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Cancer Growth and Metastasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579826/inflammation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-fighting-against-multiple-opponents
#1
REVIEW
Farid G Khalafalla, Mohammad W Khan
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer and one of the most lethal human cancers. Inflammation is a critical component in PDAC initiation and progression. Inflammation also contributes to the aggressiveness of PDAC indirectly via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), altogether leading to enhanced resistance to chemotherapy and poor survival rates. This review gives an overview of the key pro-inflammatory signaling pathways involved in PDAC pathogenesis and discusses the role of inflammation in induction of EMT and development of chemoresistance in patients with PDAC...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469472/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-tumor-growth-inhibition-by-glutathione-disulfide-liposomes
#2
Satya S Sadhu, Shenggang Wang, Rakesh Dachineni, Ranjith Kumar Averineni, Yang Yang, Huihui Yin, G Jayarama Bhat, Xiangming Guan
Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is an endogenous peptide and the oxidized form of glutathione. The impacts of GSSG on cell function/dysfunction remain largely unexplored due to a lack of method to specifically increase intracellular GSSG. We recently developed GSSG liposomes that can specifically increase intracellular GSSG. The increase affected 3 of the 4 essential steps (cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of cancer metastasis in vitro and, accordingly, produced a significant inhibition of cancer metastasis in vivo...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469471/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antimetastatic-effect-of-glutathione-disulfide-liposomes
#3
Satya S Sadhu, Shenggang Wang, Rakesh Dachineni, Ranjith Kumar Averineni, Teresa Seefeldt, Jiashu Xie, Hemachand Tummala, G Jayarama Bhat, Xiangming Guan
Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer mortality. Despite extensive research efforts, effective treatment for cancer metastasis is still lacking. Cancer metastasis involves 4 essential steps: cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion. Detachment is the first and required step for metastasis. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is derived from the oxidation of glutathione (GSH), which is present in biological systems in millimolar concentration. Although GSSG is commercially available, the impact of GSSG on cell functions/dysfunctions has not been fully explored due to the fact that GSSG is not cell membrane permeable and a lack of method to specifically increase GSSG in cells...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469470/prognostic-value-of-her2-neu-expression-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-immunohistochemical-study
#4
Ahmed M Abd El-Aziz, Eman A Ibrahim, Ashraf Abd-Elmoghny, Mohammed El-Bassiouny, Zina M Laban, Somaia A Saad El-Din, Youhanna Shohdy
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a relatively rare type of neoplasms. In Egypt, it represents 2.5% of gastrointestinal tumors and 0.3% of all malignancies. Most of the GISTs develop in the stomach. AIM: To reveal the significance of Her2/neu immunohistochemical expression in GIST and its correlation with other histopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after regular follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective and prospective cohort...
2017: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499645/first-in-human-phase-1-trial-of-agarose-beads-containing-murine-renca-cells-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#5
Barry H Smith, Tapan Parikh, Zoe P Andrada, Thomas J Fahey, Nathaniel Berman, Madeline Wiles, Angelica Nazarian, Joanne Thomas, Anna Arreglado, Eugene Akahoho, David J Wolf, Daniel M Levine, Thomas S Parker, Lawrence S Gazda, Allyson J Ocean
PURPOSE: Agarose macrobeads containing mouse renal adenocarcinoma cells (RMBs) release factors, suppressing the growth of cancer cells and prolonging survival in spontaneous or induced tumor animals, mediated, in part, by increased levels of myocyte-enhancing factor (MEF2D) via EGFR-and AKT-signaling pathways. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of RMBs in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic cancers, and then its efficacy (survival), which is the secondary objective...
2016: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006592/impact-of-transfusion-on-cancer-growth-and-outcome
#6
REVIEW
Hadi A Goubran, Mohamed Elemary, Miryana Radosevich, Jerard Seghatchian, Magdy El-Ekiaby, Thierry Burnouf
For many years, transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma units has been part of the standard therapeutic arsenal used along the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with malignancies. Although the benefits of these blood products are not a matter of debate in specific pathological conditions associated with life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, increasing clinical evidence is nevertheless suggesting that deliberate transfusion of these blood components may actually lead to negative clinical outcomes by affecting patient's immune defense, stimulating tumor growth, tethering, and dissemination...
