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Biomolecules & Therapeutics

Arjun Sapkota, Se Jin Park, Ji Woong Choi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, axonal degeneration, and demyelination. Previous studies have reported that 6-shogaol, a major constituent of ginger ( Zingiber officinale rhizome), and its biological metabolite, 6-paradol, have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated whether 6-shogaol and 6-paradol could ameliorate against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS elicited by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 ) peptide immunization with injection of pertussis toxin...
July 13, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Aastha Shrestha, Nirmala Tilija Pun, Pil-Hoon Park
Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly originated from adipose tissue, has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy induction plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Association of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, an autophagy activating protein, prevents autophagy induction. We have previously shown that adiponectin-induced autophagy activation is mediated through inhibition of interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1...
July 13, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Zhenzhen Hu, Seikwan Oh, Tae-Woo Ha, Jin-Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Although drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines are often used for the treatment of insomnia, they are associated with various side effects such as habituations, tolerance and addiction. Alternatively, natural products with minimal unwanted effects have been preferred for the treatment of acute and/or mild insomnia, with additional benefits of overall health-promotion. Basic and clinical researches on the mechanisms of action of natural products have been carried out so far in insomnia treatments. Recent studies have been focusing on diverse chemical components available in natural products, with an interest of developing drugs that can improve sleep duration and quality...
June 22, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Fanxing Xu, Bosai He, Feng Xiao, Tingxu Yan, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia, Zhenzhong Wang
Previous studies have shown that spinosin was implicated in the modulation of sedation and hypnosis, while its effects on learning and memory deficits were rarely reported. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spinosin on the improvement of cognitive impairment in model mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by Aβ1-42 and determine the underlying mechanism. Spontaneous locomotion assessment and Morris water maze test were performed to investigate the impact of spinosin on behavioral activities, and the pathological changes were assayed by biochemical analyses and histological assay...
June 21, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Xia Han, Kyoung Ah Kang, Mei Jing Piao, Ao Xuan Zhen, Yu Jae Hyun, Hyun Min Kim, Yea Seong Ryu, Jin Won Hyun
The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated IC50 value of 3 μM after 48 h of treatment. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, sub-G1 phase cells, and DNA fragmentation. Shikonin induced apoptotic cell death by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase family members, and the apoptotic process was mediated by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/CHOP apoptotic pathway, and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation...
June 21, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Byung Kyu Park, Kyung Su So, Hye Jung Ko, Hyun Joong Kim, Ki Sun Kwon, Yong Soo Kwon, Kun Ho Son, Soon Youl Kwon, Hyun Pyo Kim
Investigations into the development of new therapeutic agents for lung inflammatory disorders have led to the discovery of plant-based alternatives. The rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides have a long history of use against lung inflammatory disorders in traditional herbal medicine. However, the therapeutic potential of this plant material in animal models of lung inflammation has yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we prepared the alcoholic extract and derived the saponin-enriched fraction from the rhizomes of A...
June 21, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Dong Kyu Lee, Young Sil Min, Seong Su Yoo, Hyun Sub Shim, Sun Young Park, Uy Dong Sohn
A comprehensive collection of proteins senses local changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) and transduces these signals into responses to agonists. In the present study, we examined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on modulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells. To measure [Ca2+ ]i levels in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells, we used a fluorescence microscopy with the Fura-2 loading method. S1P produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+ ]i in the cells...
June 19, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Bo Kyung Lee, An Na Jung, Yi-Sook Jung
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has an essential role in the process of learning and memory in the hippocampus. It has been reported that linalool, a major component of Lavandula angustifolia , has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, along with other effects. However, the effect of linalool on the cognitive impairment and behavioral alterations that are induced by REM-sleep deprivation has not yet been elucidated. Several studies have reported that REM-sleep deprivation-induced memory deficits provide a well-known model of behavioral alterations...
June 19, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Su In Lee, Yoongho Lim, Keunwook Lee, Younghee Lee, Hyung-Joo Kwon
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death due to a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Gomisin G on colon cancer growth and examined the underlying mechanism of action. We found that Gomisin G significantly suppressed the viability and colony formation of LoVo cells. Gomisin G reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT implying that Gomisin G suppressed the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Gomisin G also induced apoptosis shown by Annexin V staining and an increased level of cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and Caspase-3 proteins...
June 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Ana Patricia Ayala-Cuellar, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kyung-Chul Choi
Mesenchymal stem cells are classified as multipotent stem cells, due to their capability to transdifferentiate into various lineages that develop from mesoderm. Their popular appeal as cell-based therapy was initially based on the idea of their ability to restore tissue because of their differentiation potential in vitro ; however, the lack of evidence of their differentiation to target cells in vivo led researchers to focus on their secreted trophic factors and their role as potential powerhouses on regulation of factors under different immunological environments and recover homeostasis...
