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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861784/a-review-on-biomechanics-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-and-materials-for-reconstruction
#1
REVIEW
M Marieswaran, Ishita Jain, Bhavuk Garg, Vijay Sharma, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861783/experimental-study-of-thoracoabdominal-injuries-suffered-from-caudocephalad-impacts-using-pigs
#2
Sishu Guan, Zhikang Liao, Hongyi Xiang, Xiyan Zhu, Zhong Wang, Hui Zhao, Peng Liu, Xinan Lai
To know the caudocephalad impact- (CCI-) induced injuries more clearly, 21 adult minipigs, randomly divided into three groups: control group ( n = 3), group I ( n = 9), and group II ( n = 9), were used to perform the CCI experiments on a modified deceleration sled. Configured impact velocity was 0 m/s in the control group, 8 m/s in group I, and 11 m/s in group II. The kinematics and mechanical responses of the subjects were recorded and investigated. The functional change examination and the autopsies were carried out, with which the injuries were evaluated from the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29854000/modulations-of-foot-and-ankle-frontal-kinematics-for-breaking-and-propulsive-movement-characteristics-during-side-step-cutting-with-varying-midsole-thicknesses
#3
Yi-Jia Lin, Shih-Chi Lee, Chao-Chin Chang, Tsung-Han Liu, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang, Wei-Chun Hsu
This study is aimed at determining the effects of midsole thickness on movement characteristic during side cutting movement. Fifteen athletes performed side-step cutting while wearing shoes with varying midsole thicknesses. Temporal-spatial and ground reaction force variables as well as foot and ankle frontal kinematics were used to describe breaking and propulsive movement characteristics and modulation strategies. Regardless of midsole thickness, temporal-spatial variables and breaking and propulsive force during side cutting were statistically unchanged...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853999/a-computing-method-to-determine-the-performance-of-an-ionic-liquid-gel-soft-actuator
#4
Bin He, Chenghong Zhang, Yanmin Zhou, Zhipeng Wang
A new type of soft actuator material-an ionic liquid gel (ILG) that consists of BMIMBF4 , HEMA, DEAP, and ZrO2 -is polymerized into a gel state under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. In this paper, we first propose that the ILG conforms to the assumptions of hyperelastic theory and that the Mooney-Rivlin model can be used to study the properties of the ILG. Under the five-parameter and nine-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models, the formulas for the calculation of the uniaxial tensile stress, plane uniform tensile stress, and 3D directional stress are deduced...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853998/the-study-of-drag-reduction-on-ships-inspired-by-simplified-shark-skin-imitation
#5
M D Ibrahim, S N A Amran, Y S Yunos, M R A Rahman, M Z Mohtar, L K Wong, A Zulkharnain
The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help reduce the shark's skin friction drag, enhancing its efficiency and speed while moving in the water. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has carried out a study as an effort in improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels through hull design modification which was inspired by this riblet structure of shark skin denticle. Our study covers on macroscaled design modification. This is an attempt to propose an alternative for a better economical and practical modification to obtain a more optimum cruising characteristics for marine vessels...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853997/the-influence-of-neck-muscle-activation-on-head-and-neck-injuries-of-occupants-in-frontal-impacts
#6
Fan Li, Ronggui Lu, Wei Hu, Honggeng Li, Shiping Hu, Jiangzhong Hu, Haibin Wang, He Xie
The aim of the present paper was to study the influence of neck muscle activation on head and neck injuries of vehicle occupants in frontal impacts. A mixed dummy-human finite element model was developed to simulate a frontal impact. The head-neck part of a Hybrid III dummy model was replaced by a well-validated head-neck FE model with passive and active muscle characteristics. The mixed dummy-human FE model was validated by 15 G frontal volunteer tests conducted in the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. The effects of neck muscle activation on the head dynamic responses and neck injuries of occupants in three frontal impact intensities, low speed (10 km/h), medium speed (30 km/h), and high speed (50 km/h), were studied...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853996/tissue-anisotropy-modeling-using-soft-composite-materials
#7
Arnab Chanda, Christian Callaway
Soft tissues in general exhibit anisotropic mechanical behavior, which varies in three dimensions based on the location of the tissue in the body. In the past, there have been few attempts to numerically model tissue anisotropy using composite-based formulations (involving fibers embedded within a matrix material). However, so far, tissue anisotropy has not been modeled experimentally. In the current work, novel elastomer-based soft composite materials were developed in the form of experimental test coupons, to model the macroscopic anisotropy in tissue mechanical properties...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853995/on-laterally-perturbed-human-stance-experiment-model-and-control
#8
Dan Suissa, Michael Günther, Amir Shapiro, Itshak Melzer, Syn Schmitt
Understanding human balance is a key issue in many research areas. One goal is to suggest analytical models for the human balance. Specifically, we are interested in the stability of a subject when a lateral perturbation is being applied. Therefore, we conducted an experiment, laterally perturbing five subjects on a mobile platform. We observed that the recorded motion is divided into two parts. The legs act together as a first, the head-arms-trunk segment as a second rigid body with pelvis, and the ankle as hinge joints...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853994/kinematic-decoupling-analysis-and-design-of-a-biomimetic-robotic-elbow-joint
