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Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases

Jason N Crosson, Lauren Mason, John O Mason
Introduction: To review important studies examining focal laser for diabetic macular edema (DME), to examine real-world data regarding actual treatments patients are receiving, to present long-term visual outcomes in real-world practice, and to suggest an evidence-based approach for the use of focal laser. Methods: This study is a review of landmark studies evaluating focal laser and pharmacologic therapy for DME. In addition, the authors include a retrospective review of 102 consecutive eyes of 53 patients in our practice setting in rural Alabama...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: John Thomas Woolhouse (1666-1733/1734), who practiced in Paris, was part of a family with 5 generations of English oculists. Some historians have derided him as a "charlatan" and have criticized him for adhering to the old notion that a cataract was a membrane anterior to the lens. METHODS: We reviewed treatises and digital records related to Woolhouse and his family and the handwritten notes of his 1721 lecture series at the Royal Society of Medicine...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz, John Q Le
English surgeon John Taylor attempted to perform strabismus surgery in the 18th century. The field languished until, in Germany, treatment of strabismus by cutting an extraocular muscle was proposed by Louis Stromeyer in 1838 and performed by Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in 1839. According to traditional teaching, there has never been any proof that anyone in the United States thought of the idea of strabismus surgery before Stromeyer's report. In 1841, American surgeon William Gibson wrote that he had cut extraocular muscles to treat strabismus several times beginning in 1818 but never published his cases...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kagmeni Giles, Yannick Bilong, Andin Viola Dohvoma, Steve Robert Ebana, Hortance Gonsu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the conjunctival flora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODOLOGY: A total of 104 conjunctival swabs from 104 HIV patients on ART underwent microbiological evaluation to describe the flora. RESULT: There were 71 (68.26%) women and 33 (31.74%) men. The mean age was 42.9 ± 9.77 (range: 22-70) years. Negative cultures were found in 39 (37.50%) cases. Bacterial growth occurred in 65 (62...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz, Ricardo D Wainsztein, Adam Pflugrath, Eric Peterson
New World plants, such as tobacco, tomato, and chili, were held to have beneficial effects on the eyes. Indigenous healers rubbed or scraped the eyes or eyelids to treat inflammation, corneal opacities, and even eye irritation from smoke. European settlers used harsh treatments, such as bleeding and blistering, when the eyes were inflamed or had loss of vision with a normal appearance (gutta serena). In New Spain, surgery for corneal opacity was performed in 1601 and cataract couching in 1611. North American physicians knew of contralateral loss of vision after trauma or surgery (sympathetic ophthalmia), which they called "sympathy...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Jeffrey Ma, Ria Desai, Peter Nesper, Manjot Gill, Amani Fawzi, Dimitra Skondra
Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is emerging as a rapid, noninvasive imaging modality that can provide detailed structural and flow information on retinal and choroidal vasculature. This review contains an introduction of OCTA and summarizes the studies to date on OCTA imaging in age-related macular degeneration.
