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Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912636/should-emergency-endoscopy-be-performed-in-all-patients-with-suspected-colonic-diverticular-hemorrhage
#1
Takeshi Uehara, Satohiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Miyatani, Hirosato Mashima
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to develop a scoring system for facilitating decision making regarding the performance of emergency endoscopy in patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. METHODS: This study involved analysis of the data of 178 patients who presented with hematochezia and were diagnosed as having colonic diverticular hemorrhage by colonoscopy. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether the bleeding source was identified or not at the initial endoscopy (source-identified and source-not-identified groups), and on the basis of the results obtained, we established a scoring system for predicting successful identification of the bleeding source...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894394/normative-values-for-colonic-transit-time-and-patient-assessment-of-constipation-in-adults-with-functional-constipation-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Larry E Miller, Alvin Ibarra, Arthur C Ouwehand
Availability of normative patient outcome data may assist in designing experiments and estimating sample sizes. The purpose of this review was to determine normative ranges for colonic transit time (CTT), Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM), and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) in adults diagnosed with functional constipation per Rome III guidelines. Pooled estimates were derived from random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to explore sources of heterogeneity among studies...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894393/review-of-rifaximin-latest-treatment-frontier-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mechanism-of-action-and-clinical-profile
#3
Kamesh Gupta, Harparam Singh Ghuman, Shivani Vijay Handa
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world's population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634431/the-aftermath-of-a-hepatic-artery-aneurysm-a-rare-etiology-of-biliary-obstruction
#4
Catherine Linzay, Abhishek Seth, Kunal Suryawala, Ankur Sheth, Moheb Boktor, John Bienvenu, Robby Rahim, Guillermo P Sangster, Paul A Jordan
BACKGROUND: Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs) constitute 14% to 20% of visceral artery aneurysms. Most HAAs are asymptomatic. Although rare, obstructive jaundice due to external bile duct compression or rupture of the HAA into the biliary tree with occlusion of the lumen from blood clots has been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old white man presented to an outside hospital with symptoms of obstructive jaundice, including abdominal pain and yellowing of the skin...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611533/functional-budd-chiari-syndrome-associated-with-severe-polycystic-liver-disease
#5
Precil Diego Miranda de Menezes Neves, Bruno Eduardo Pedroso Balbo, Elieser Hitoshi Watanabe, Vinicius Rocha-Santos, Wellington Andraus, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz Fernando Onuchic
A 50-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was referred to a quaternary care center due to significantly increased abdominal girth. Her physical examination revealed tense ascites and abdominal collateral veins. A 10-L paracentesis improved abdominal discomfort and disclosed a transudate, suggestive of portal hypertension. A computed tomographic scan revealed massive hepatomegaly caused by multiple cysts of variable sizes, distributed throughout all hepatic segments...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607547/omeprazole-domperidone-fixed-dose-combination-vs-omeprazole-monotherapy-a-phase-4-open-label-comparative-parallel-randomized-controlled-study-in-mild-to-moderate-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#6
K Y Marakhouski, G A Karaseva, D N Ulasivich, Y Kh Marakhouski
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of omeprazole-domperidone combination vs omeprazole monotherapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: In a comparative, randomized controlled, phase 4 study, outpatients with GERD were randomly allocated to either group 1 (omeprazole 20 mg + domperidone 30 mg) or group 2 (omeprazole 20 mg) in an equal ratio; 2 capsules daily in the morning were administered for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891056/eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-restores-ki67-p53-and-cyclin-d1-immunoreactivity-in-the-human-gastric-epithelium
#7
Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Vasilios Papadopoulos, Theodoros Emanouil, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Vasileia Damaskou, Georgios Tziatzios, Ioannis G Panayiotides, Irene Vafiadis, Spiros D Ladas
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication on p53, cyclin D1 expression, and cell proliferation in gastric mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed p53, cyclin D1, and ki67 immunoexpression in gastric mucosa from 31 HP chronic gastritis patients and 12 controls. Reassessment was performed 6 months after successful HP eradication. RESULTS: Successful eradication resulted in significant decrease of p53 (1...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812296/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approaches-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-understanding-the-barcelona-cl%C3%A3-nic-liver-cancer-protocol
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Soldera, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Andreza Gautério Cavalcanti
Each year, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half a million people worldwide and it is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common cancer in women. This article reviews the Barcelona-Clínic Liver Cancer protocol for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this disease, and four cases are presented for the discussion of the therapeutic approach. Understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease is essential, especially if we keep in mind the quintessential basics of prevention and early detection...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721663/primary-esophageal-intramural-squamous-cell-carcinoma-masquerading-as-a-submucosal-tumor-a-rare-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#9
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Vinay B Pawar, Suhas Udgirkar, Pravin M Rathi
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the commonest primary malignant esophageal tumor, which typically presents as endoscopically visible surface mucosal ulcerations, irregularities, or polyploidal masses. We here report a rare case of primary ESCC with completely intramural growth under a normal looking intact nondysplastic surface squamous epithelium disguising as a submucosal tumor. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy-guided mucosal biopsy was negative for malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed a heteroechoic solid mass originating from the muscularis propria of the distal esophagus...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656094/the-role-of-laboratory-tests-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Maria Cappello, Gaetano Cristian Morreale
