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International Journal of Exercise Science

Alex Leaf, Jose Antonio
Compared to investigations on hypocaloric diets, the effects of chronic overfeeding have been less studied. It has been posited that consuming calories in excess of daily caloric requirements will result in a gain in body weight and in particular fat mass regardless of which macronutrient(s) are consumed. However, recent evidence suggests that there is a quantitative difference in protein versus carbohydrate and/or fat overfeeding as it relates to body composition. Protein overfeeding or the consumption of a high protein diet may not result in a gain in body weight or fat mass despite consuming calories that exceed one's normal or habitual intake...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jan Bělka, Karel Hulka, Iva Machová, Michal Šafář, Radim Weisser, David M Bellar, Donald L Hoover, Lawrence W Judge
This study examined the distance covered and physiological effects of altering the number of players during small-sided games (SSG) in team handball. Twelve professional female handball players [24.6±3.7 years, 172±6.2 cm, 68.2 ± 9.9kg, 22.7 ± 2 kg/m2] participated in this study. The SSG were played, first with five on each side (SSG 5), then four (SSG 4), then three (SSG 3). Each game was four minutes long, followed by three minutes of rest. The distance covered and time spent in four speed zones (based on player movement speed) were selected for analysis: Zone 1 (0-1...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Brendan T Crow, Ellicott C Matthay, Stephen P Schatz, Mark D Debeliso, Thomas J Nuckton
To determine if cold-water swimmers have substantial differences in BMI, which might have a protective effect against heat loss during swims in cold water without wetsuits, and to determine if obesity is more or less prevalent in cold-water swimmers, we compared the body mass index (BMI) values of 103 recreational open-water swimmers (mean age 54.3 ±10.8 years) to data from various population groups. Swimmers swam consistently throughout the winter months, in the San Francisco Bay (water temperature range: 9...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Courtenay S Hicks, Cherilyn N McLester, Tiffany A Esmat, John R McLester
The purpose of this investigation was to utilize several different technologies to compare body composition results across two phases of the menstrual cycle, and to investigate whether being on hormonal birth control or not has any effect on results. The secondary purpose was to determine if body satisfaction or perception of fluid retention differed across phases or between groups. A total of 39 females with a mean age of 26 ± 7 yrs were included in the study, 15 were on hormonal birth control (BC) and 24 were not (non-BC)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Joshua K Sponbeck, Candace L Perkins, Matthew J Berg, Justin H Rigby
Tracking Achilles tendon cross sectional area (CSA) changes may help clinicians understand exercise adaptations and Achilles tendon injury mechanisms. To track adaptations in the Achilles tendon in response to a cross country season. Design: Longitudinal study. Musculoskeletal (MSK) ultrasound images were obtained in a research laboratory. Cross country athletes ran with no restrictions outdoors and indoors. Participants were Division I NCAA cross country athletes (N = 24, age = 19.9 ± 2...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Brian D Clocksin, Ryan N Harrison, Andrew Douglas
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Handheld Resistive Exercise Device (HRED) training on wellness outcomes in older adults. A secondary purpose was to assess the utilization of an HRED in older adult fitness program. A group of healthy, active older adults (N=28, 76.6 ± 6.7 years old) volunteered to complete a 10-week HRED training program. Pre- and post-intervention changes were evaluated for muscular strength, static balance, mobility, fall-efficacy, and self-efficacy for activities of daily living...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Alaina Glasgow, Tori M Stone, J Derek Kingsley
Women with fibromyalgia (FM) often complain of whole-body pain, and muscle fatigue, which may be related to autonomic dysfunction. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on disease impact, pain catastrophizing, and autonomic modulation in women with FM. Women with FM (n=26) and healthy control women (HC: n=9), aged 19-65 yrs, were compared at rest. Women with FM were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (FM-RT: n=14) or a non-exercising control group (FM-CON: n=12)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Leonardo Mesquista Almeida, Ivo Vieira DE Sousa Neto, Nuno Manuel Frade DE Sousa, Jeeser Alves DE Almeida, Belmiro Freitas DE Salles, Claudio Melibeu Bentes, Jonato Prestes, Scott R Collier, Fabricio Azevedo Voltarelli
The aim of the study was to determine the acute systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses following two intense training sessions (24 hours apart). Nine male extreme conditioning program (ECP) practitioners with more than 6 months of experience (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2 %) completed two experimental ECP sessions. Cardiovascular variables were measured before, immediately after and every 15 min during a 45 min recovery following each experimental session...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Will Duggan, Bernard Donne, Neil Fleming
Previous studies have reported improved efficiency at steeper seat tube angle (STA) during ergometer cycling; however, neuromuscular mechanisms have yet to be fully determined. The current study investigated effects of STA on lower limb EMG activity at varying exercise intensities. Cyclists (n=11) were tested at 2 workloads; 160W and an individualised workload (IWL) equivalent to lactate threshold (TLac) minus 10%δ (derived from maximal incremental data), using 3 STA (70, 75 and 80°). Electromyographic data from Vastus Medialis (VM), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Biceps Femoris (BF) were assessed...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Michael Gallagher, Robert J Robertson, Fredric L Goss, Irene Kane, Elizabeth F Nagle, Kathryn A Tessmer
The present investigation examined the Adult OMNI Walk-Run Scale for use by an independent observer to rate an individual's perception of exertion during intermittent treadmill walking and running. Forty (22.4 ± 2.9 yrs) recreationally active males (n = 18) and females (n = 22) completed three 5-min intermittent bouts of treadmill exercise. The exercise bouts were a level walk (LW; 4.0 km·hr-1, 0% grade), hill walk (HW; 5.6 km·hr-1, 5% grade), and run (R; 8 km·hr-1, 2.5% grade). Each bout was separated by a 5-min recovery period...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Brett S Nickerson, Michael R Esco, Phillip A Bishop, Brian M Kliszczewicz, Henry N Williford, Kyung-Shin Park, Bailey A Welborn, Ronald L Snarr, Danilo V Tolusso