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Marta Cerdà-Ibáñez, Antonio Duch-Samper, Rodrigo Clemente-Tomás, Raúl Torrecillas-Picazo, Noemí Ruiz Del Río, Laura Manfreda-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Perfusion of the optic nerve has been widely studied using fluorescein angiography (FAG), which is currently regarded as the criterion standard. However, FAG has adverse effects associated with intravenous contrast administration and is limited in its capacity to characterize and stratify the different vascular layers of the optic nerve and retina. The use of new imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomographic angiography (Angio-OCT), is therefore important. AIM: A qualitative description is made of the vascular layers of the optic nerve and of how vascular events affect radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC)...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Koushik Tripathy
Prof Lalit Prakash Agarwal drafted the National Programme for Prevention of Visual Impairment and Control of Blindness (now called National Programme for Control of Blindness) in India in 1976, first of its kind in the world. With his vision well ahead of his time, he brought the concept of super-specialty in Indian ophthalmology. He founded Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, the apex governmental ophthalmological center of India. His contributions to modern Indian Ophthalmology were so profound that we may not be mistaken by calling him "the father of modern Indian Ophthalmology...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kagmeni Giles, Ebana Steve Robert, Ebana Mvogo Come, Peter Wiedemann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) with intraocular lens implantation performed in outreach surgical eye camps. METHODS: The medical records of 47 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral small-incision cataract surgery between January 2010 and December 2015 in outreach surgical camps in rural Cameroon were reviewed. The measures included postoperative visual outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Pei Xu, Jianbin Chen
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics and therapies of a rare case of primary synovial sarcoma in the orbit. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case report. PARTICIPANT: A 6-year-old girl with pathologically proven synovial sarcoma in the orbit. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. METHODS: The patient was treated with right lateral orbital and right temporal tumor resection, followed by chemotherapy...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Stephen G Schwartz, Christopher T Leffler, Pamela S Chavis, Faraaz Khan, Dennis Bermudez, Harry W Flynn
Federico da Montefeltro (1422-1482), the Duke of Urbino, was a well-known historical figure during the Italian Renaissance. He is the subject of a famous painting by Piero della Francesca (1416-1492), which displays the Duke from the left and highlights his oddly shaped nose. The Duke is known to have lost his right eye due to an injury sustained during a jousting tournament, which is why the painting portrays him from the left. Some historians teach that the Duke subsequently underwent nasal surgery to remove tissue from the bridge of his nose in order to expand his visual field in an attempt to compensate for the lost eye...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Shreya Thatte, Rimpi Rana, Neeraj Gaur
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess bleb function using Wuerzburg bleb classification score (WBCS) for bleb morphology on slit lamp, intraocular pressure (IOP), and gonioscopy. METHODS: A total of randomly selected 30 eyes posttrabeculectomy were assessed for bleb function with the trio of bleb morphology, IOP, and gonioscopy. Bleb was assessed using the WBCS of 0-12 on slit lamp, IOP was assessed using applanation tonometry, and visualization of inner ostium and iridectomy were assessed using gonioscopy...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Paulus T V M de Jong
Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Abdulrahman Darraj, Walid Barakat, Mona Kenani, Reem Shajry, Abdullah Khawaji, Sultan Bakri, Abdulrahman Makin, Azza Mohanna, Abu Obaida Yassin
BACKGROUND: The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher F Blodi
David Kasner, MD (1927-2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966-1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Ryan Enslow, Sai Bhuvanagiri, Sravanthi Vegunta, Benjamin Cutler, Michael Neff, Brian Stagg
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries in people over the age of 60 years. One of the forms of advanced AMD is wet AMD. Wet AMD is a result of leakage and bleeding from abnormal neovascularization. The principal treatment for wet AMD is intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. A second form of advanced AMD is geographic atrophy (GA). GA refers to large areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. In the literature, there is some concern that anti-VEGF injections administered to treat wet AMD may be associated with progression of GA...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Svetlana V Kyosseva
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Virgilio Galvis, Alejandro Tello, Néstor I Carreño, Alvaro I Ortiz, Rodrigo Barrera, Carlos Julián Rodriguez, Miguel E Ochoa
We performed a retrospective interventional case series including 80 eyes of 48 patients with keratoconus (KC) who were treated with modified corneal cross-linking (CXL) for KC (with a partial deepithelization in a pattern of stripes). The average follow-up was 5.8 years (with a minimum of 5 years). At the last follow-up visit, compared with preoperative values, there were no significant changes in spherical equivalent, average keratometry, corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, or corneal resistance factor...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Fernanda Pacella, Adriana Francesca Ferraresi, Paolo Turchetti, Tommaso Lenzi, Rosalia Giustolisi, Andrea Bottone, Valeria Fameli, Maria Rosaria Romano, Elena Pacella
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone injections in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: A 700 μg slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreal cavity of 17 patients (19 eyes) affected with persistent DME. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Olufunmilola A Ogun, Jokotade O Adeleye
BACKGROUND: Ocular manifestations of thyroid dysfunction constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from minor ocular discomfort, lid retraction, lid lag and ocular injection, to sight threatening eyeball protusion and optic nerve compression. Thyroid-related eye disorders are most commonly associated with Graves' disease, and this most frequently occurs in the setting of hyperthyroidism. However, in 10% of cases, typical eye signs have also been reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid states...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
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