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International Journal of Exercise Science

Katelynn Donahoe, Dany J Macdonald, Mark S Tremblay, Travis J Saunders
Although pedometers are valid tools for measuring physical activity, to date they have not been used to assess sedentary time. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the PiezoRx pedometer is a valid and reliable measure of sedentary time compared to the hip-worn Actical accelerometer. A secondary purpose was to compare sedentary time derived via the Fitbit Flex with that of the Actical. Finally, a third purpose was to compare sedentary time derived from the above devices, with that of the ActivPAL inclinometer...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Beat Knechtle, Celina Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Although there has been increased scientific interest for physiological responses to endurance running and pacing, limited information exists for adolescents participating in endurance events. We are reporting the case of an untrained 17-year-old female teenager (body mass 50.6 kg, height 167 cm and body mass index 18.1 kg/m2 ) who intended to run a marathon within 6 hours without preparation. The young woman missed her goal by just 2 km. When the average running speed per hour was analysed, there was a major effect of race hour on running speed (p = 0...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Estêvão R Monteiro, Jefferson S Novaes, Aline G Fiuza, Eduardo Portugal, Felipe S Triani, Leonardo Bigio, Rudson Santos, Alexandre Palma, Victor G Corrêa Neto
The purpose of this study was to analyze the acute heart rate variability behavior after 10 repetitions maximum load test for back squat, leg press, leg extension, and leg flexion in normotensive subjects. Eight recreationally trained women (age: 21.8 ± 2.2 yrs; height: 167.6 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 61.6 ± 10.1 kg) performed two 10 repetitions maximum testing days with 48-hours rest between each one. Heart rate variability was measured in baseline and postexercise (15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-minutes) for time and frequency domain...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Garet W Simpson, Robert Pritchett, Eric O'Neal, Garrett Hoskins, Kelly Pritchett
Multiple investigations have confirmed carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) enhances high intensity endurance performance lasting under 1 hour, but the effects of CMR on high intensity intermittent exercise has received less attention. This study examined the effect of CMR on high intensity multiple sprint performances in a protocol designed to emulate a cyclocross or mountain biking event. Seven trained men (28.2 ± 6.8 years, 185 ± 9 cm, 85.3 ± 14.8 kg, VO2 peak 51.4 ± 7.3 ml/kg*min-1) completed two, 48 min high intensity intermittent cycling protocols that consisted of 6 bouts of 5 min cycling at 50% VO2 peak followed by sets of three, 10-s Wingate sprints with 50 s of recovery between sprints...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Tracy A Axel, Jill A Crussemeyer, Kevyn Dean, Douglas E Young
Lower body and core muscular strength are essential for optimal performance in many sports and competitive surfers have similar strength demands when maneuvering a surfboard to achieve competition success. Presently, the use of unstable surfaces is excessively utilized by surf coaches and trainers and to date, research does not support this as an effective training method for long-term improvements. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Core Strength Training Program (CSTP) on a battery of field tests specific to assessing core musculature and lower body strength for junior competitive surf athletes...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jed A Diekfuss, James A Janssen, Alexis B Slutsky, Nathaniel T Berry, Jennifer L Etnier, Laurie Wideman, Louisa D Raisbeck
The purpose of our study was to examine if the beneficial effects of an external focus are effective for balance control when sleep-deprived. Sleep-deprived participants (27 hours awake) completed three blocks of five separate 30 second trials on a dynamic balance board. All participants were given internal, external, and control instruction. For the internal focus trials, participants focused on their feet; whereas, for the external focus trials, participants focused on the balance board. Participants' time in balance was significantly greater during the external focus compared to the internal focus and control...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Avery D Faigenbaum, Jie Kang, Nicholas A Ratamess, Anne Farrell, Nicole Ellis, Ira Vought, Jill Bush
Medicine ball interval training (MBIT) has been found to be an effective exercise modality in fitness programs, yet the acute physiological responses to this type of this exercise in youth are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute cardiometabolic responses to MBIT in children. Fourteen children (mean age 10.1 ± 1.3 yr) were tested for peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) on a treadmill and subsequently (> 48 hours later) performed a progressive 10 min MBIT protocol of 5 exercises (EX): standing marches (EX1), alternating lunges (EX2), squat swings (EX3), chest passes (EX4) and double arm slams (EX5)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Thomas Denehey, Timothy Marshall, Kim Spaccarotella, Walter Andzel
Ankle sprains are common injuries, especially for football players, and may result in ankle instability, which can limit performance and increase injury risk. Ankle stability return to play criteria is often assessed under loaded conditions, even though previous research suggests loaded conditions affect dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic balance under loaded conditions. A modified Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), incorporating anterior, posterior medial and posterior lateral reach directions under the loaded condition of NCAA Division III football equipment was evaluated...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Robin M Orr, Erin L Caust, Benjamin Hinton, Rodney Pope
To successfully complete specialist police selection, officers must be physically fit. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between performance on selected anthropometric and fitness tests and successful selection into a specialist police unit. Thirty-two male police officers (mean age = 29.48±4.99 years) participated in a Barrier Fitness Assessment (BFA), followed by a Specialist Selection Course (SSC). The BFA spanned two consecutive days of testing (pull-ups, push-ups, seven-stage sit-ups, a timed loaded pack march, a Multi-Stage Fitness Test, an agility run, a lift and carry task and a 300m swim assessment)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Daniel Yaeger, Kristi Murphy, Jena Winger, Stasinos Stavrianeas
