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Nanotechnology, Science and Applications

Tehila Nahum, Hanna Dodiuk, Samuel Kenig, Artee Panwar, Carol Barry, Joey Mead
Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs) to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC) and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
P Kalakonda, S Banne
It is well known that the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can strongly affect the thermomechanical and electrical properties of the polymer into which they are dispersed. The common solvent mixing dispersion method of functionalized CNTs and polymer composites can improve thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, functionalized single-walled CNTs (COOH-SWCNTs) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were used to fabricate the polymer nanocomposites using a common solvent dispersion mixing method...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Ke Tong
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alginate-chitosan microcapsule on viability characteristics of Bacillus subtilis and the ability of B. subtilis/alginate-chitosan microcapsule to remove uranium ion from aqueous solution. The effects of particle size, chitosan molecular weight and inoculum density on viability characteristics were studied using alginate-chitosan microcapsule-immobilized B. subtilis experiments. In addition, the effects of pH, immobilized spherule dosage, temperature, initial uranium ion concentration and contact time on removal of uranium ion were studied using batch adsorption experiments...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Alhaji Zubair Jaji, Md Zuki Bin Abu Bakar, Rozi Mahmud, Mohamad Yusof Loqman, Mohamad Noor Mohamad Hezmee, Tijani Isa, Fu Wenliang, Nahidah Ibrahim Hammadi
Calcium carbonate is a porous inorganic nanomaterial with huge potential in biomedical applications and controlled drug delivery. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties and in vitro efficacy and safety of cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (ANC) as a potential therapeutic and hormonal delivery vehicle for osteoporosis management. Free and human recombinant parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH 1-34)-loaded cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (PTH-ANC) were synthesized and evaluated using standard procedures...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
E S Bronze-Uhle, B C Costa, V F Ximenes, P N Lisboa-Filho
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs) may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Nichrous G Mlalila, Hulda Shaidi Swai, Askwar Hilonga, Dattatreya M Kadam
This study presents a simple and trouble-free method for determining the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands. AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction method using silver nitrates as a metallic precursor and formaldehyde (HCHO) as a reducing agent and capped by polyethylene glycol. Effects of several processing variables on the size and shape of AgNPs were monitored using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer based on their SPR bands...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Attarad Ali, Hira Zafar, Muhammad Zia, Ihsan Ul Haq, Abdul Rehman Phull, Joham Sarfraz Ali, Altaf Hussain
Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Denise Wingett, Panagiota Louka, Catherine B Anders, Jianhui Zhang, Alex Punnoose
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have previously been shown to exhibit selective cytotoxicity against certain types of cancerous cells suggesting their potential use in biomedical applications. In this study, we investigate the effect of surface modification of ZnO NPs on their cytotoxicity to both cancerous and primary T cells. Our results show that polyacrylic acid capping produces negatively charged ZnO NPs that are significantly more toxic compared to uncapped positively charged NPs of identical size and composition...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Zorawar Singh
Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Krishna Rajan, Ignazio Roppolo, Annalisa Chiappone, Sergio Bocchini, Denis Perrone, Alessandro Chiolerio
Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today...
2016: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Suzanne M Cutts, Benny J Evison, Don R Phillips, Paul J Pigram
Development of parameters for the fabrication of nanosized vectors is pivotal for its successful administration in therapeutic applications. In this study, homogeneously distributed chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) with diameters as small as 62 nm and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.15 were synthesized and purified using a simple, robust method that was highly reproducible. Nanoparticles were synthesized using modified ionic gelation of the chitosan polymer with sodium tripolyphosphate. Using this method, larger aggregates were mechanically isolated from single particles in the nanoparticle population by selective efficient centrifugation...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Javed Ahmad, Sohail Akhter, Md Rizwanullah, Saima Amin, Mahfoozur Rahman, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Mohammad A Kamal, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP) carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Johnsy George, S N Sabapathi
Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi
To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Said I Kaba, Elena M Egorova
In the last decade, much attention has been paid to studies of the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on tumor cells. Apart from elucidation of the mechanism of NPs' interaction with mammalian cells, these studies are aimed at discovering new effective antitumor drugs. In this work, we report about the toxic effects of Ag NPs observed on two types of tumor cells: HeLa (adhesive cells) and U937 (suspension cells). The Ag NPs were obtained by an original method of biochemical synthesis. Particle size was 13...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-Schulz
Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts...
2015: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Nichrous Mlalila, Hulda Swai, Lonji Kalombo, Askwar Hilonga
The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Johan W Molling, Jacques W Seezink, Birgit Ej Teunissen, Inhua Muijrers-Chen, Paul Ja Borm
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance against the classic antibiotics is posing an increasing challenge for the prevention and treatment of infections in health care environments. The introduction of antimicrobial nanocoatings with active ingredients provides alternative measures for active killing of microorganisms, through a preventive hygiene approach. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a panel of antimicrobial coatings available on the European market...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Noelle Gogneau, Amira Ben Gouider Trabelsi, Mathieu G Silly, Mohamed Ridene, Marc Portail, Adrien Michon, Mehrezi Oueslati, Rachid Belkhou, Fausto Sirotti, Abdelkarim Ouerghi
Graphene has been intensively studied in recent years in order to take advantage of its unique properties. Its synthesis on SiC substrates by solid-state graphitization appears a suitable option for graphene-based electronics. However, before developing devices based on epitaxial graphene, it is desirable to understand and finely control the synthesis of material with the most promising properties. To achieve these prerequisites, many studies are being conducted on various SiC substrates. Here, we review 3C-SiC(100) epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si(100) substrates for producing graphene by solid state graphitization under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions...
2014: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
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