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International Journal of Exercise Science

Heleno Almeida, Raphael F DE Souza, Felipe J Aidar, Alisson G DA Silva, Ricardo P Regi, Afrânio A Bastos
In order to analyze the Global Active Stretching (SGA®) practice on the physical performance enhancement in judo-practitioner competitors, 12 male athletes from Judo Federation of Sergipe (Federação Sergipana de Judô), were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). For 10 weeks, the EG practiced SGA® self-postures and the CG practiced assorted calisthenic exercises. All of them were submitted to a variety of tests (before and after): handgrip strength, flexibility, upper limbs' muscle power, isometric pull-up force, lower limbs' muscle power (squat-jump - SJ and countermovement jump - CMJ) and Tokui Waza test...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Michael J Redd, David H Fukuda, Kyle S Beyer, Leonardo P Oliviera
With the recent inclusion of surfing in the 2020 Olympic Games in Japan, there will be a number of surfing athletes vying for one of the twenty total available spots for their respective gender. The purpose was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in surfing with consideration for specific developmental constraints. Elite competitive male surfers (n = 1590) were examined by birth month and subcategorized by competitive level, age groups, and geographical regions. The observed quarterly distribution was not significantly different (using χ2 ; p>0...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
J J Dawes, C L Kornhauser, D Crespo, C L Elder, K G Lindsay, R J Holmes
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physiological and perceptual demands associated with defensive tactics (DEFTAC) training among state patrol officers of different BMI (body mass index) categories. Twenty-four male state patrol officers (n = 24, age 36.00 + 7.86 yrs) voluntarily agreed to participate in data collection during a DEFTAC gauntlet. Anthropometric information (height (HT) 182.19 + 7.43 cm and weight (WT) 96.31 + 17.45 kg), body mass index (BMI), peak and average heart rates, duty weight, BLa, and RPE, were recorded...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jason D Miller, Heidi C Ventresca, Lindsay E Bracken
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rates of performance change for American female weightlifters over 10 years of competition. Athlete performance results were gathered from the United States Weightlifting open access, results archive, database. Data was delimited to athletes (N ≥ 750) that competed in Youth or Junior Nationals to ensure athletes were <21yrs old at the first recorded competition. Competition results were converted to strength to mass (SM) ratios to control for the effect of bodyweight on performance...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
James W Navalta, Jeffrey Montes, Elizabeth A Tanner, Nathaniel G Bodell, John C Young
Female participation is growing in trail running races. The purpose was to evaluate sex and age differences in top finishers of a trail running half marathon. Velocity differences between males (M) and females (F) were determined for the top 10 finishers of the Moab Trail Half Marathon from 2012 - 2015 across age, and by finishing place. Differences between age category and between sexes were determined through ANOVA with significance accepted at P < 0.05. A significant difference for running velocity was present between sexes at each age category (20-29 yr F = 2...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Matthew J Garver, Cory M Scheadler, Logan M Smith, Sarah J Taylor, Chase M Harbach
Acclimatization to altitude has been shown to improve elements of performance. Use of simulated altitude is popular among athletes across the sports spectrum. This work was on a handheld, re-breathing device touted to enhance performance. Seven recreationally-trained athletes used the device for 18 hours over the course of the 37-day intervention trial. The elevations simulated were progressively increased from 1,524m to 6,096m. To ascertain potential efficacy, four performance trials were included (familiarization, baseline, and 2 follow-ups)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Amy Marquardt, Megan A Wong, Casey M Watkins, Saldiam R Barillas, Andrew J Galpin, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Speed is a crucial aspect in softball, and can be the difference between winning and losing. Base stealing is a method used to produce runs. There has been debate over which starting position is the most advantageous to maximize acceleration and speed to reach the next base the fastest. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different starting stances on acceleration and speed phases in collegiate softball players. Seventeen healthy NCAA Division I women's softball players (age = 19.9 ± 1.3yrs, height = 167...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Nicholas A Puleo, Kirk A Abraham
Many runners receive external feedback, such as running pace, during training; however, it is unknown if this feedback increases the intensity of a given exercise session. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the provision of pace feedback on self-selected submaximal running pace, heart rate, and perceived exertion in recreational runners. Ten runners (6 female, 4 male) completed four 30-min treadmill running bouts in random order, each on a separate day. In each session, participants adjusted their pace as desired; however, all treadmill display information was concealed from the runners...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Melody L White, Matthew S Renfrow, Richard S Farley, Dana K Fuller, Brandi M Eveland-Sayers, Jennifer L Caputo
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a school-based cross-training program on body mass index (BMI), attitudes toward physical activity (ATPA), and physical activity (PA) levels of children in the 4th and 5th grades. Children ( N = 118) were divided into control ( n = 60) and experimental ( n = 58) groups based on class availability. While the control group continued academic classes as usual, the experimental group participated in cross-training involving resistance training (RT), calisthenics, and stretching twice a week for 10 weeks...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Kimberly S Hurley, Kaleigh J Flippin, Lindsey C Blom, Jocelyn E Bolin, Donald L Hoover, Lawrence W Judge
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has recommended that resistance training be performed at least twice per week, with 8-12 repetitions of 8-10 exercises targeting all major muscle groups (1). However, Kruger, Carlson, and Kohl (18) reported that women were participating less than the U.S. population on the whole, as only 20% of women were engaging in resistance training two or more times per week. In order to better understand why only 1 in 5 women participate regularly in this form of physical activity, this study investigated current resistance training practices, perceived benefits, and barriers to resistance training among college women...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Anthony Crimarco, Carlene Mayfield, Nathanael Mitchell, Michael W Beets, Zenong Yin, Justin B Moore
