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Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases

Stephen G Schwartz, Christopher T Leffler, Pamela S Chavis, Faraaz Khan, Dennis Bermudez, Harry W Flynn
Federico da Montefeltro (1422-1482), the Duke of Urbino, was a well-known historical figure during the Italian Renaissance. He is the subject of a famous painting by Piero della Francesca (1416-1492), which displays the Duke from the left and highlights his oddly shaped nose. The Duke is known to have lost his right eye due to an injury sustained during a jousting tournament, which is why the painting portrays him from the left. Some historians teach that the Duke subsequently underwent nasal surgery to remove tissue from the bridge of his nose in order to expand his visual field in an attempt to compensate for the lost eye...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Shreya Thatte, Rimpi Rana, Neeraj Gaur
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess bleb function using Wuerzburg bleb classification score (WBCS) for bleb morphology on slit lamp, intraocular pressure (IOP), and gonioscopy. METHODS: A total of randomly selected 30 eyes posttrabeculectomy were assessed for bleb function with the trio of bleb morphology, IOP, and gonioscopy. Bleb was assessed using the WBCS of 0-12 on slit lamp, IOP was assessed using applanation tonometry, and visualization of inner ostium and iridectomy were assessed using gonioscopy...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Paulus T V M de Jong
Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Abdulrahman Darraj, Walid Barakat, Mona Kenani, Reem Shajry, Abdullah Khawaji, Sultan Bakri, Abdulrahman Makin, Azza Mohanna, Abu Obaida Yassin
BACKGROUND: The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher F Blodi
David Kasner, MD (1927-2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966-1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Ryan Enslow, Sai Bhuvanagiri, Sravanthi Vegunta, Benjamin Cutler, Michael Neff, Brian Stagg
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries in people over the age of 60 years. One of the forms of advanced AMD is wet AMD. Wet AMD is a result of leakage and bleeding from abnormal neovascularization. The principal treatment for wet AMD is intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. A second form of advanced AMD is geographic atrophy (GA). GA refers to large areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. In the literature, there is some concern that anti-VEGF injections administered to treat wet AMD may be associated with progression of GA...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Svetlana V Kyosseva
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Virgilio Galvis, Alejandro Tello, Néstor I Carreño, Alvaro I Ortiz, Rodrigo Barrera, Carlos Julián Rodriguez, Miguel E Ochoa
We performed a retrospective interventional case series including 80 eyes of 48 patients with keratoconus (KC) who were treated with modified corneal cross-linking (CXL) for KC (with a partial deepithelization in a pattern of stripes). The average follow-up was 5.8 years (with a minimum of 5 years). At the last follow-up visit, compared with preoperative values, there were no significant changes in spherical equivalent, average keratometry, corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, or corneal resistance factor...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Fernanda Pacella, Adriana Francesca Ferraresi, Paolo Turchetti, Tommaso Lenzi, Rosalia Giustolisi, Andrea Bottone, Valeria Fameli, Maria Rosaria Romano, Elena Pacella
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone injections in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: A 700 μg slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreal cavity of 17 patients (19 eyes) affected with persistent DME. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Olufunmilola A Ogun, Jokotade O Adeleye
BACKGROUND: Ocular manifestations of thyroid dysfunction constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from minor ocular discomfort, lid retraction, lid lag and ocular injection, to sight threatening eyeball protusion and optic nerve compression. Thyroid-related eye disorders are most commonly associated with Graves' disease, and this most frequently occurs in the setting of hyperthyroidism. However, in 10% of cases, typical eye signs have also been reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid states...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
C Domngang Noche, O Njajou, F X Etoa
INTRODUCTION: Glaucoma is a public health issue worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Cameroon, the prevalence rate of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) ranges between 4.5% and 8.2%. Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been implicated in digestive and extra-digestive diseases, including glaucoma. The objective of this work was to evaluate the implication of CagA- and VacA-positive strains of HP in POAG using a case-control design. METHODS: An analytical study was conducted from October 2013 to December 2013...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kagmeni Giles, Christelle Domngang, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Ebana Mvogo Come, Peter Wiedemann
AIM: To describe a surgical technique suitable for cataract surgery in regions with a high prevalence of HIV infection. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 20 consecutive AIDS patients with cataract who underwent modified small-incision cataract surgery (mSICS) with posterior chamber lens implantation. Classic extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was compared to mSICS. The number of potentially risky steps for contamination during surgery and duration of surgery were analyzed...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz, Francesca M Giliberti, Matthew T Young, Dennis Bermudez
Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Nonso Ejikeme Okpala, Rich Enujioke Umeh, Ernest Nnemeka Onwasigwe
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kyriakoula Merakou, Georgia Varouxi, Anastasia Barbouni, Eleni Antoniadou, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios Theodoridis, Aristea Koutsouri, Jenny Kourea-Kremastinou
INTRODUCTION: Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS: Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group)...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Elena Pacella, Fernanda Pacella, Giulio De Paolis, Francesca Romana Parisella, Paolo Turchetti, Giulia Anello, Carlo Cavallotti
AIM: To investigate possible age-related changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the human cornea. The substances today called GAGs were previously referred to as mucopolysaccharides. METHODS: Samples of human cornea were taken from 12 younger (age 21 ± 1.2) and 12 older (age 72 ± 1.6) male subjects. Samples were weighed, homogenized, and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. All the quantitative results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The human cornea appears to undergo age-related changes, as evidenced by our biochemical and molecular results...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kalina Andreeva, Meixia Zhang, Wei Fan, Xiaohong Li, Yinlu Chen, Jovan D Rebolledo-Mendez, Nigel G Cooper
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury has been associated with several retinal pathologies, and a few genes/gene products have been linked to IR injury. However, the big picture of temporal changes, regarding the affected gene networks, pathways, and processes remains to be determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate initial, intermediate, and later stages to characterize the etiology of IR injury in terms of the pathways affected over time. Analyses indicated that at the initial stage, 0-hour reperfusion following the ischemic period, the ischemia-associated genes were related to changes in metabolism...
2014: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Clyde Schultz
Dry-eye syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Various factors, including age, hormonal status, genetics, sex, immune status, innervation status, nutrition, pathogens, and environmental stress, can alter the cellular and molecular structure or function of components of the ocular surface system. The resulting imbalance increases susceptibility to desiccation and epithelial damage, leading to a vicious circle in which inflammation amplifies and sustains further damage by chronic deregulation of the system...
2014: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Lik Thai Lim, Yanhong Gong, Elliott Y Ah-Kee, Gexin Xiao, Xiulan Zhang, Shicheng Yu
BACKGROUND: Myopia is a very common condition and a significant public health problem in China. The objective of the study was to explore the genetic influence on myopia in Mainland China school-aged children in Beijing. METHODS: In 2008, the data from 15,316 Chinese school students aged 6-18 years from 19 randomized schools in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate genetic influence on myopia in children. Heritability was calculated by mid-parent-offspring regression and parent-offspring regression...
2014: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Giles Kagmeni, Christelle Domngang Noche, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Peter Wiedemann
OBJECTIVE: To determine the main clinical indications for surgical removal of the eye in rural areas in Cameroon. DESIGN: Retrospective non-comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 253 patients presenting to the Manna eye clinic Nkongsamba who underwent destructive eye surgery (DES) between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Age, gender, occupation, prior medication, visual acuity, operation indications, and type of operation...
2014: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
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