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Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases

Jeffrey Ma, Ria Desai, Peter Nesper, Manjot Gill, Amani Fawzi, Dimitra Skondra
Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is emerging as a rapid, noninvasive imaging modality that can provide detailed structural and flow information on retinal and choroidal vasculature. This review contains an introduction of OCTA and summarizes the studies to date on OCTA imaging in age-related macular degeneration.
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Marta Cerdà-Ibáñez, Antonio Duch-Samper, Rodrigo Clemente-Tomás, Raúl Torrecillas-Picazo, Noemí Ruiz Del Río, Laura Manfreda-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Perfusion of the optic nerve has been widely studied using fluorescein angiography (FAG), which is currently regarded as the criterion standard. However, FAG has adverse effects associated with intravenous contrast administration and is limited in its capacity to characterize and stratify the different vascular layers of the optic nerve and retina. The use of new imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomographic angiography (Angio-OCT), is therefore important. AIM: A qualitative description is made of the vascular layers of the optic nerve and of how vascular events affect radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC)...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Koushik Tripathy
Prof Lalit Prakash Agarwal drafted the National Programme for Prevention of Visual Impairment and Control of Blindness (now called National Programme for Control of Blindness) in India in 1976, first of its kind in the world. With his vision well ahead of his time, he brought the concept of super-specialty in Indian ophthalmology. He founded Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, the apex governmental ophthalmological center of India. His contributions to modern Indian Ophthalmology were so profound that we may not be mistaken by calling him "the father of modern Indian Ophthalmology...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kagmeni Giles, Ebana Steve Robert, Ebana Mvogo Come, Peter Wiedemann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) with intraocular lens implantation performed in outreach surgical eye camps. METHODS: The medical records of 47 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral small-incision cataract surgery between January 2010 and December 2015 in outreach surgical camps in rural Cameroon were reviewed. The measures included postoperative visual outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Pei Xu, Jianbin Chen
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics and therapies of a rare case of primary synovial sarcoma in the orbit. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case report. PARTICIPANT: A 6-year-old girl with pathologically proven synovial sarcoma in the orbit. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. METHODS: The patient was treated with right lateral orbital and right temporal tumor resection, followed by chemotherapy...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Stephen G Schwartz, Christopher T Leffler, Pamela S Chavis, Faraaz Khan, Dennis Bermudez, Harry W Flynn
Federico da Montefeltro (1422-1482), the Duke of Urbino, was a well-known historical figure during the Italian Renaissance. He is the subject of a famous painting by Piero della Francesca (1416-1492), which displays the Duke from the left and highlights his oddly shaped nose. The Duke is known to have lost his right eye due to an injury sustained during a jousting tournament, which is why the painting portrays him from the left. Some historians teach that the Duke subsequently underwent nasal surgery to remove tissue from the bridge of his nose in order to expand his visual field in an attempt to compensate for the lost eye...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Shreya Thatte, Rimpi Rana, Neeraj Gaur
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess bleb function using Wuerzburg bleb classification score (WBCS) for bleb morphology on slit lamp, intraocular pressure (IOP), and gonioscopy. METHODS: A total of randomly selected 30 eyes posttrabeculectomy were assessed for bleb function with the trio of bleb morphology, IOP, and gonioscopy. Bleb was assessed using the WBCS of 0-12 on slit lamp, IOP was assessed using applanation tonometry, and visualization of inner ostium and iridectomy were assessed using gonioscopy...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Paulus T V M de Jong
Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Abdulrahman Darraj, Walid Barakat, Mona Kenani, Reem Shajry, Abdullah Khawaji, Sultan Bakri, Abdulrahman Makin, Azza Mohanna, Abu Obaida Yassin
BACKGROUND: The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher F Blodi
David Kasner, MD (1927-2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966-1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Ryan Enslow, Sai Bhuvanagiri, Sravanthi Vegunta, Benjamin Cutler, Michael Neff, Brian Stagg
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries in people over the age of 60 years. One of the forms of advanced AMD is wet AMD. Wet AMD is a result of leakage and bleeding from abnormal neovascularization. The principal treatment for wet AMD is intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. A second form of advanced AMD is geographic atrophy (GA). GA refers to large areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. In the literature, there is some concern that anti-VEGF injections administered to treat wet AMD may be associated with progression of GA...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Svetlana V Kyosseva
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Virgilio Galvis, Alejandro Tello, Néstor I Carreño, Alvaro I Ortiz, Rodrigo Barrera, Carlos Julián Rodriguez, Miguel E Ochoa
We performed a retrospective interventional case series including 80 eyes of 48 patients with keratoconus (KC) who were treated with modified corneal cross-linking (CXL) for KC (with a partial deepithelization in a pattern of stripes). The average follow-up was 5.8 years (with a minimum of 5 years). At the last follow-up visit, compared with preoperative values, there were no significant changes in spherical equivalent, average keratometry, corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, or corneal resistance factor...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Fernanda Pacella, Adriana Francesca Ferraresi, Paolo Turchetti, Tommaso Lenzi, Rosalia Giustolisi, Andrea Bottone, Valeria Fameli, Maria Rosaria Romano, Elena Pacella
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone injections in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: A 700 μg slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreal cavity of 17 patients (19 eyes) affected with persistent DME. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Olufunmilola A Ogun, Jokotade O Adeleye
BACKGROUND: Ocular manifestations of thyroid dysfunction constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from minor ocular discomfort, lid retraction, lid lag and ocular injection, to sight threatening eyeball protusion and optic nerve compression. Thyroid-related eye disorders are most commonly associated with Graves' disease, and this most frequently occurs in the setting of hyperthyroidism. However, in 10% of cases, typical eye signs have also been reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid states...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
C Domngang Noche, O Njajou, F X Etoa
INTRODUCTION: Glaucoma is a public health issue worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Cameroon, the prevalence rate of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) ranges between 4.5% and 8.2%. Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been implicated in digestive and extra-digestive diseases, including glaucoma. The objective of this work was to evaluate the implication of CagA- and VacA-positive strains of HP in POAG using a case-control design. METHODS: An analytical study was conducted from October 2013 to December 2013...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kagmeni Giles, Christelle Domngang, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Ebana Mvogo Come, Peter Wiedemann
AIM: To describe a surgical technique suitable for cataract surgery in regions with a high prevalence of HIV infection. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 20 consecutive AIDS patients with cataract who underwent modified small-incision cataract surgery (mSICS) with posterior chamber lens implantation. Classic extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was compared to mSICS. The number of potentially risky steps for contamination during surgery and duration of surgery were analyzed...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz, Francesca M Giliberti, Matthew T Young, Dennis Bermudez
Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Nonso Ejikeme Okpala, Rich Enujioke Umeh, Ernest Nnemeka Onwasigwe
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Kyriakoula Merakou, Georgia Varouxi, Anastasia Barbouni, Eleni Antoniadou, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios Theodoridis, Aristea Koutsouri, Jenny Kourea-Kremastinou
INTRODUCTION: Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS: Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group)...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
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