In the past, laboratory tests were considered of limited value in Crohn's disease (CD). In the era of biologics, laboratory tests have become essential to evaluate the inflammatory burden of the disease (C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin) since symptoms-based scores are subjective, to predict the response to pharmacological options and the risk of relapse, to discriminate CD from ulcerative colitis, to select candidates to anti-tumor necrosis factors [screening tests looking for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus status and latent tuberculosis], to assess the risk of adverse events (testing for thiopurine metabolites and thiopurine-methyltransferase activity), and to personalize and optimize therapy (therapeutic drug monitoring)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486350/elderly-onset-celiac-disease-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Maria Cappello, Gaetano C Morreale, Anna Licata
Celiac sprue is a chronic disease, which usually occurs in children and young adults. However, it can develop in any age group, and the prevalence is increasing even in the elderly population. The atypical patterns of clinical presentation in this age group sometimes can cause a delay in diagnosis. Given the lower sensitivity and specificity of serological tests in the aged population, clinical suspect often arises in the presence of complications (autoimmune disorders, fractures, and finally, malignancy) and must be supported by endoscopic and imaging tools...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375362/comparing-the-roles-of-eus-ercp-and-mrcp-in-idiopathic-acute-recurrent-pancreatitis
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Taghi Safari, Mohammad Bager Miri, Shahram Ebadi, Shabnam Shahrokh, Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh
Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) is defined as more than two attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete or almost complete resolution of symptoms and signs of pancreatitis between episodes. The initial evaluation fails to detect the cause of ARP in 10%-30% of patients, whose condition is classified as idiopathic ARP. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has gained increasing attention as a useful imaging modality for the pancreas and the extrahepatic biliary tree. The close proximity of the pancreas to the digestive tract allows EUS to obtain detailed images of this organ...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330337/internal-herniation-through-foramen-of-winslow-a-diagnosis-not-to-be-missed
#13
Edmund Leung, Simon Bramhall, Prajeesh Kumar, Moustafa Mourad, Amdad Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Hernias through the foramen of Winslow are extremely rare, accounting for 0.1% of all abdominal hernias. Delayed diagnosis is often observed, resulting in bowel strangulation and high mortality. METHOD: We present a case of a patient with strangulated ileum herniated through the foramen of Winslow. Recent literature review was undertaken on "PubMed" as a search platform using the keywords "foramen of Winslow" and "hernia". CASE SUMMARY: A 66-year-old man presented acutely with severe epigastric pain and vomiting...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330336/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-therapeutic-options-and-surveillance-management
#14
REVIEW
Aditi Kumar, Daniel Wheatley, Amar Puttanna
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic immune-mediated liver disease. Though rare, it poses several clinical concerns for the managing physician. There are currently limited therapeutic options in the management of the condition and weak evidence base behind them. Endoscopic intervention is limited to those patients with obstructing stricture-related disease, and even liver transplantation has a risk of disease recurrence. Surveillance for inflammatory bowel disorders, metabolic bone disease, and malignancy is paramount when managing such patients...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279758/palliation-of-dysphagia-in-carcinoma-esophagus
#15
REVIEW
Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Somanath Malage, G S Sreenath, Sudhakar Kotlapati, Sunu Cyriac
Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081323/gastric-hamartomatous-polyps-review-and-update
#16
REVIEW
Monika Vyas, Xiu Yang, Xuchen Zhang
Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819564/-pinstripe-pattern-in-an-achalasia-patient
#17
Atsushi Imagawa, Keiko Takeuchi, Kozue Suto
Endoscopic image of achalasia usually shows dilated esophageal cavity with retained liquids and foods. Recently, "pinstripe pattern" (PSP) in the case of achalasia patient was reported as an endoscopic image of the indicator for early detection of achalasia. The typical endoscopic image of PSP can be recognized in this case.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692767/hemostasis-achieved-endoscopically-for-diverticular-bleeding-from-the-horizontal-portion-of-the-duodenum
#18
Yasumasa Matuso, Hiroshi Yasuda, Midori Suzuki, Shinya Ishigooka, Shun-Ichiro Ozawa, Masaki Yamashita, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fumio Itoh
Diverticulum of the horizontal portion of the duodenum is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Since it is difficult to access the horizontal portion of the duodenum by standard upper GI endoscopy, only a very few cases of endoscopic hemostasis have been reported. Herein, we report a case of diverticular bleeding from the horizontal portion of the duodenum for which hemostasis was achieved using a small-caliber colonoscope, which has an insertion part designed with a passive-bending function/high-force transmission and a transparent tip hood...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692766/bioelectrical-stimulation-for-the-reduction-of-inflammation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Ryan Marshall, Ian Taylor, Christopher Lahr, Thomas L Abell, Ingrid Espinoza, Nitin K Gupta, Christian R Gomez
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the primary inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The current therapy aims at decreasing inflammation and reducing symptoms. This typically requires immune suppression by steroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Patients may be unreceptive to medical therapy, and some may discontinue the treatment due to adverse effects. Noninvasive, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently used as a treatment for depression and epilepsy, and it is being investigated for the treatment of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, migraines, and Alzheimer's disease...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561280/factors-associated-with-hepatitis-c-knowledge-before-and-after-an-educational-intervention-among-vietnamese-americans
#20
Sunmin Lee, Shumenghui Zhai, Guo Yolanda Zhang, Xiang S Ma, Xiaoxiao Lu, Yin Tan, Philip Siu, Brenda Seals, Grace X Ma
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer. Vietnamese Americans are at high risk of HCV infection, with men having the highest US incidence of liver cancer. This study examines an intervention to improve HCV knowledge among Vietnamese Americans. STUDY: Seven Vietnamese community-based organizations in Pennsylvania and New Jersey recruited a total of 306 Vietnamese participants from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS: Average knowledge scores for pretest and posttest were 3...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
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