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Lipid Insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920551/four-acyltransferases-uniquely-contribute-to-phospholipid-heterogeneity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Peter Oelkers, Keshav Pokhrel
Diverse acyl-CoA species and acyltransferase isoenzymes are components of a complex system that synthesizes glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four main acyl-CoA species, two main glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferases (Gat1p, Gat2p), and two main 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases (Lpt1p, Slc1p). The in vivo contribution of these isoenzymes to phospholipid heterogeneity was determined using haploids with compound mutations: gat1Δlpt1Δ, gat2Δlpt1Δ, gat1Δslc1Δ, and gat2Δslc1Δ...
2016: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867302/current-and-emerging-uses-of-statins-in-clinical-therapeutics-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan T Davies, Spencer F Delfino, Chad E Feinberg, Meghan F Johnson, Veronica L Nappi, Joshua T Olinger, Anthony P Schwab, Hollie I Swanson
Statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering medications that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, are commonly administered to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin use may expand considerably given its potential for treating an array of cholesterol-independent diseases. However, the lack of conclusive evidence supporting these emerging therapeutic uses of statins brings to the fore a number of unanswered questions including uncertainties regarding patient-to-patient variability in response to statins, the most appropriate statin to be used for the desired effect, and the efficacy of statins in treating cholesterol-independent diseases...
2016: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656091/castor-oil-properties-uses-and-optimization-of-processing-parameters-in-commercial-production
#3
REVIEW
Vinay R Patel, Gerard G Dumancas, Lakshmi C Kasi Viswanath, Randall Maples, Bryan John J Subong
Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality...
2016: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330304/fluorescent-sterols-and-cholesteryl-esters-as-probes-for-intracellular-cholesterol-transport
#4
REVIEW
Katarzyna A Solanko, Maciej Modzel, Lukasz M Solanko, Daniel Wüstner
Cholesterol transport between cellular organelles comprised vesicular trafficking and nonvesicular exchange; these processes are often studied by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. A major challenge for using this approach is producing analogs of cholesterol with suitable brightness and structural and chemical properties comparable with those of cholesterol. This review surveys currently used fluorescent sterols with respect to their behavior in model membranes, their photophysical properties, as well as their transport and metabolism in cells...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147824/is-spontaneous-translocation-of-polar-lipids-between-cellular-organelles-negligible
#5
REVIEW
Pentti Somerharju
In most reviews addressing intracellular lipid trafficking, spontaneous diffusion of lipid monomers between the cellular organelles is considered biologically irrelevant because it is thought to be far too slow to significantly contribute to organelle biogenesis. This view is based on intervesicle transfer experiments carried out in vitro with few lipids as well as on the view that lipids are highly hydrophobic and thus cannot undergo spontaneous intermembrane diffusion at a significant rate. However, besides that single-chain lipids can translocate between vesicles in seconds, it has been demonstrated that the rate of spontaneous transfer of two-chain polar lipids can vary even 1000-fold, depending on the number of carbons and double bonds in the acyl chains...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081314/tracking-diacylglycerol-and-phosphatidic-acid-pools-in-budding-yeast
#6
REVIEW
Suriakarthiga Ganesan, Brittney N Shabits, Vanina Zaremberg
Phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are key signaling molecules and important precursors for the biosynthesis of all glycerolipids found in eukaryotes. Research conducted in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been at the forefront of the identification of the enzymes involved in the metabolism and transport of PA and DAG. Both these lipids can alter the local physical properties of membranes by introducing negative curvature, but the anionic nature of the phosphomonoester headgroup in PA sets it apart from DAG...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081313/phosphatidylcholine-greasing-the-cholesterol-transport-machinery
#7
REVIEW
Thomas A Lagace
Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949334/membrane-contact-sites-complex-zones-for-membrane-association-and-lipid-exchange
#8
REVIEW
Evan Quon, Christopher T Beh
Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917968/role-of-flippases-in-protein-glycosylation-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Rush
Glycosylation is essential to the synthesis, folding, and function of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. Proteins are co- and posttranslationally modified by a variety of glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); modifications include C- and O-mannosylation, N-glycosylation, and the addition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. Protein glycosylation in the ER of eukaryotes involves enzymatic steps on both the cytosolic and lumenal surfaces of the ER membrane. The glycans are first assembled as precursor glycolipids, on the cytosolic surface of the ER, which are tethered to the membrane by attachment to a long-chain polyisoprenyl phosphate (dolichol) containing a reduced α-isoprene...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843813/phospholipid-scramblases