The purpose of this study was to determine if heat exposure alters the measures of total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) in both single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Additionally, we sought to determine if any differences exist between the BIA and BIS techniques before and after brief exposure to heat. Body water was evaluated for twenty men (age=24±4 years) in a thermoneutral environment (22°C) before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 15 min of passive heating (35°C) in an environmental chamber...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Saldiam R Barillas, Casey M Watkins, Megan A Wong, Ian J Dobbs, David C Archer, Cameron N Munger, Andrew J Galpin, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Joshua Bailey, Tiffany Mata, John A Mercer
The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), and velocity while running on a treadmill and overground. Participants (n=10; 22.3±2.6 yrs; 1.71±.08 m; 71.4±15.5 kg) completed a total of 14 runs (7 treadmill, 7 overground) with each run at a different velocity. SL, SF, and velocity data were recorded using wearable technology (Garmin, Fenix2). The outdoor trials occurred first. The treadmill velocities were selected to match the range of velocities used overgroud...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ramires A Tibana, Octávio L Franco, Gabriel V Cunha, Nuno M F Sousa, Ivo V Sousa Neto, Márcia M Carvalho, Jesser A Almeida, João L Q Durigan, Rita C Marqueti, James W Navalta, Mariana O Lobo, Fabricio A Voltarelli, Jonato Prestes
Studies are conflicting to whether low volume resistance training (RT) is as effective as high-volume RT protocols with respect to promoting morphological and molecular adaptations. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare, using a climbing a vertical ladder, the effects of 8 weeks, 3 times per week, resistance training with 4 sets (RT4), resistance training with 8 sets (RT8) and without resistance training control (CON) on gastrocnemius muscle proteome using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and cross sectional area (CSA) of rats...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Edwin Miranda, Brittany S Overstreet, William A Fountain, Vincent Gutierrez, Michael Kolankowski, Matthew L Overstreet, Ryan M Sapp, Christopher A Wolff, Scott A Mazzetti
To compare energy expenditure during and after active and handheld video game drumming compared to walking and sitting. Ten experienced, college-aged men performed four protocols (one per week): no-exercise seated control (CTRL), virtual drumming on a handheld gaming device (HANDHELD), active drumming on drum pads (DRUM), and walking on a treadmill at ~30% of VO2max (WALK). Protocols were performed after an overnight fast, and expired air was collected continuously during (30min) and after (30min) exercise...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Cardyl P Trionfante, Greggory R Davis, Tyler M Farney, Ryan W Miskowiec, Arnold G Nelson
Notwithstanding the lack of exercise research, several reviews have championed the use of melatonin to combat metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this study compared substrate utilization during a 30-minute (min) graded exercise protocol following the ingestion of either 6 mg melatonin (M) or a placebo (P). Participants (12 women, 12 men) performed stages 1-5 of the Naughton graded exercise protocol (6 min per stage). The protocol was repeated 4 times (2x M, 2x P) at the same time of day with one week separating each session...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Heather R Gerrish, Elizabeth Broad, Melissa Lacroix, Dana Ogan, Robert C Pritchett, Kelly Pritchett
The nutrient needs of athletes with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are dependent on their physiological alterations and training status. Limited research is available regarding dietary intake of elite athletes with SCI and possible nutrient deficiencies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake of elite athletes with SCI, and determine dietary intake inadequacies based on the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) comparisons. Additionally, the average energy and macronutrient (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) intake was compared based on level of injury (C level, T1-T6, T7-T12, Lumbar)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jesse Calestine, Melissa Bopp, Christopher M Bopp, Zack Papalia
Despite the known benefits of regular physical activity, research shows a significant decline in physical activity participation and an increase in sedentary behavior during young adulthood during the college years. Studies examining the relationship between academic outcomes and fitness/physical activity have not extensively examined this among college students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fitness measures (cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition), physical activity, and academic outcomes in college students...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Trezlyn M Bartschi, David C Sanders, Tyler M Farney, Joke Kokkonen, Arnold G Nelson
This study compared the number of bilateral leg presses done at 150% of body mass while on either Muscle Sentry® (MS) or placebo (PL). Participants (16 women, 14 men, college students 19-26 years) performed 2 sets of leg press to failure using 150% of their body mass with 5 min rest separating the 2 sets. Each exercise was performed twice (1× MS, 1× PL) at the same time of day with 48 h separating each exercise. Both MS and PL were ingested 30 min prior to performing the exercise. Just prior to starting the exercise and at the end of each set, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained and the rate pressure product was calculated to determine myocardial workload...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ryan Pittsinger, Jeff Kress, Jill Crussemeyer
Exercise-induced affect (EIA) has been well documented and is often composed of positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue. Research on EIA has focused on mainstream sports such as running, walking, or cycling; however, no research has evaluated the influence of action sports participation in activities such surfing on EIA. The current study examined the effect of a single 30-min surfing bout on EIA in 107 adult volunteers. An additional purpose was if change in affect was similar based on surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
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