Afterschool youth physical activity (PA) programs provide opportunities for increasing children's time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, low program attendance reduces the benefits of participating in these programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if enjoyment, athletic competence and motivation for PA predict youth attendance at a free afterschool PA program from 3rd to 5th grade. Data were collected from a larger randomized community trial examining the effectiveness of an afterschool program for increasing opportunities to engage in MVPA...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Fabio Fontana, Jonathan Bopes, Seth Bendixen, Tyler Speed, Megan George, Mick Mack
The aim of the study was to compare exercise recommendations, attitudes, and behaviors of personal trainers toward clients of different weight statuses. Fifty-two personal trainers participated in the study. The data collection was organized into two phases. In phase one, trainers read a profile and watched the video displaying an interview of either an obese or an average-weight client. Profiles and video interviews were identical except for weight status. Then, trainers provided exercise recommendations and rated their attitude toward the client...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ashley Ploudre, Jana L Arabas, Liz Jorn, Jerry L Mayhew
Body composition assessment has become an integral part of athletes' training schedules. Questions remain concerning the accuracy of various methods to track body composition changes over a competitive year cycle. The purpose of this study was to compare various methods of tracking body composition across a college women's basketball season. Fourteen Division II women (age = 20.1 ± 1.2 y) were measured prior to the season (T1), after pre-season conditioning (T2), at mid-season (T3), and at the end of the season (T4) using skinfolds (SKF), two bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) devices, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Carly L Houska, Jessica D Kemp, Jamal S Niles, Amy L Morgan, Robin M Tucker, Mary-Jon Ludy
This study compared body composition measurements in lean female athletes. The primary objective was to compare the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and underwater weighing (UWW) in female Division I cheerleaders ( n = 10 bases, 6 back-spots, and 12 flyers) from two universities. The secondary objective was to compare health risk predicted by %BF to body mass index (BMI) categorizations. UWW was considered the gold standard for assessing %BF...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Camilla Astley, Diego B Souza, Marcos D Polito
Caffeine containing energy drink (ED) is frequently used as ergogenic aid, but its effect on performance need more investigation. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of acute ingestion of an ED on the physical performance of resistance-trained men subjected to successive tests in the same experimental protocol. Fifteen resistance-trained males (21.0 ± 0.3 yrs; 177.4 ± 1.8 cm; 79.6 ± 1.8 kg) ingested 2.5 mg caffeine per kg of body weight (619.5 ± 14.6 mL of ED) or a placebo in a double-blind randomized cross-over design...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Gerald T Mangine, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Kyle S Beyer, Amelia A Miramonti, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
The influence of baseline strength or muscle size on adaptations to training is not well-understood. Comparisons between novice and advanced lifters, and between stronger and weaker experienced-lifters, have produced conflicting results. This study examined the effect of baseline muscle strength and size on subsequent adaptations in resistance-trained individuals following a traditional high-volume, short-rest resistance training protocol. Fourteen resistance-trained men (24.0±2.7 y; 90.1±11.7 kg; 169.9±29...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Michelle Rivera, Whitney D Leyva, David C Archer, Cameron N Munger, Casey M Watkins, Megan A Wong, Ian J Dobbs, Andrew J Galpin, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Softball and baseball are games that require multiple skill sets such as throwing, hitting and fielding. Players spend a copious amount of time in batting practice in order to be successful hitters. Variables commonly associated with successful hitting include bat velocity and torso rotation. The concept of overspeed bodyweight assistance (BWA) has shown increases in vertical jump and sprint times, but not hip rotation and batting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of assisted hip rotation on bat velocity...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Molly Winke, Shelby Williamson
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a pneumatic compression device (PCD) compared to a continuously-worn compression sleeve (CS) during a five-day recovery period from delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the elbow flexors. Eight college-aged students participated in this crossover design study. The muscle-damage protocol consisted of four sets of 25 repetitions of isokinetic concentric elbow flexion followed by eccentric elbow extension at 60°/second. Immediately following the muscle-damage protocol, subjects either wore a CS continually for five days or completed daily, 20-minute PCD treatments for five days...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Genevieve M Kocoloski, Anne R Crecelius
Dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) has been shown to reduce oxygen consumption (VO2 ) during moderate to high-intensity (e.g. time to fatigue, time trials) exercise and often in trained athletes. However, less is known regarding prolonged exercise and the potential impact of NO3 - on post-exercise excess oxygen consumption (EPOC), particularly in untrained individuals, who may have different metabolic goals during exercise than trained individuals. We tested the hypothesis that acute nitrate supplementation in the form of beet root juice will significantly decrease both VO2 during maximal exercise and EPOC in both maximal and submaximal exercise trials...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Hannah M Lithgow, Melanie Leggate
Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of a single bout of high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on glucose tolerance and other physiological and metabolic markers in non-diabetic older adults. Fourteen healthy older adults (age, 64 ± 2 y; BMI, 25.7 ± 2.8 kg·m-2 ) performed two acute exercise trials: continuous moderate intensity exercise (MOD) and HIIT, with the response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) determined <24 hours after. Inflammatory, haematological, and lipid parameters were also assessed the day after each trial...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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