#10
REVIEW
Patrick Williamson
The distribution of phospholipid types between the two leaflets of a membrane bilayer is a controlled feature of membrane structure. One of the two membrane catalytic activities governing this distribution randomizes the composition of the two leaflets-the phospholipid scramblases. Two proteins (Xkr8 and TMEM16F) required for the activation of these activities have been identified. One of these proteins (TMEM16F) is quite clearly a scramblase itself and provides insight into the mechanism by which transbilayer phospholipid movement is facilitated...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819558/lipid-acyl-chain-remodeling-in-yeast
#11
REVIEW
Mike F Renne, Xue Bao, Cedric H De Smet, Anton I P M de Kroon
Membrane lipid homeostasis is maintained by de novo synthesis, intracellular transport, remodeling, and degradation of lipid molecules. Glycerophospholipids, the most abundant structural component of eukaryotic membranes, are subject to acyl chain remodeling, which is defined as the post-synthetic process in which one or both acyl chains are exchanged. Here, we review studies addressing acyl chain remodeling of membrane glycerophospholipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism that has been successfully used to investigate lipid synthesis and its regulation...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26792999/lipid-flippases-for-bacterial-peptidoglycan-biosynthesis
#12
REVIEW
Natividad Ruiz
The biosynthesis of cellular polysaccharides and glycoconjugates often involves lipid-linked intermediates that need to be translocated across membranes. Essential pathways such as N-glycosylation in eukaryotes and biogenesis of the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall in bacteria share a common strategy where nucleotide-sugars are used to build a membrane-bound oligosaccharide precursor that is linked to a phosphorylated isoprenoid lipid. Once made, these lipid-linked intermediates must be translocated across a membrane so that they can serve as substrates in a different cellular compartment...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715852/trafficking-and-functions-of-bioactive-sphingolipids-lessons-from-cells-and-model-membranes
#13
REVIEW
Kecheng Zhou, Tomas Blom
Ceramide and sphingosine and their phosphorylated counterparts are recognized as "bioactive sphingolipids" and modulate membrane integrity, the activity of enzymes, or act as ligands of G protein-coupled receptors. The subcellular distribution of the bioactive sphingolipids is central to their function as the same lipid can mediate diametrically opposite effects depending on its location. To ensure that these lipids are present in the right amount and in the appropriate organelles, cells employ selective lipid transport and compartmentalize sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes to characteristic subcellular sites...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715851/osbp-related-protein-family-in-lipid-transport-over-membrane-contact-sites
#14
REVIEW
Vesa M Olkkonen
Increasing evidence suggests that oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) localize at membrane contact sites, which are high-capacity platforms for inter-organelle exchange of small molecules and information. ORPs can simultaneously associate with the two apposed membranes and transfer lipids across the interbilayer gap. Oxysterol-binding protein moves cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to trans-Golgi, driven by the retrograde transport of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Analogously, yeast Osh6p mediates the transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, and ORP5 and -8 are suggested to execute similar functions in mammalian cells...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25987846/the-effects-of-serum-from-prostate-cancer-patients-with-elevated-body-mass-index-on-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#15
Benjamin C Mora, Neil E Fleshner, Laurence H Klotz, Vasundara Venkateswaran
We examined whether serum from obese, compared to non-obese, PCa (prostate cancer) patients creates a growth-enhancing tumor micro-environment in vitro. Serum from 80 subjects was divided into four groups: normal weight men with and without PCa and overweight/obese men with and without PCa. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in LNCaP, and PC3 cells treated with patient serum were obtained from the above groups. The results reveal that proliferation of LNCaP cells was significantly (P = 0...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25861222/free-radical-destruction-of-sphingolipids-resulting-in-2-hexadecenal-formation
#16
Oleg Shadyro, Alexandra Lisovskaya, Galina Semenkova, Irina Edimecheva, Nadezda Amaegberi
The action of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and γ-radiation on aqueous lysosphingolipid dispersions was found to produce 2-hexadecenal (Hex). This process includes the stages of formation of nitrogen-centered radicals from the starting molecules and the subsequent fragmentation of these radicals via the rupture of C-C and O-H bonds. These findings prove the existence of a nonenzymatic pathway of sphingolipid destruction leading to the formation of Hex, which possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity. Analysis of the effect of HOCl on transplantable rat glioma C6 cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells points to the formation of Hex...
