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American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book

Wendy H Vogel
Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Lee Schwartzberg
In the emerging team-based approach to delivering cancer care, collecting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provides longitudinal monitoring of treatment adverse effects, disease complications, functional statuses, and psychological states throughout the cancer continuum for all providers to use. Electronic systems offer added capabilities, including easy quantitation of individual symptom items and aggregated scales, standardization, and longitudinal tracking of patient surveys for trend analysis over time...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Otis W Brawley, Ian M Thompson, Henrik Grönberg
Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Filipa Lynce, Claudine Isaacs
The traditional model by which an individual was identified as harboring a hereditary susceptibility to cancer was to test for a mutation in a single gene or a finite number of genes associated with a particular syndrome (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or mismatch repair genes for Lynch syndrome). The decision regarding which gene or genes to test for was based on a review of the patient's personal medical history and their family history. With advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technology, offering simultaneous testing for multiple genes associated with a hereditary susceptibility to cancer is now possible...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Miguel Martin, Sara López-Tarruella
The natural history of HER2-positive breast cancer has progressively improved since the introduction of the first anti-HER2 directed therapy (trastuzumab). Trastuzumab has significantly increased survival of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and, after the standardization of the use of this drug in the adjuvant setting in 2005, has also avoided many disease recurrences and, consequently, saved many lives. Later on, the introduction of lapatinib offered new choices for patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer, although the drug has failed to show a clear efficacy in the adjuvant setting...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Christine M Lovly, April K S Salama, Ravi Salgia
The rapidly changing landscape of oncology has brought new light, and with it, new challenges to optimizing therapeutic strategies for patients. Although the concept of patient heterogeneity is well known to any practicing clinician, a more detailed understanding of the biologic changes that underscore the clinical picture is beginning to emerge. Thus, tumor heterogeneity has come to encompass more than just the clinical picture and can represent both intratumor and intertumor differences. Within the fields of thoracic oncology and melanoma, the discovery of key molecular drivers has resulted in landmark breakthroughs in therapy...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Joaquin Mateo, Johann S de Bono
The aim of precision medicine is to select the best treatment option for each patient at the appropriate time in the natural history of the disease, based on understanding the molecular makeup of the tumor, with the ultimate objective of improving patient survival and quality of life. To achieve it, we must identify functionally distinct subtypes of cancers and, critically, have multiple therapy options available to match to these functional subtypes. As a result of the development of better and less costly next-generation sequencing assays, we can now interrogate the cancer genome, enabling us to use the DNA sequence itself for biomarker studies in drug development...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Alessandro Gronchi, B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Joseph Patrick Erinjeri
The approach to metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is complex and depends upon several factors, such as the extent of the disease, the histologic subtype of the primary tumor, the disease-free interval, patient status and comorbidities, and previous treatments. The effect of systemic chemotherapy is suboptimal, therefore local ablative therapies are often considered when the disease is limited, especially if confined to a single site/organ. Historically, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice for isolated lung metastases...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Nancy Nixon, Sunil Verma
Over the past decade, treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer has been revolutionized with the introduction of targeted therapies. Survival in both early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly. With evidence for major clinical benefit, it is imperative that health systems evaluate new treatments to maximize the value of health expenditures. Physicians, funding agencies, and policy makers are tasked with analyzing available evidence to ensure that each individual patient receives the optimal treatment in a resource-challenged environment...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Sandra P D'Angelo
Sarcomas are a rare group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that comprise 1% of all adult cancers. Despite initial surgery, distant metastatic disease will develop in approximately 25% of patients, and standard chemotherapy has limited durable efficacy. There is a dire need for more effective and less toxic therapies for the treatment of metastatic sarcoma. The immune system plays a major role in cancer control and progression. There have been tremendous breakthroughs in other malignancies by manipulating the immune system with checkpoint inhibitors...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Frank Speleman, Julie R Park, Tara O Henderson
Neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumor arising from neural crest-derived progenitor cells, is the most common solid tumor in childhood, with more than 700 cases diagnosed per year in the United States. In the past several decades, significant advances have been made in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Treatment advances reflect improved understanding of the biology of neuroblastoma. Although amplification of MYCN was discovered in the early 1980s, our understanding of neuroblastoma oncogenesis has advanced in the last decade as a result of high-throughput genomic analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and synthetic lethal drug screens...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Giles W Robinson, Hendrik Witt, Adam Resnick
