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Nanotechnology, Science and Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578966/synthesis-characterization-applications-and-challenges-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#1
REVIEW
Attarad Ali, Hira Zafar, Muhammad Zia, Ihsan Ul Haq, Abdul Rehman Phull, Joham Sarfraz Ali, Altaf Hussain
Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536080/erratum-factors-determining-the-stability-size-distribution-and-cellular-accumulation-of-small-monodisperse-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-candidate-vectors-for-anticancer-drug-delivery-application-to-the-passive-encapsulation-of-14-c-doxorubicin-corrigendum
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486313/a-role-of-zno-nanoparticle-electrostatic-properties-in-cancer-cell-cytotoxicity
#3
Denise Wingett, Panagiota Louka, Catherine B Anders, Jianhui Zhang, Alex Punnoose
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have previously been shown to exhibit selective cytotoxicity against certain types of cancerous cells suggesting their potential use in biomedical applications. In this study, we investigate the effect of surface modification of ZnO NPs on their cytotoxicity to both cancerous and primary T cells. Our results show that polyacrylic acid capping produces negatively charged ZnO NPs that are significantly more toxic compared to uncapped positively charged NPs of identical size and composition...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051278/applications-and-toxicity-of-graphene-family-nanomaterials-and-their-composites
#4
REVIEW
Zorawar Singh
Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811673/silver-nanoparticle-ink-technology-state-of-the-art
#5
REVIEW
Krishna Rajan, Ignazio Roppolo, Annalisa Chiappone, Sergio Bocchini, Denis Perrone, Alessandro Chiolerio
Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715842/factors-determining-the-stability-size-distribution-and-cellular-accumulation-of-small-monodisperse-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-candidate-vectors-for-anticancer-drug-delivery-application-to-the-passive-encapsulation-of-14-c-doxorubicin
#6
Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Suzanne M Cutts, Benny J Evison, Don R Phillips, Paul J Pigram
Development of parameters for the fabrication of nanosized vectors is pivotal for its successful administration in therapeutic applications. In this study, homogeneously distributed chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) with diameters as small as 62 nm and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.15 were synthesized and purified using a simple, robust method that was highly reproducible. Nanoparticles were synthesized using modified ionic gelation of the chitosan polymer with sodium tripolyphosphate. Using this method, larger aggregates were mechanically isolated from single particles in the nanoparticle population by selective efficient centrifugation...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640374/nanotechnology-based-inhalation-treatments-for-lung-cancer-state-of-the-art
#7
REVIEW
Javed Ahmad, Sohail Akhter, Md Rizwanullah, Saima Amin, Mahfoozur Rahman, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Mohammad A Kamal, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP) carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604715/cellulose-nanocrystals-synthesis-functional-properties-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Johnsy George, S N Sabapathi
Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491270/emerging-optical-nanoscopy-techniques
#9
REVIEW
Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi
To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25784794/in-vitro-studies-of-the-toxic-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-hela-and-u937-cells
#10
Said I Kaba, Elena M Egorova
In the last decade, much attention has been paid to studies of the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on tumor cells. Apart from elucidation of the mechanism of NPs' interaction with mammalian cells, these studies are aimed at discovering new effective antitumor drugs. In this work, we report about the toxic effects of Ag NPs observed on two types of tumor cells: HeLa (adhesive cells) and U937 (suspension cells). The Ag NPs were obtained by an original method of biochemical synthesis. Particle size was 13...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609931/innovations-in-nanotechnology-for-water-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-Schulz
Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25489238/effects-of-spray-drying-on-w-o-w-multiple-emulsions-prepared-from-a-stearic-acid-matrix
#12
Nichrous Mlalila, Hulda Swai, Lonji Kalombo, Askwar Hilonga
The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404853/comparative-performance-of-a-panel-of-commercially-available-antimicrobial-nanocoatings-in-europe
#13
Johan W Molling, Jacques W Seezink, Birgit Ej Teunissen, Inhua Muijrers-Chen, Paul Ja Borm
