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Biomolecules & Therapeutics

Joon Hee Kang, Seon-Hyeong Lee, Heesun Cheong, Chang Hoon Lee, Soo-Youl Kim
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) plays a key role in p53 regulation, depleting p53 tumor suppressor through autophagy in renal cell carcinoma. We found that microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), a hallmark of autophagy, were tightly associated with the level of TGase 2 in cancer cells. TGase 2 overexpression increased LC3 levels, and TGase 2 knockdown decreased LC3 levels in cancer cells. Transcript abundance of LC3 was inversely correlated with level of wild type p53. TGase 2 knockdown using siRNA, or TGase 2 inhibition using GK921 significantly reduced autophagy through reduction of LC3 transcription, which was followed by restoration of p53 levels in cancer cells...
September 20, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Zhicheng Fu, So Yoon Yun, Jong Hoon Won, Moon Jung Back, Ji Min Jang, Hae Chan Ha, Hae Kyung Lee, In Chul Shin, Ju Yeun Kim, Hee Soo Kim, Dae Kyong Kim
Ceramide metabolism is known to be an essential etiology for various diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and Gaucher disease. Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), which is a main ceramide metabolism pathway in mammalian cells. In this article, we developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine GCS activity using synthetic non-natural sphingolipid C8-ceramide as a substrate. The reaction products, C8-GlcCer for GCS, could be separated on a C18 column by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
September 20, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jong Kook Park, Jung Seon Seo, Suk Kyeong Lee, Kenneth K Chan, Hyo-Jeong Kuh
Epigenetic silencing is considered to be a major mechanism for loss of activity in tumor suppressors. Reversal of epigenetic silencing by using inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylases (HDACs) such as 5-Aza-CdR and FK228 has shown to enhance cytotoxic activities of several anticancer agents. This study aims to assess the combinatorial effects of gene-silencing reversal agents (5-Aza-CdR and FK228) and oxaliplatin in gastric cancer cells, i.e., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative SNU-638 and EBV-positive SNU-719 cells...
September 3, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Peng-Fei Wang, Dan-Hua Yao, Yue-Yu Hu, Yousheng Li
Intestinal barrier dysfunction always accompanies cirrhosis in patients with advanced liver disease and is an important contributor facilitating bacterial translocation (BT), which has been involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and its complications. Several studies have demonstrated the protective effect of Vitamin D on intestinal barrier function. However, severe cholestasis leads to vitamin D depletion. This study was designed to test whether vitamin D therapy improves intestinal dysfunction in cirrhosis...
September 3, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Suji Kim, No-Joon Song, Seo-Hyuk Chang, Gahee Bahn, Yuri Choi, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Ui Jeong Yun, Jinhee Choi, Jeon Lee, Jae Hyuk Yoo, Donghan Shin, Ki-Moon Park, Hee Kang, Sukchan Lee, Jin-Mo Ku, Yoon Shin Cho, Kye Won Park
The global obesity epidemic and associated metabolic diseases require alternative biological targets for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that a phytochemical sulfuretin suppressed adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes and administration of sulfuretin to high fat diet-fed obese mice prevented obesity and increased insulin sensitivity. These effects were associated with a suppressed expression of inflammatory markers, induced expression of adiponectin, and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT...
August 22, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Minji Bang, Onjeon Ryu, Do Gyeong Kim, Darine Froy Mabunga, Kyu Suk Cho, Yujeong Kim, Seol-Heui Han, Kyoung Ja Kwon, Chan Young Shin
Brain aging induces neuropsychological changes, such as decreased memory capacity, language ability, and attention; and is also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, most of the studies on brain aging are focused on neurons, while senescence in astrocytes has received less attention. Astrocytes constitute the majority of cell types in the brain and perform various functions in the brain such as supporting brain structures, regulating blood-brain barrier permeability, transmitter uptake and regulation, and immunity modulation...
August 10, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Karyn Muzinga Ndolo, Su Jin An, Kyeong Ryang Park, Hyo Jeong Lee, Kyoung Bin Yoon, Yong-Chul Kim, Sun-Young Han
The c-Met protein is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis of several human tumors. Overexpression of c-Met has been found in gastric cancers and correlated with a poor prognosis. Indirubin is the active component of Danggui Longhui Wan, which is a traditional Chinese antileukemic recipe. In the present study, we tested the anti-cancer effects of an indirubin derivative, LDD-1937, on human gastric cancer cells SNU-638. When we performed the in vitro kinase assay against the c-Met activity, LDD-1937 inhibited the activity of c-Met...
July 30, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jing Lou, Donghe Han, Huihui Yu, Guang Yu, Meihua Jin, Sung-Jin Kim
Osteoporosis development is closely associated with oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine has potential antioxidant effects, but its role in osteoblasts is not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and mechanisms of actions of taurine on hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced oxidative stress in osteoblast cells. UMR-106 cells were treated with taurine prior to H2 O2 exposure. After treatment, cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular ROS production, malondialdehyde content, and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity were measured...
July 30, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Arjun Sapkota, Se Jin Park, Ji Woong Choi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, axonal degeneration, and demyelination. Previous studies have reported that 6-shogaol, a major constituent of ginger ( Zingiber officinale rhizome), and its biological metabolite, 6-paradol, have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated whether 6-shogaol and 6-paradol could ameliorate against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS elicited by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 ) peptide immunization with injection of pertussis toxin...