2015: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278769/lack-of-association-between-polymorphisms-of-hepatic-lipase-with-lipid-profile-in-young-jordanian-adults
#17
Omar F Khabour, Mahmoud A Alomari, Karem H Alzoubi, Mohammad Y Gharaibeh, Farah H Alhashimi
The human hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene encodes hepatic lipase, an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Therefore, variants in LIPC gene may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. In this study, the association of LIPC C-514T and G-250A polymorphisms with plasma lipid profiles in 348 young Jordanians was investigated. Genotyping of C-514T and G-250A was performed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with DraI and NiaIII restriction enzymes, respectively, while Roche analyzer was used to determine plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-and high-density lipoprotein...
2014: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221429/lipid-droplets-as-signaling-platforms-linking-metabolic-and-cellular-functions
#18
Estela L Arrese, Fredy Z Saudale, Jose L Soulages
The main cells of the adipose tissue of animals, adipocytes, are characterized by the presence of large cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs), which store triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol. However, most cells have LDs and the ability to store lipids. LDs have a well-known central role in storage and provision of fatty acids and cholesterol. However, the complexity of the regulation of lipid metabolism on the surface of the LDs is still a matter of intense study. Beyond this role, a number of recent studies have suggested that LDs have major functions in other cellular processes, such as protein storage and degradation, and infection and immunity...
2014: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278768/stimulation-of-hepatic-apolipoprotein-a-i-production-by-novel-thieno-triazolodiazepines-roles-of-the-classical-benzodiazepine-receptor-paf-receptor-and-bromodomain-binding
#19
Herman J Kempen, Daniel Bellus, Oleg Fedorov, Silke Nicklisch, Panagis Filippakopoulos, Sarah Picaud, Stefan Knapp
Expression and secretion of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) by cultured liver cells can be markedly stimulated by triazolodiazepines (TZDs). It has been shown previously that the thieno-TZD Ro 11-1464 increases plasma levels of apoA-I and in vivomacrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice. However, these effects were only seen at high doses, at which the compound could act on central benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptors, interfering with its potential utility. In this work, we describe 2 new thieno-TZDs MDCO-3770 and MDCO-3783, both derived from Ro 11-1464...
2013: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278767/diet-obesity-and-cancer-progression-are-adipocytes-the-link
#20
REVIEW
Paul Toren, Benjamin C Mora, Vasundara Venkateswaran
Obesity has been linked to more aggressive characteristics of several cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Adipose tissue appears to contribute to paracrine interactions in the tumor microenvironment. In particular, cancer-associated adipocytes interact reciprocally with cancer cells and influence cancer progression. Adipokines secreted from adipocytes likely form a key component of the paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. In vitro coculture models allow for the assessment of specific adipokines in this interaction...
2013: Lipid Insights
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