Over a relatively short period of time, owing to improvements in biotechnology, our ability to identify the molecular mechanisms within pediatric brain tumors has dramatically increased. These findings have reshaped the way that we describe these diseases and have provided insights into how to better treat these often devastating diseases. Although still far from reaching the full therapeutic potential these advancements hold, the impact of these findings is steadily taking hold of pediatric brain tumor management...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Thomas W LeBlanc, Myles S Nickolich, Areej El-Jawahri, Jennifer S Temel
Palliative care has received increasing attention at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting since the publication of its provisional clinical opinion on the topic in 2012. Despite frequent discussion, palliative care remains a source of some controversy and confusion in clinical practice, especially concerning who should provide it, what it encompasses, and when and how it can help patients and their families. In this article, we provide a formal definition of palliative care and review the state of the science of palliative care in oncology...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Gary H Lyman
Appropriate use of myeloid growth factors may reduce the risk of neutropenic complications including febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. The recently updated American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Guidelines on the Use of the White Blood Cell Growth Factors recommends routine prophylaxis with these agents starting in the first cycle when the risk of FN is 20% or greater. However, the risks for neutropenic complications and the risk of serious adverse consequences from FN vary considerably with different chemotherapy regimens as well as other disease-, treatment-, and patient-specific risk factors...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Thomas J Smith, Bruce E Hillner
We present the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) white cell growth factors, or colony-stimulating factor (CSF), guidelines, updated from 2006. One new indication has been added-dose-intense chemotherapy for bladder cancer-to accompany the existing use for dose-dense breast cancer chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors remain appropriate for any regimen where the risk of febrile neutropenia is about 20% per cycle and dose reduction is not appropriate. Based on new evidence from multiple trials, CSF use is no longer indicated in treatment of lymphoma unless there are special risk factors...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Arti Hurria, Lee Jones, Hyman B Muss
An accumulating body of evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer and/or cancer treatment is associated with accelerated aging. The majority of these data come from the pediatric literature; however, a smaller yet growing body of literature points toward similar findings in the geriatric population. This is a key survivorship issue the growing number of older adults with cancer face, along with the short- and long-term impact of cancer therapy on the aging process. This article will review clinical and biologic markers of aging in older adults with cancer, use cardiovascular disease as a model of accelerated aging, and discuss potential interventions to decrease the risk...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Alexander C J van Akkooi, Michael B Atkins, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Paul Lorigan
Wide local excision is considered routine therapy after initial diagnosis of primary melanoma to reduce local recurrences, but it does not impact survival. Sentinel node staging is recommended for melanomas of intermediate thickness, but it has also not demonstrated any indisputable therapeutic effect on survival. The prognostic value of sentinel node staging has been long established and is therefore considered routine, especially in light of the eligibility criteria for adjuvant therapy (trials). Whether completion lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node biopsy improves survival is the question of current trials...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Laura Esserman, Etienne Gallant, Michael Alvarado
Personalized medicine is emerging as an important guiding principle in diagnosis and treatment. This means not just doing more for some, but safely doing less for others. The lessons learned about the biology of breast cancer over the last 2 decades have enabled us to understand the incredible heterogeneity of breast cancer and its associated behavior. Although much work remains, there is an emerging opportunity to identify and recognize more indolent forms of breast cancer, made more prevalent through the widespread adoption of screening...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Kristen R Spencer, Jianfeng Wang, Ann W Silk, Shridar Ganesan, Howard L Kaufman, Janice M Mehnert
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer therapy and has been named the cancer advance of the year for 2016. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated unprecedented rates of durable responses in some of the most difficult-to-treat cancers; however, many treated patients do not respond, and the potential for serious side effects exists. There is a growing need to identify biomarkers that will improve the selection of patients who will best respond to therapy, further elucidate drug mechanisms of action, and help tailor therapy regimens...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Jeffrey Crawford, Paul Wheatley-Price, Josephine Louella Feliciano
Outcomes for patients with lung cancer have been improved substantially through the integration of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy for patients with early-stage disease. Meanwhile, advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms have substantially advanced our treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer through the introduction of targeted therapies, immune approaches, improvements in chemotherapy, and better supportive care. However, the majority of these advances have occurred among patients with good functional status, normal organ function, and with the social and economic support systems to be able to benefit most from these treatments...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
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