making, and to enable monitoring of the treatment noninvasively...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398029/tissue-and-serum-associated-biomarkers-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Ranjit Chauhan, Nivedita Lahiri
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279751/predicting-clinical-outcomes-using-molecular-biomarkers
#7
REVIEW
Harry B Burke
Over the past 20 years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of biomarkers. At the last count, there were 768,259 papers indexed in PubMed.gov directly related to biomarkers. Although many of these papers claim to report clinically useful molecular biomarkers, embarrassingly few are currently in clinical use. It is suggested that a failure to properly understand, clinically assess, and utilize molecular biomarkers has prevented their widespread adoption in treatment, in comparative benefit analyses, and their integration into individualized patient outcome predictions for clinical decision-making and therapy...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257396/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-decreasing-risk-of-cardiac-toxicity-after-cancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Christine Henri, Therese Heinonen, Jean-Claude Tardif
With the improvement of cancer therapy, survival related to malignancy has improved, but the prevalence of long-term cardiotoxicity has also increased. Cancer therapies with known cardiac toxicity include anthracyclines, biologic agents (trastuzumab), and multikinase inhibitors (sunitinib). The most frequent presentation of cardiac toxicity is dilated cardiomyopathy associated with poorest prognosis. Monitoring of cardiac toxicity is commonly performed by assessment of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, which requires a significant amount of myocardial damage to allow detection of cardiac toxicity...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226737/targeted-radionuclide-therapy-practical-applications-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Katherine Zukotynski, Hossein Jadvar, Jacek Capala, Frederic Fahey
In recent years, there has been a proliferation in the development of targeted radionuclide cancer therapy. It is now possible to use baseline clinical and imaging assessments to determine the most effective therapy and to tailor this therapy during the course of treatment based on radiation dosimetry and tumor response. Although this personalized approach to medicine has the advantage of maximizing therapeutic effect while limiting toxicity, it can be challenging to implement and expensive. Further, in order to use targeted radionuclide therapy effectively, there is a need for multidisciplinary awareness, education, and collaboration across the scientific, industrial, and medical communities...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226736/impact-of-concanavalin-a-mediated-cytoskeleton-disruption-on-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-internalization-and-cell-surface-expression-in-glioblastomas
#10
Samuel Burke Nanni, Jonathan Pratt, David Beauchemin, Khadidja Haidara, Borhane Annabi
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a multiligand endocytic receptor, which plays a pivotal role in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics during cancer cell migration. Its rapid endocytosis further allows efficient clearance of extracellular ligands. Concanavalin-A (ConA) is a lectin used to trigger in vitro physiological cellular processes, including cytokines secretion, nitric oxide production, and T-lymphocytes activation. Given that ConA exerts part of its effects through cytoskeleton remodeling, we questioned whether it affected LRP-1 expression, intracellular trafficking, and cell surface function in grade IV U87 glioblastoma cells...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168728/the-present-and-future-of-biomarkers-in-prostate-cancer-proteomics-genomics-and-immunology-advancements
#11
REVIEW
Pierre-Olivier Gaudreau, John Stagg, Denis Soulières, Fred Saad
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168727/bmi1-a-biomarker-of-hematologic-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Anagh A Sahasrabuddhe
BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147897/biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Fataneh Karandish, Sanku Mallik
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%-3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147896/assessment-of-cytokeratin-19-gene-expression-in-peripheral-blood-of-breast-cancer-patients-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#14
Saeideh Keyvani, Nasrin Karimi, Zahra Orafa, Saeid Bouzari, Mana Oloomi
Detection of cytokeratin-19 (CK19) expression as an epithelial-specific marker in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of breast cancer patients can be important for diagnostic purposes. Comparison of CK19 expression in breast cancer cell lines can indicate that expression of this marker is different in various breast cancer cell lines based on their category. Thirty-five breast cancer patients were evaluated for detection of CK19 mRNA in their peripheral blood using CK19-specific primers and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997874/role-of-biomarkers-in-the-development-of-parp-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Bratati Ganguly, Sonia C Dolfi, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Shridar Ganesan, Kim M Hirshfield
