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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

Tao Xu, Xiaoming Sheng, Tianyi Zhang, Huan Liu, Xiao Liang, Ao Ding
The crash test dummy, an important tool for car crash safety tests, is of great significance to explore the injury biomechanics of the occupants and improve the safety performance of the vehicle. The article mainly consists of four parts: brief introduction of injury mechanism, early experiments for obtaining biomechanical response (animal tests, cadaver tests, and volunteer tests), and development and validation of mechanical dummies and computational models. This study finds that the current crash test dummies are generally designed based on European and American, so they have limitations on the damage prediction of other regions...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Gerald E Loeb
Implantable electrical interfaces with the nervous system were first enabled by cardiac pacemaker technology over 50 years ago and have since diverged into almost all of the physiological functions controlled by the nervous system. There have been a few major clinical and commercial successes, many contentious claims, and some outright failures. These tend to be reviewed within each clinical subspecialty, obscuring the many commonalities of neural control, biophysics, interface materials, electronic technologies, and medical device regulation that they share...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Hayder F N Al-Shuka, Steffen Leonhardt, Wen-Hong Zhu, Rui Song, Chao Ding, Yibin Li
There are two main categories of force control schemes: hybrid position-force control and impedance control. However, the former does not take into account the dynamic interaction between the robot's end effector and the environment. In contrast, impedance control includes regulation and stabilization of robot motion by creating a mathematical relationship between the interaction forces and the reference trajectories. It involves an energetic pair of a flow and an effort, instead of controlling a single position or a force...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
R A Hernández-Vázquez, Betriz Romero-Ángeles, Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Sosa, Juan Alejandro Vázquez-Feijoo, Rodrigo Arturo Marquet-Rivera, Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Calderón
The analysis of the distribution of stress in dental organs is a poorly studied area. That is why computational mechanobiological analysis at the tissue level using the finite element method is very useful to achieve a better understanding of the biomechanics and the behaviour of dental tissues in various pathologies. This knowledge will allow better diagnoses, customize treatment plans, and establish the basis for the development of better restoration materials. In the present work, through the use of high-fidelity biomodels, computational mechanobiological analyses were performed on four molar models affected with four different degrees of caries, which are subjected to masticatory forces...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Baofeng Gao, Chao Wei, Hongdao Ma, Shu Yang, Xu Ma, Songyuan Zhang
As an important branch of medical robotics, a rehabilitation training robot for the hemiplegic upper limbs is a research hotspot of rehabilitation training. Based on the motion relearning program, rehabilitation technology, human anatomy, mechanics, computer science, robotics, and other fields of technology are covered. Based on an sEMG real-time training system for rehabilitation, the exoskeleton robot still has some problems that need to be solved in this field. Most of the existing rehabilitation exoskeleton robotic systems are heavy, and it is difficult to ensure the accuracy and real-time performance of sEMG signals...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Jun Xu, Jikuang Yang, Jingwen Hu, Matthew Panzer, Yong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Jinsook Roh, Randall F Beer, Andrew Lai, Monica Rho, Kristopher R Karvelas, Antoun M Nader, Mark C Kendall, William Z Rymer
Despite the fundamental importance of muscle coordination in daily life, it is currently unclear how muscle coordination adapts when the musculoskeletal system is perturbed. In this study, we quantified the impact of selective muscle weakness on several metrics of muscle coordination. Seven healthy subjects performed 2D and 3D isometric force target matches, while electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 13 elbow and shoulder muscles. Subsequently, muscle weakness was induced by a motor point block of brachialis muscle...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Jianyang Zhu, Bin Lei
The biplane counter-flapping wing is a special type of wing flapping which is inspired from the fish and insect in nature. The propulsive performance is one of the most important considerations for this kind of flapping wing. This paper is aimed at providing a systematic synthesis on the propulsive characteristics of two flapping wings at biplane configuration based on the numerical analysis approach. Firstly, parameters of this special flapping wing are presented. Secondly, the numerical method for simultaneously solving the incompressible flow and counter-flapping motion of the wing is illustrated, and the method is then validated...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yixiang Liu, Xizhe Zang, Niansong Zhang, Ming Wu
The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints play critical roles in human locomotion. Functional restriction or loss of MTP joints will lead to lower walking speed, poorer walking balance, and more consumed metabolic energy cost compared with normal walking. However, existing foot orthoses are focused on maintaining the movement of the ankle joint, without assisting the MTP joints. In this paper, in order to improve the walking performance of people with lower limb impairments, a wearable powered foot orthosis (WPFO) which has actuated MTP joint is designed and constructed...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Chunfeng Yue, Xichuan Lin, Ximing Zhang, Jing Qiu, Hong Cheng
Because the target users of the assistive-type lower extremity exoskeletons (ASLEEs) are those who suffer from lower limb disabilities, customized gait is adopted for the control of ASLEEs. However, the customized gait is unable to provide stable motion for variable terrain, for example, flat, uphill, downhill, and soft ground. The purpose of this paper is to realize gait detection and environment feature recognition for AIDER by developing a novel wearable sensing system. The wearable sensing system employs 7 force sensors as a sensing matrix to achieve high accuracy of ground reaction force detection...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Shoichiro Ide, Atsushi Nishikawa