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a two-test method for precisely identifying the Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS). Eight male competitive cyclists performed two bouts on a cycle ergometer. Following a maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max ) test (66.91 ± 5.29 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) we identified the lactate deflection point using the visual deflection (TVis ), Log-Log (TLog ), Dmax (TDmax ), RER = 1.00 (TRER ), ventilatory threshold (TVent ), and the 1.0 mmol·L-1 increase above baseline (T+1 ) methods...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ren-Jay Shei, Emily M Adamic, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Habitual endurance training may be associated with mild airway inflammation and subsequent deterioration in lung function. PCSO-524™ (Lyprinol®/Omega-XL®), a supplement extracted from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel ( Perna canaliculus ), has been shown to moderate airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with PCSO-524™ improves pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in non-asthmatic elite runners. Sixteen male, non-asthmatic elite runners were randomly assigned to either a treatment (PCSO-524™; 1 capsule contains 50 mg n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 100 mg olive oil, n =8) or placebo (1 capsule contains 150 mg olive oil; n =8) group...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Cristiane R Silva, Bruno Saraiva, Dahan D C Nascimento, Samuel C Oliveira, Ivo Sousa Neto, Renato Valduga, Nayara G Santos, Ramires A Tibana, Jonato Prestes, Jeffrey M Willardson, Guilherme B Pereira
The aim of the present study was to compare differences in heart rate response following a treadmill exercise test in elderly obese women categorized into groups based on relative handgrip strength. Eighty-eight obese elderly women who were between the ages of 60 and 87 participated in the study and were categorized and enrolled to one of two groups based on lower (< 1.51 m2) or higher (≥ 1.51 m2) relative handgrip strength, respectively. The heart rate recovery in the first and second minutes following the treadmill exercise test and the chronotropic index were compared between groups...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Kendall Frawley, Gabrielle Greenwald, Rebecca R Rogers, John K Petrella, Mallory R Marshall
Prior research has demonstrated that the percentage of fuel utilization contributed by CHO compared to fat rises with an increase in exercise intensity. The role of food intake prior to exercise has been well studied and fasting prior to exercise generally increases reliance on fat as fuel. However, data on the role of fasting prior to resistance exercise is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of one bout of resistance training in a fasted state compared to ingestion of standardized meal on fat and carbohydrate utilization...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
M Travis Byrd, Haley C Bergstrom
This study examined the effect of an upper body dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercise (barbell bench press [BP]), using the very short-term training (VST) model on strength and barbell velocity. Ten (5 females, 5 males) subjects (mean ± SD age: 21.4 ± 2.8 yrs; height: 1.75 ± 0.12 m; body mass: 83 ± 8.8 kg) completed two pre-test visits (pre-test 1 and pretest 2) to serve as the within subjects control, three training visits, and one post-test visit. The subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the BP as well as the mean (BPMV ) and peak (BPPV ) barbell velocities were determined during pre-test 1, pre-test 2 and post-test visits...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jeffrey J Cervenka, Meredith N Decker, Logan A Ruhde, Joshua D Beaty, Mark D Ricard
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) serves as a vital stabilizer for the human knee, yet it is one of the most injured ligaments in the body. Function of the knee is restored through reconstruction and physical therapy, but long term functional deficits persist in some individuals. To better understand the influence of post rehabilitation outcomes on dynamic balance performance, this study evaluated bilateral differences in strength and stability in 11 participants who have rehabilitated from an ACL reconstruction or repair...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Nikolaj Koefoed, Mads Lerche, Bjørn K Jensen, Pia Kjær, Sebastian Dam, Rasmus Horslev, Ernst A Hansen
A priority in strength and power exercise might be to train with as high quality as possible for the shortest possible duration. In this context, peak power output could reflect quality. Designing an exercise session as a cluster set structure, as compared to a traditional set structure, may be a way to obtain higher peak power output in the session. But it is unknown whether that is obtainable for non-elite individuals performing loaded jump squat exercise. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the hypothesis that peak power output would be highest in a jump squat exercise session, which was structured with cluster sets, as compared to traditional sets...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Eric Demers, Jonathan Pendenza, Valentin Radevich, Richard Preuss
The purpose of this study was to assess whether changing the stance width has an effect on the range of motion of hip flexion, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion during an unloaded back squat, and whether these joint movements are affected by anthropometric differences. Thirty-two healthy, young adults performed unloaded back squats at three different stance widths, normalized to pelvic width. Joint angles were assessed using electromagnetic motion capture sensors on the sacrum, and thigh, shank and foot of the dominant leg...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Michele Leblanc, Heidi Ferkranus
Barefoot running is considered to decrease injury risk, but is not always practical, particularly while running on a fitness center treadmill. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of shod, barefoot, and simulated barefoot running. Twelve subjects (age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) who regularly run on a treadmill for fitness participated in the study. After a warm up, each runner ran on a Biodex RTM 400 treadmill set at 7.4 mph (approximately 3.3 m/s) in their own shoes, barefoot, and while running "like they were barefoot" in their own shoes...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jeremy R Dicus, Michael E Holmstrup, Kyle T Shuler, Tyler T Rice, Shawn D Raybuck, Chelsea A Siddons
Kettlebells often replace dumbbells during common resistance training exercises such as the overhead press. When performing an overhead press, the center of mass of a dumbbell is in line with the glenohumeral joint. In comparison, the center of mass of the kettlebell is posterior to the glenohumeral joint. Posterior displacement of the kettlebell center of mass may result in less stability during the pressing motion. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle activity during an overhead press with resistance training implements of differing stability...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Roger O Kollock, Davis Hale, Rachele Vogelpohl, Logan Kremer, Josh Horner, Christian Cox, Matt Allen
Body armor is essential to the protection of military personnel; however, body armor may impede the users balance and movement quality. A better understanding of the influence of body armor on balance and movement quality may help in the development of new guidelines for training standards and procedures to mitigate the risk of injury associated with wearing of body armor in warfighters. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of body armor (combat boots, tactical vest and combat helmet) on balance and movement quality in male military cadets and personnel...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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