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance against the classic antibiotics is posing an increasing challenge for the prevention and treatment of infections in health care environments. The introduction of antimicrobial nanocoatings with active ingredients provides alternative measures for active killing of microorganisms, through a preventive hygiene approach. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a panel of antimicrobial coatings available on the European market...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25339846/investigation-of-structural-and-electronic-properties-of-epitaxial-graphene-on-3c-sic-100-si-100-substrates
#14
REVIEW
Noelle Gogneau, Amira Ben Gouider Trabelsi, Mathieu G Silly, Mohamed Ridene, Marc Portail, Adrien Michon, Mehrezi Oueslati, Rachid Belkhou, Fausto Sirotti, Abdelkarim Ouerghi
Graphene has been intensively studied in recent years in order to take advantage of its unique properties. Its synthesis on SiC substrates by solid-state graphitization appears a suitable option for graphene-based electronics. However, before developing devices based on epitaxial graphene, it is desirable to understand and finely control the synthesis of material with the most promising properties. To achieve these prerequisites, many studies are being conducted on various SiC substrates. Here, we review 3C-SiC(100) epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si(100) substrates for producing graphene by solid state graphitization under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25249756/prevention-of-bacterial-foodborne-disease-using-nanobiotechnology
#15
REVIEW
Craig Billington, J Andrew Hudson, Elaine D'Sa
Foodborne disease is an important source of expense, morbidity, and mortality for society. Detection and control constitute significant components of the overall management of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and this review focuses on the use of nanosized biological entities and molecules to achieve these goals. There is an emphasis on the use of organisms called bacteriophages (phages: viruses that infect bacteria), which are increasingly being used in pathogen detection and biocontrol applications. Detection of pathogens in foods by conventional techniques is time-consuming and expensive, although it can also be sensitive and accurate...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25187699/nanotechnology-in-agriculture-prospects-and-constraints
#16
REVIEW
Siddhartha S Mukhopadhyay
Attempts to apply nanotechnology in agriculture began with the growing realization that conventional farming technologies would neither be able to increase productivity any further nor restore ecosystems damaged by existing technologies back to their pristine state; in particular because the long-term effects of farming with "miracle seeds", in conjunction with irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, have been questioned both at the scientific and policy levels, and must be gradually phased out. Nanotechnology in agriculture has gained momentum in the last decade with an abundance of public funding, but the pace of development is modest, even though many disciplines come under the umbrella of agriculture...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25187698/hysteresis-modeling-in-ballistic-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistors
#17
Yian Liu, Mateus S Moura, Ademir J Costa, Luiz Alberto L de Almeida, Makarand Paranjape, Marcio Fontana
Theoretical models are adapted to describe the hysteresis effects seen in the electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The ballistic transport model describes the contributions of conduction energy sub-bands over carbon nanotube field-effect transistor drain current as a function of drain-source and gate-source voltages as well as other physical parameters of the device. The limiting-loop proximity model, originally developed to understand magnetic hysteresis, is also utilized in this work...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24966671/nanotechnology-in-agri-food-production-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Bhupinder Singh Sekhon
Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24808721/new-materials-graphyne-graphdiyne-graphone-and-graphane-review-of-properties-synthesis-and-application-in-nanotechnology
#19
REVIEW
Qing Peng, Albert K Dearden, Jared Crean, Liang Han, Sheng Liu, Xiaodong Wen, Suvranu De
Plenty of new two-dimensional materials including graphyne, graphdiyne, graphone, and graphane have been proposed and unveiled after the discovery of the "wonder material" graphene. Graphyne and graphdiyne are two-dimensional carbon allotropes of graphene with honeycomb structures. Graphone and graphane are hydrogenated derivatives of graphene. The advanced and unique properties of these new materials make them highly promising for applications in next generation nanoelectronics. Here, we briefly review their properties, including structural, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, as well as their synthesis and applications in nanotechnology...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24198499/the-effect-of-nanoparticle-uptake-on-cellular-behavior-disrupting-or-enabling-functions
#20
REVIEW
Alice Panariti, Giuseppe Miserocchi, Ilaria Rivolta
Nanoparticles (NPs) are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems...
2012: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
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