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Biomolecules & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316776/phagocytic-roles-of-glial-cells-in-healthy-and-diseased-brains
#1
REVIEW
Yeon-Joo Jung, Won-Suk Chung
Glial cells are receiving much attention since they have been recognized as important regulators of many aspects of brain function and disease. Recent evidence has revealed that two different glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, control synapse elimination under normal and pathological conditions via phagocytosis. Astrocytes use the MEGF10 and MERTK phagocytic pathways, and microglia use the classical complement pathway to recognize and eliminate unwanted synapses. Notably, glial phagocytosis also contributes to the clearance of disease-specific protein aggregates, such as β-amyloid, huntingtin, and α-synuclein...
January 10, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316237/administration-of-alphas1-casein-hydrolysate-increases-sleep-and-modulates-gabaa-receptor-subunit-expression
#2
Taddesse Yayeh, Yea-Hyun Leem, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Jessica Schwarz, Ki-Wan Oh, Seikwan Oh
Sleep is the most basic and essential physiological requirement for mental health, and sleep disorders pose potential risks of metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Tryptic hydrolysate of αS1-casein (αS1-CH) has been shown to possess stress relieving and sleep promoting effects. However, the differential effects of αS1-CH on electroencephalographic wave patterns and its effects on the protein levels of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subtypes in hypothalamic neurons are not well understood. We found αS1-CH (120, 240 mg/kg) increased sleep duration in mice and reduced sleep-wake cycle numbers in rats...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310428/modulation-of-electroosmotic-flow-through-skin-effect-of-poly-amidoamine-dendrimers
#3
Hye Ji Kim, Seaung Youl Oh
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on electroosmotic flow (EOF) through skin. The effect of size and concentration of dendrimer was studied, using generation 1, 4 and 7 dendrimer (G1, G4 and G7, respectively). As a marker molecule for the direction and magnitude of EOF, a neutral molecule, acetoaminophen (AAP) was used. The visualization of dendrimer permeation into the current conducting pore (CCP) of skin was made using G4-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate and confocal microscopy...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310427/towards-the-application-of-human-defensins-as-antivirals
#4
REVIEW
Mee Sook Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the innate immunity of hosts. Humans constitutively and/or inducibly express α- and β-defensins, which are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities. This review describes the application of human defensins. We discuss the extant experimental results, limited though they are, to consider the potential applicability of human defensins as antiviral agents. Given their antiviral effects, we propose that basic research be conducted on human defensins that focuses on RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and dengue virus (DENV), which are considered serious human pathogens but have posed huge challenges for vaccine development for different reasons...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310426/il-1-receptor-antagonist-reduced-chemical-induced-keratinocyte-apoptosis-through-antagonism-to-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE
#5
Hyejin Lee, Kyung Ah Cheong, Ji-Young Kim, Nan-Hyung Kim, Minsoo Noh, Ai-Young Lee
Extracellular interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) released from keratinocytes is one of the endpoints for in vitro assessments of skin irritancy. Although cells dying via primary skin irritation undergo apoptosis as well as necrosis, IL-1α is not released in apoptotic cells. On the other hand, active secretion has been identified in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), which was discovered to be a common, upregulated, differentially-expressed gene in a microarray analysis performed with keratinocytes treated using cytotoxic doses of chemicals...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310425/treatment-with-phytoestrogens-reversed-triclosan-and-bisphenol-a-induced-anti-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Geum-A Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-A Hwang
Triclosan (TCS) and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that interfere with the hormone or endocrine system and may cause cancer. Kaempferol (Kaem) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytoestrogens that play chemopreventive roles in the inhibition of carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, the influence of TCS, BPA, Kaem, and DIM on proliferation and apoptotic abilities of VM7Luc4E2 breast cancer cells were examined. MTT assay revealed that TCS (0.1-10 μM), BPA (0.1-10 μM) and E2 (0...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310424/evodiamine-reduces-caffeine-induced-sleep-disturbances-and-excitation-in-mice
#7