Defects in DNA repair lead to genomic instability and play a critical role in cancer development. Understanding the process by which DNA damage repair is altered or bypassed in cancer may identify novel therapeutic targets and lead to improved patient outcomes. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has an important role in DNA repair, and novel therapeutics targeting PARP1 have been developed to treat cancers with defective DNA repair pathways. Despite treatment successes with PARP inhibitors (PARPi), intrinsic and acquired resistances have been observed...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997873/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-advanced-ovarian-cancer-tissue-to-identify-potential-biomarkers-of-responders-and-nonresponders-to-first-line-chemotherapy-of-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel
#16
Urmila Sehrawat, Ruchika Pokhriyal, Ashish Kumar Gupta, Roopa Hariprasad, Mohd Imran Khan, Divya Gupta, Jasmine Naru, Sundararajan Baskar Singh, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Perumal Vanamail, Lalit Kumar, Sunesh Kumar, Gururao Hariprasad
Conventional treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is an initial debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Despite initial high response, three-fourths of these women experience disease recurrence with a dismal prognosis. Patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery were enrolled and tissue samples were collected. Post surgery, these patients were started on chemotherapy and followed up till the end of the cycle. Fluorescence-based differential in-gel expression coupled with mass spectrometric analysis was used for discovery phase of experiments, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and pathway analysis were performed for expression and functional validation of differentially expressed proteins...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997872/novel-molecular-markers-for-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Kazushi Inoue, Elizabeth A Fry
The use of molecular biomarkers assures that breast cancer (BC) patients receive optimal treatment. Established biomarkers, such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki67, have been playing significant roles in the subcategorization of BC to predict the prognosis and decide the specific therapy to each patient. Antihormonal therapy using 4-hydroxytamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors have been employed in patients whose tumor cells express hormone receptors, while monoclonal antibody to HER2 has been administered to HER2-positive BCs...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966393/a-unique-procedure-to-identify-cell-surface-markers-through-a-spherical-self-organizing-map-applied-to-dna-microarray-analysis
#18
Yuh Sugii, Tomonari Kasai, Masashi Ikeda, Arun Vaidyanath, Kazuki Kumon, Akifumi Mizutani, Akimasa Seno, Heizo Tokutaka, Takayuki Kudoh, Masaharu Seno
To identify cell-specific markers, we designed a DNA microarray platform with oligonucleotide probes for human membrane-anchored proteins. Human glioma cell lines were analyzed using microarray and compared with normal and fetal brain tissues. For the microarray analysis, we employed a spherical self-organizing map, which is a clustering method suitable for the conversion of multidimensional data into two-dimensional data and displays the relationship on a spherical surface. Based on the gene expression profile, the cell surface characteristics were successfully mirrored onto the spherical surface, thereby distinguishing normal brain tissue from the disease model based on the strength of gene expression...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949344/imaging-biomarkers-in-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Rosalyn A Juergens, Katherine A Zukotynski, Amit Singnurkar, Denis P Snider, John F Valliant, Karen Y Gulenchyn
Immune-based therapies have been in use for decades but recent work with immune checkpoint inhibitors has now changed the landscape of cancer treatment as a whole. While these advances are encouraging, clinicians still do not have a consistent biomarker they can rely on that can accurately select patients or monitor response. Molecular imaging technology provides a noninvasive mechanism to evaluate tumors and may be an ideal candidate for these purposes. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of varied immunotherapies and the current strategies for monitoring patients with imaging...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949343/the-va-point-of-care-precision-oncology-program-balancing-access-with-rapid-learning-in-molecular-cancer-medicine
#20
Louis D Fiore, Mary T Brophy, Sara Turek, Valmeek Kudesia, Nithya Ramnath, Colleen Shannon, Ryan Ferguson, Saiju Pyarajan, Melissa A Fiore, John Hornberger, Philip Lavori
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recognized the need to balance patient-centered care with responsible creation of generalizable knowledge on the effectiveness of molecular medicine tools. Embracing the principles of the rapid learning health-care system, a new clinical program called the Precision Oncology Program (POP) was created in New England. The POP integrates generalized knowledge about molecular medicine in cancer with a database of observations from previously treated veterans. The program assures access to modern genomic oncology practice in the veterans affairs (VA), removes disparities of access across the VA network of clinical centers, disseminates the products of learning that are generalizable to non-VA settings, and systematically presents opportunities for patients to participate in clinical trials of targeted therapeutics...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
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