Recently, numerous musculoskeletal robots have been developed to realize the flexibility and dexterity analogous to human beings and animals. However, because the arrangement of many actuators is complex, the design of the control system for the robot is difficult and challenging. We believe that control methods inspired by living things are important in the development of the control systems for musculoskeletal robots. In this study, we propose a muscle coordination control method using attractor selection, a biologically inspired search method, for an antagonistic-driven musculoskeletal robot in which various muscles (monoarticular muscles and a polyarticular muscle) are arranged asymmetrically...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yunzhu Meng, Costin D Untaroiu
Pedestrian injuries are the fourth leading cause of unintentional injury-related death among children aged 1 to 19. The lower extremity represents the most frequently injured body region in car-to-pedestrian accidents. The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review of the data related to pedestrian lower extremity injuries, anatomy, anthropometry, structural, and mechanical properties, which can be used in the development of new pediatric computational models. The study began with a review of epidemiologic data related to pediatric pedestrian accidents...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Qi Zhou, Sixiang Zhang, Xu Zhang, Xu Ma, Wei Zhou
The simulation of the gas flow field and electrostatic field in the photoionization detector by COMSOL was conducted based on principle investigation in the present study. Under the guidance of simulation results, structural optimization was carried out to significantly reduce the dead volume of the ionization chamber, and finally, the relationship between offset voltage and collection efficiency was obtained which led to a remarkable increase in the collection efficiency of charged ions in the photoionization detector...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Marco Iosa, Manuela de Sanctis, Aurora Summa, Elena Bergamini, Daniela Morelli, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Background: Despite the increasing use of wearable magnetoinertial measurement units (MIMUs) for gait analysis, the efficacy of MIMU-based assessment for planning rehabilitation has not been adequately documented yet. Methods: The usefulness of a MIMU-based assessment was evaluated comparing the data acquired by three MIMUs located at the pelvis, sternum, and head levels in 12 children with cerebral palsy (CP, age: 2-9 years) and 12 age-matched children with typical development (TD)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Fang Wang, Chao Yu, Guibing Li, Yong Han, Bingyu Wang, Jikuang Yang, Diandian Lan
Thoracic injuries occur frequently in minivan-to-pedestrian impact accidents and can cause substantial fatalities. The present research work investigates the human thoracic responses and injury risks in minivan-to-pedestrian impacts, when changing the minivan front-end design and the impact velocity, by using computational biomechanics model. We employed three typical types of minivan model of different front-end designs that are quite popular in Chinese market and considered four impact velocities (20, 30, 40, and 50 km/h)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
José-Alfredo Leal-Naranjo, Christopher-René Torres-San Miguel, Marco Ceccarelli, Horacio Rostro-Gonzalez
This work presents the design of a low-cost prosthetic device for shoulder disarticulation. A proper design of the mechanisms has been addressed to obtain a prototype that presents 7 degrees of freedom. Shoulder movement is achieved by means of a spherical parallel manipulator, elbow movement is performed by a six-bar mechanism, and the wrist movement is implemented by a spherical parallel manipulator. A set of dynamic simulations was performed in order to assess the functionality of the design. The prototype was built using 3D printing techniques and implementing low-cost actuators...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yong Peng, Tuo Xu, Lin Hou, Chaojie Fan, Wei Zhou
With the development of the subway and the pressing demand of environmentally friendly transportation, more and more people travel by subway. In recent decades, the issues about passenger passive safety on the train have received extensive attention. In this research, the head injury of a standing passenger in the subway is investigated. Three MADYMO models of the different standing passenger postures, defined as baseline scenarios, are numerically set up. HIC15 values of passengers with different postures are gained by systematic parametric studies...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Ziqiang Zhang, Hanlong Chen, Zining Zhang
Compared with the traditional rigid finger actuator, the soft actuator has the advantages of light weight and good compliance. This type of finger actuator can be used for data acquisition or finger rehabilitation training, and it has broad application prospects. The motion differences between the soft actuator and finger may cause extrusion deformation at the binding point, and the binding forces along nonfunctional direction may reduce drive efficiency. In order to reduce the negative deformation of soft structure and improve comfort, the configuration synthesis and performance analysis of the finger soft actuator were conducted for the present work...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yuwan Yang, Mo Li, Jin Tong, Yunhai Ma
A mole is a born digger spending its entire existence digging tunnels. The five claws of a mole's hand are combinative to cut soil powerfully and efficiently. However, little was known in detail about the interaction between the soil and the five-claw combination. In this study, we simulated the soil cutting process of the five-claw combination using the discrete element method (DEM) as an attempt for the potential design of soil-engaging tools to reduce soil resistance. The five-claw combination moved horizontally in the soil bin...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Chloe L Chung, Derek M Kelly, Jeffery R Sawyer, Jack R Steele, Terry S Tate, Cody K Bateman, Denis J DiAngelo
Velcro fastening straps are commonly used to secure a scoliosis brace around the upper body and apply corrective forces to the spine. However, strap loosening and tension loss have been reported that reduce spinal correction and treatment efficacy. A novel fastening device, or controlled tension unit (CTU), was designed to overcome these limitations. A scoliosis analog model (SAM) was used to biomechanically compare the CTU fasteners and posterior Velcro straps on a conventional brace (CB) as well as on a modified brace (MB) that included a dynamic cantilever apical pad section...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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