Yong-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Shim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Worldwide, caffeine is among the most commonly used stimulatory substances. Unfortunately, significant caffeine consumption is associated with several adverse effects, ranging from sleep disturbances (including insomnia) to cardiovascular problems. This study investigates whether treatment with the Evodia rutaecarpa aqueous extract (ERAE) from berries and its major molecular component, evodiamine, can reduce the adverse caffeine-induced sleep-related and excitation effects. We combined measurements from the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, the open field test, and the locomotor activity test in mice that had been dosed with caffeine...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310423/phloxine-o-a-cosmetic-colorant-suppresses-the-expression-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-acute-dermatitis-symptoms-in-mice
#8
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Kyu-Bong Kim, Byung-Mu Lee, Joo Young Lee
Cosmetics are primarily applied to the skin; therefore, the association of cosmetic dyes with skin diseases or inflammation is a topic of great interest. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7-like cytokine that activates dendritic cells to promote Th2 inflammatory immune responses. TSLP is highly expressed in keratinocytes under inflammatory conditions, which suggests that it may play a critical role in the development of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, we investigated whether cosmetic dyes influenced the production of TSLP by keratinocytes...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310422/anti-proliferative-activities-of-vasicinone-on-lung-carcinoma-cells-mediated-via-activation-of-both-mitochondria-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#9
Tapan Dey, Prachurjya Dutta, Prasenjit Manna, Jatin Kalita, Hari Prasanna Deka Boruah, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Balagopalan Unni
Vasicinone, a quinazoline alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica Nees. is well known for its bronchodilator activity. However its anti-proliferative activities is yet to be elucidated. Here-in we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of vasicinone and its underlying mechanism against A549 lung carcinoma cells. The A549 cells upon treatment with various doses of vasicinone (10, 30, 50, 70 μM) for 72 h showed significant decrease in cell viability. Vasicinone treatment also showed DNA fragmentation, LDH leakage, and disruption of mitochondrial potential, and lower wound healing ability in A549 cells...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301388/panduratin-a-inhibits-cell-proliferation-by-inducing-g0-g1-phase-cell-cycle-arrest-and-induces-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Qiuming Liu, Yali Cao, Ping Zhou, Shimin Gui, Xiaobo Wu, Yong Xia, Jianhong Tu
Because of the unsatisfactory treatment options for breast cancer (BC), there is a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is chemotherapy using non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. Studies have shown that Panduratin A (PA) possesses many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities. In the present study, we provide evidence that PA treatment of MCF-7 BC cells resulted in a time- and dosedependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC₅₀ of 15 μM and no to little effect on normal human MCF-10A breast cells...
January 5, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#11
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223143/neurobiological-functions-of-the-period-circadian-clock-2-gene-per2
#12
REVIEW
Mikyung Kim, June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Most organisms have adapted to a circadian rhythm that follows a roughly 24-hour cycle, which is modulated by both internal (clock-related genes) and external (environment) factors. In such organisms, the central nervous system (CNS) is influenced by the circadian rhythm of individual cells. Furthermore, the period circadian clock 2 (Per2) gene is an important component of the circadian clock, which modulates the circadian rhythm. Per2 is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as other brain areas, including the midbrain and forebrain...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223142/designing-tyrosinase-sirnas-by-multiple-prediction-algorithms-and-evaluation-of-their-anti-melanogenic-effects
#13
Ok-Seon Kwon, Soo-Jung Kwon, Jin Sang Kim, Gunbong Lee, Han-Joo Maeng, Jeongmi Lee, Gwi Seo Hwang, Hyuk-Jin Cha, Kwang-Hoon Chun
Melanin is a pigment produced from tyrosine in melanocytes. Although melanin has a protective role against UVB radiation-induced damage, it is also associated with the development of melanoma and darker skin tone. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, which regulates the rate-limiting step during conversion of tyrosine into DOPA and dopaquinone. To develop effective RNA interference therapeutics, we designed a melanin siRNA pool by applying multiple prediction programs to reduce human tyrosinase levels...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223141/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-choline-transporter-like-proteins-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#14
Fumiaki Nagashima, Ryohta Nishiyama, Beniko Iwao, Yuiko Kawai, Chikanao Ishii, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Uchino, Masato Inazu