June 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jae-Hyoung Song, Aeri Shim, Yeon-Jeong Kim, Jae-Hee Ahn, Bo-Eun Kwon, Thuy Trang Pham, Jongkook Lee, Sun-Young Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the major causes of common cold in humans and are also associated with acute asthma and bronchial illness. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone, is an important host factor for the replication of single-strand RNA viruses. In the current study, we examined the effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor pochonin D, in vitro and in vivo , using a murine model of human rhinovirus type 1B (HRV1B) infection. Our data suggested that Hsp90 inhibition significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine production and lung damage caused by HRV1B infection...
May 2, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hae-In Kim, Hyesol Lim, Aree Moon
The incidence and mortality of various cancers are associated with sex-specific disparities. Sex differences in cancer epidemiology are one of the most significant findings. Men are more prone to die from cancer, particularly hematological malignancies. Sex difference in cancer incidence is attributed to regulation at the genetic/molecular level and sex hormones such as estrogen. At the genetic/molecular level, gene polymorphism and altered enzymes involving drug metabolism generate differences in cancer incidence between men and women...
July 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Stephen Schaffer, Ha Won Kim
Taurine is an abundant, β-amino acid with diverse cytoprotective activity. In some species, taurine is an essential nutrient but in man it is considered a semi-essential nutrient, although cells lacking taurine show major pathology. These findings have spurred interest in the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic agent. The discovery that taurine is an effective therapy against congestive heart failure led to the study of taurine as a therapeutic agent against other disease conditions. Today, taurine has been approved for the treatment of congestive heart failure in Japan and shows promise in the treatment of several other diseases...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Su In Lee, Yoonho Lim, Keunwook Lee, Hyung-Joo Kwon
A type of breast cancer with a defect in three molecular markers such as the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor is called triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Many patients with TNBC have a lower survival rate than patients with other types due to a poor prognosis. In this study, we confirmed the anti-cancer effect of a natural compound, Gomisin G, in TNBC cancer cells. Treatment with Gomisin G suppressed the viability of two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 but not non-TNBC cell lines such as MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Chang Yell Shin, Hae-Sun Kim, Kwang-Ho Cha, Dong Han Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Sun Woo Jang, Uy Dong Sohn
A previous study in humans demonstrated the sustained inhibitory effects of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity; however, the effective concentration of donepezil in humans and animals is unclear. This study aimed to characterize the effective concentration of donepezil on AChE inhibition and impaired learning and memory in rodents. A pharmacokinetic study of donepezil showed a mean peak plasma concentration of donepezil after oral treatment (3 and 10 mg/kg) of approximately 1.2 ± 0.4 h and 1...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Myungguen Chung, Soo Young Cho, Young Seek Lee
We aimed to understand the molecular changes in host cells that accompany infection by the seasonal influenza A H1N1 virus because the initial response rapidly changes owing to the fact that the virus has a robust initial propagation phase. Human epithelial alveolar A549 cells were infected and total RNA was extracted at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h post infection (h.p.i.). The differentially expressed host genes were clustered into two distinct sets of genes as the infection progressed over time...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Seung-In Choi, Sun Wook Hwang
Inflammation is one of the main causes of pathologic pain. Knowledge of the molecular links between inflammatory signals and pain-mediating neuronal signals is essential for understanding the mechanisms behind pain exacerbation. Some inflammatory mediators directly modulate the excitability of pain-mediating neurons by contacting the receptor molecules expressed in those neurons. For decades, many discoveries have accumulated regarding intraneuronal signals from receptor activation through electrical depolarization for bradykinin, a major inflammatory mediator that is able to both excite and sensitize pain-mediating nociceptor neurons...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Taddesse Yayeh, Yea-Hyun Leem, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Jessica Schwarz, Ki-Wan Oh, Seikwan Oh
Sleep is the most basic and essential physiological requirement for mental health, and sleep disorders pose potential risks of metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Tryptic hydrolysate of αS1 -casein (αS1 -CH) has been shown to possess stress relieving and sleep promoting effects. However, the differential effects of αS1 -CH on electroencephalographic wave patterns and its effects on the protein levels of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptor subtypes in hypothalamic neurons are not well understood...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Mee Sook Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the innate immunity of hosts. Humans constitutively and/or inducibly express α- and β-defensins, which are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities. This review describes the application of human defensins. We discuss the extant experimental results, limited though they are, to consider the potential applicability of human defensins as antiviral agents. Given their antiviral effects, we propose that basic research be conducted on human defensins that focuses on RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and dengue virus (DENV), which are considered serious human pathogens but have posed huge challenges for vaccine development for different reasons...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Qiuming Liu, Yali Cao, Ping Zhou, Shimin Gui, Xiaobo Wu, Yong Xia, Jianhong Tu
Because of the unsatisfactory treatment options for breast cancer (BC), there is a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is chemotherapy using non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. Studies have shown that Panduratin A (PA) possesses many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we provide evidence that PA treatment of MCF-7 BC cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC₅₀ of 15 μM and no to little effect on normal human MCF-10A breast cells...
May 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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