2016: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688665/animal-models-of-cancer-biology
#7
Nelson S Yee, Natalia Ignatenko, Niklas Finnberg, Nikki Lee, Douglas Stairs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648752/synergistic-effects-of-crizotinib-and-temozolomide-in-experimental-fig-ros1-fusion-positive-glioblastoma
#8
Arabinda Das, Ron Ron Cheng, Megan L T Hilbert, Yaenette N Dixon-Moh, Michele Decandio, William Alex Vandergrift, Naren L Banik, Scott M Lindhorst, David Cachia, Abhay K Varma, Sunil J Patel, Pierre Giglio
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640389/cancer-metastases-early-dissemination-and-late-recurrences
#9
REVIEW
Sten Friberg, Andreas Nyström
BACKGROUND: Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512205/mutant-k-ras-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-in-pancreatic-cancer-through-gtpase-signaling-pathways
#10
Julianna Padavano, Rebecca S Henkhaus, Hwudaurw Chen, Bethany A Skovan, Haiyan Cui, Natalia A Ignatenko
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RAS (G12C) oncogene in both alleles...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26483610/current-state-of-animal-mouse-modeling-in-melanoma-research
#11
REVIEW
Omer F Kuzu, Felix D Nguyen, Mohammad A Noory, Arati Sharma
Despite the considerable progress in understanding the biology of human cancer and technological advancement in drug discovery, treatment failure remains an inevitable outcome for most cancer patients with advanced diseases, including melanoma. Despite FDA-approved BRAF-targeted therapies for advanced stage melanoma showed a great deal of promise, development of rapid resistance limits the success. Hence, the overall success rate of melanoma therapy still remains to be one of the worst compared to other malignancies...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26396545/time-serial-assessment-of-drug-combination-interventions-in-a-mouse-model-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#12
Susan LeGendre-McGhee, Photini S Rice, R Andrew Wall, Kyle J Sprute, Ramireddy Bommireddy, Amber M Luttman, Raymond B Nagle, Edward R Abril, Katrina Farrell, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Denise J Roe, Eugene W Gerner, Natalia A Ignatenko, Jennifer K Barton
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, nondestructive imaging modality that enables time-serial assessment of adenoma development in the mouse model of colorectal cancer. In this study, OCT was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions with the experimental antitumor agent α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac during early [chemoprevention (CP)] and late stages [chemotherapy (CT)] of colon tumorigenesis. Biological endpoints for drug interventions included OCT-generated tumor number and tumor burden...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380556/esophageal-cancer-insights-from-mouse-models
#13
REVIEW
Marie-Pier Tétreault
Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380555/emerging-and-evolving-ovarian-cancer-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Alexander S Bobbs, Jennifer M Cole, Karen D Cowden Dahl
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from a gynecological malignancy in the United States. By the time a woman is diagnosed with OC, the tumor has usually metastasized. Mouse models that are used to recapitulate different aspects of human OC have been evolving for nearly 40 years. Xenograft studies in immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice have enhanced our knowledge of metastasis and immune cell involvement in cancer. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) can accurately reflect metastasis, response to therapy, and diverse genetics found in patients...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380554/skin-carcinogenesis-studies-using-mouse-models-with-altered-polyamines
#15
REVIEW
Shannon L Nowotarski, David J Feith, Lisa M Shantz
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a major health concern worldwide. With increasing numbers in high-risk groups such as organ transplant recipients and patients taking photosensitizing medications, the incidence of NMSC continues to rise. Mouse models of NMSC allow us to better understand the molecular signaling cascades involved in skin tumor development in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies. Here we review the models designed to determine the role of the polyamines in NMSC development and maintenance...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380553/single-and-multiple-gene-manipulations-in-mouse-models-of-human-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Heather L Lehman, Douglas B Stairs
Mouse models of human cancer play a critical role in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Advances continue to be made in modeling human disease in a mouse, though the relevance of a mouse model often relies on how closely it is able to mimic the histologic, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the respective human cancer. A classic use of a genetically engineered mouse in studying cancer is through the overexpression or deletion of a gene. However, the manipulation of a single gene often falls short of mimicking all the characteristics of the carcinoma in humans; thus a multiple gene approach is needed...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339191/use-of-animal-models-in-understanding-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#17
REVIEW
Lauren M Slosky, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Todd W Vanderah
Many common cancers have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Although malignancies often go undetected in their native tissues, bone metastases produce excruciating pain that severely compromises patient quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is poorly managed with existing medications, and its multifaceted etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Novel analgesic targets arise as more is learned about this complex and distinct pain state. Over the past two decades, multiple animal models have been developed to study CIBP's unique pathology and identify therapeutic targets...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279629/new-insight-on-the-role-of-plasminogen-receptor-in-cancer-progression
#18
REVIEW
Seema Kumari, Ramarao Malla
OBJECTIVE: Plasminogen system plays a crucial role in physiological and pathological events related to tissue regeneration, wound healing, immune response, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. It gets activated when plasminogen associates with its cell surface receptors. Latest information on some of the well-explored plasminogen receptors such as annexin II-S100A10, cytokeratin 8, α-enolase, plasminogen receptor (KT) (Plg-R(KT)) and histone H2B has been discussed in the present review...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279628/pattern-recognition-receptors-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Sanjay Pandey, Saurabh Singh, Vandana Anang, Anant N Bhatt, K Natarajan, Bilikere S Dwarakanath
The innate immune system is an integral component of the inflammatory response to pathophysiological stimuli. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes are the major sensors and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system that activate stimulus (signal)-specific pro-inflammatory responses. Chronic activation of PRRs has been found to be associated with the aggressiveness of various cancers and poor prognosis. Involvement of PRRs was earlier considered to be limited to infection- and injury-driven carcinogenesis, where they are activated by pathogenic ligands...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279627/molecular-heterogeneity-in-primary-breast-carcinomas-and-axillary-lymph-node-metastases-assessed-by-genomic-fingerprinting-analysis
#20
Rachel E Ellsworth, Allyson L Toro, Heather L Blackburn, Alisha Decewicz, Brenda Deyarmin, Kimberly A Mamula, Nicholas S Costantino, Jeffrey A Hooke, Craig D Shriver, Darrell L Ellsworth
Molecular heterogeneity within primary breast carcinomas and among axillary lymph node (LN) metastases may impact diagnosis and confound treatment. In this study, we used short tandem repeated sequences to assess genomic heterogeneity and to determine hereditary relationships among primary tumor areas and regional metastases from 30 breast cancer patients. We found that primary carcinomas were genetically heterogeneous and sampling multiple areas was necessary to adequately assess genomic variability. LN metastases appeared to originate at different time periods during disease progression from different sites of the primary tumor and the extent of genomic divergence among regional metastases was associated with a less favorable patient outcome (P = 0...
2015: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
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