July 13, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Su In Lee, Yoongho Lim, Keunwook Lee, Hyung-Joo Kwon
The authors request to correct the author name from Yoonho Lim to Yoongho Lim page 322.
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Dayoung Ryu, In-Geun Ryoo, Mi-Kyoung Kwak
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), is involved in aggressive cancer phenotypes. Herein, we investigated the role of the CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulation using MCF7 overexpressing CD44s (pCD44s-MCF7). When pCD44s-MCF7 was incubated under hypoxia, levels of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the HIF-1α response element-derived luciferase activity were significantly increased compared to those in the control MCF7...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sajita Shah, Kyu-Tae Kang
Most angiogenesis assays are performed using endothelial cells. However, blood vessels are composed of two cell types: endothelial cells and pericytes. Thus, co-culture of two vascular cells should be employed to evaluate angiogenic properties. Here, we developed an in vitro 3-dimensional angiogenesis assay system using spheroids formed by two human vascular precursors: endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). ECFCs, MSCs, or ECFCs+MSCs were cultured to form spheroids. Sprout formation from each spheroid was observed for 24 h by real-time cell recorder...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Qing Meng, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seikwan Oh, Yong-Moon Lee, Zhenzhen Hu, Ki-Wan Oh
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter expressed in the central nervous systems. Previously, several reports demonstrated that nucleus accumbal-injected CART peptide positively modulated behavioral sensitization induced by psychostimulants and regulated the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway. It is confirmed that CART peptide exerted inhibitory effect on psychostimulant-enhanced dopamine receptors signaling, Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling and crucial transcription factors expression...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sung Hun Bae, Ju Ho Park, Hyeon Gyeom Choi, Hyesook Kim, So Hee Kim
Breast cancer is currently the most prevalent cancer in women, and its incidence increases every year. Azole antifungal drugs were recently found to have antitumor efficacy in several cancer types. They contain an imidazole (clotrimazole and ketoconazole) or a triazole (fluconazole and itraconazole) ring. Using human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), we evaluated the effects of azole drugs on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Minjeong Kim, Ji Seong Jeong, Hyunji Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Il-Hyun Park, Byung-Chul Lee, Sung Il Yoon, Sun Ha Jee, Ki Taek Nam, Kyung-Min Lim
Phthalates widely used in the manufacture of plastics have deeply penetrated into our everyday lives. Recently, a concern over the toxicity of phthalates on thyroid, has been raised but in most of cases, the doses employed were unrealistically high. To investigate the effects of phthalates on thyroid, we investigated the effects of the repeated oral exposure to low to high doses (0.3, 3, 30 and 150 mg/kg) di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from weaning to maturity for 90 days in juvenile rats on the thyroid. The histological examination revealed that DEHP significantly induced hyperplasia in the thyroid from the doses of 30 mg/kg, which was confirmed with Ki67 staining...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Aastha Shrestha, Nirmala Tilija Pun, Pil-Hoon Park
Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly originated from adipose tissue, has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy induction plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Association of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, an autophagy activating protein, prevents autophagy induction. We have previously shown that adiponectin-induced autophagy activation is mediated through inhibition of interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Ji-Woon Kim, Hyun Ah Oh, Sung Hoon Lee, Ki Chan Kim, Pyung Hwa Eun, Mee Jung Ko, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Hana Seung, Seonmin Kim, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
T-type calcium channels are low voltage-activated calcium channels that evoke small and transient calcium currents. Recently, T-type calcium channels have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and neural tube defects. However, their function during embryonic development is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function and expression of T-type calcium channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). First, we compared the expression of T-type calcium channel subtypes (CaV3...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Geum-A Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-A Hwang
Triclosan (TCS) and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that interfere with the hormone or endocrine system and may cause cancer. Kaempferol (Kaem) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytoestrogens that play chemopreventive roles in the inhibition of carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, the influence of TCS, BPA, Kaem, and DIM on proliferation and apoptotic abilities of VM7Luc4E2 breast cancer cells were examined. MTT assay revealed that TCS (0.1-10 µM), BPA (0.1-10 µM) and E2 (0...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Yong-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Shim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Worldwide, caffeine is among the most commonly used stimulatory substances. Unfortunately, significant caffeine consumption is associated with several adverse effects, ranging from sleep disturbances (including insomnia) to cardiovascular problems. This study investigates whether treatment with the Evodia rutaecarpa aqueous extract (ERAE) from berries and its major molecular component, evodiamine, can reduce the adverse caffeine-induced sleep-related and excitation effects. We combined measurements from the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, the open field test, and the locomotor activity test in mice that had been dosed with caffeine...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Kyu-Bong Kim, Byung-Mu Lee, Joo Young Lee
Cosmetics are primarily applied to the skin; therefore, the association of cosmetic dyes with skin diseases or inflammation is a topic of great interest. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7-like cytokine that activates dendritic cells to promote Th2 inflammatory immune responses. TSLP is highly expressed in keratinocytes under inflammatory conditions, which suggests that it may play a critical role in the development of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, we investigated whether cosmetic dyes influenced the production of TSLP by keratinocytes...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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