In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in the human esophageal cancer cells. In addition, we examined the influence of various drugs on the transport of [3H]choline, and explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. We found that both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were highly expressed in esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE series). CTL1 and CTL2 were located in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223140/collagen-induced-arthritis-analysis-in-rhbdf2-knockout-mouse
#15
Min-Young Lee, Ju-Seong Kang, Ryeo-Eun Go, Yong-Sub Byun, Young Jin Wi, Kyung-A Hwang, Jae-Hoon Choi, Hyoung-Chin Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Ki-Hoan Nam
Rhomboid family member 2 gene (Rhbdf2) is an inactive homologue lacking essential catalytic residues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases. The protein is necessary for maturation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) converting enzyme, which is the molecule responsible for the release of TNF-α. In this study, Rhbdf2 knockout (KO) mice were produced by CRISPR/CAS9. To see the effects of the failure of TNF-α release induced by Rhbdf2 gene KO, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is the representative TNF-α related disease, was induced in the Rhbdf2 mutant mouse using chicken collagen type II...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212309/imaging-cancer-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Milica Momcilovic, David B Shackelford
It is widely accepted that altered metabolism contributes to cancer growth and has been described as a hallmark of cancer. Our view and understanding of cancer metabolism has expanded at a rapid pace, however, there remains a need to study metabolic dependencies of human cancer in vivo. Recent studies have sought to utilize multi-modality imaging (MMI) techniques in order to build a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of cancer metabolism. MMI combines several in vivo techniques that can provide complementary information related to cancer metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212308/metabolic-signaling-to-epigenetic-alterations-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Jung-Ae Kim, Young Il Yeom
Cancer cells reprogram cellular metabolism to support the malignant features of tumors, such as rapid growth and proliferation. The cancer promoting effects of metabolic reprogramming are found in many aspects: generating additional energy, providing more anabolic molecules for biosynthesis, and rebalancing cellular redox states in cancer cells. Metabolic pathways are considered the pipelines to supply metabolic cofactors of epigenetic modifiers. In this regard, cancer metabolism, whereby cellular metabolite levels are greatly altered compared to normal levels, is closely associated with cancer epigenetics, which is implicated in many stages of tumorigenesis...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212307/dysregulation-of-nrf2-in-cancer-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Byung-Jin Jung, Hwan-Sic Yoo, Sooyoung Shin, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Min Jeon
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays an important role in redox metabolism and antioxidant defense. Under normal conditions, NRF2 proteins are maintained at very low levels because of their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via binding to the kelch‑like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses disrupt the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction, which leads to the accumulation and transactivation of NRF2. During recent decades, a growing body of evidence suggests that NRF2 is frequently activated in many types of cancer by multiple mechanisms, including the genetic mutations in the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212306/oncogene-driven-metabolic-alterations-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Understanding the biology underlying the evolution of cancer is important for reducing the economic and social burden of cancer. In addition to genetic aberrations, recent studies demonstrate metabolic rewiring, such as aerobic glycolysis, glutamine dependency, accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis, and upregulation of lipid and amino acid synthesis, in several types of cancer to support their high demands on nutrients for building blocks and energy production...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212303/targeting-glutamine-metabolism-for-cancer-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Yeon-Kyung Choi, Keun-Gyu Park
Rapidly proliferating cancer cells require energy and cellular building blocks for their growth and ability to maintain redox balance. Many studies have focused on understanding how cancer cells adapt their nutrient metabolism to meet the high demand of anabolism required for proliferation and maintaining redox balance. Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in plasma, is a well-known nutrient used by cancer cells to increase proliferation as well as survival under metabolic stress conditions. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glutamine metabolism in cancer cell survival and growth and highlight the mechanisms by which glutamine metabolism affects cancer cell signaling...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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