#9
Bingyan Cui, Liwen Chen, Yongtao Xie, Zhijun Wang
The research of a biomimetic robotic manipulator is based on the flexible characteristics of the human upper limb joint, and a biomimetic robotic elbow joint plays a very significant role in the kinematic control of the biomimetic robotic manipulator. Most robotic elbow joints encountered today have a common disadvantage of bad neutrality, low rotational capability, and poor biomimetics. To overcome some difficulties, this paper presents a novel biomimetic robotic elbow joint. The structural model of the elbow joint is described, and the position equation is solved...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853993/comparison-of-initialization-techniques-for-the-accurate-extraction-of-muscle-synergies-from-myoelectric-signals-via-nonnegative-matrix-factorization
#10
Mumtaz Hussain Soomro, Silvia Conforto, Gaetano Giunta, Simone Ranaldi, Cristiano De Marchis
The main goal of this work was to assess the performance of different initializations of matrix factorization algorithms for an accurate identification of muscle synergies. Currently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) is the most commonly used method to identify muscle synergies. However, it has been shown that NNMF performance might be affected by different kinds of initialization. The present study aims at optimizing the traditional NNMF initialization for data with partial or complete temporal dependencies...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853992/analysis-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-tympanic-membrane-and-its-influence-on-the-dynamic-behaviour-of-the-human-hearing-system
#11
L Caminos, J Garcia-Manrique, A Lima-Rodriguez, A Gonzalez-Herrera
The difficulty to estimate the mechanical properties of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a limitation to understand the sound transmission mechanism. In this paper, based on finite element calculations, the sensitivity of the human hearing system to these properties is evaluated. The parameters that define the bending stiffness properties of the membrane have been studied, specifically two key parameters: Young's modulus of the tympanic membrane and the thickness of the eardrum. Additionally, it has been completed with the evaluation of the presence of an initial prestrain inside the TM...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849764/cmm-based-volumetric-assessment-methodology-for-polyethylene-tibial-knee-inserts-in-total-knee-replacement
#12
Wei Jiang, Cuicui Ji, Zhongmin Jin, Yuntian Dai
Total knee replacement is a common surgical procedure in orthopaedics. Accurate volumetric wear assessment of the polyethylene knee inserts has been an essential subject for improving the longevity. A new CMM-based methodology was presented to determine volumetric material loss based on curve surface fitting without prewear data, CAD model, or original design of drawings. Both computational and experimental simulated volume removal tests were run to validate the methodology by comparing with the gravimetric measurements...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849763/initial-clinical-trial-of-robot-of-endovascular-treatment-with-force-feedback-and-cooperating-of-catheter-and-guidewire
#13
Yuhua Jiang, Keyun Liu, Youxiang Li
To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the robot of endovascular treatment (RobEnt) in clinical practice, we carried out a cerebral angiography using this robot system. We evaluated the performance of application of the robot system to clinical practice through using this robotic system to perform the digital subtraction angiography for a patient who was suspected of suffering intracranial aneurysm. At the same time, through comparing the postoperative head nuclear magnetic and blood routine with the preoperative examination, we evaluated the safety of application of the robot system to clinical practice...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849762/a-numerical-investigation-of-risk-factors-affecting-lumbar-spine-injuries-using-a-detailed-lumbar-model
#14
Jiajia Zheng, Liang Tang, Jingwen Hu
Recent field data showed that lumbar spine fractures occurred more frequently in late model vehicles than early ones in frontal crashes. However, the lumbar spine designs of the current crash test dummies are not accurate in human anatomy and have not been validated against any human/cadaver impact responses. In addition, the lumbar spines of finite element (FE) human models, including GHBMC and THUMS, have never been validated previously against cadaver tests. Therefore, this study developed a detailed FE lumbar spine model and validated it against cadaveric tests...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849761/differences-in-nanostructure-and-hydrophobicity-of-cicada-cryptotympana-atrata-forewing-surface-with-the-distribution-of-precipitation
#15
Mingxia Sun, Jiajing Zhang, Gregory S Watson, Jolanta A Watson, Dong Han, Aiping Liang
Although the cicada wing has a variety of functions and the nanostructure and surface properties of many species have been extensively investigated, there are no reports investigating diversity of nanostructures and wetting properties within a single species collected at locations with different rainfall conditions. In this study, the hydrophobicity and nanostructure dimensions of the forewing surface of Cryptotympana atrata were measured, based on specimens collected from 12 distributions with varying precipitation averages in China and Japan...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849760/investigation-of-the-effect-of-neck-muscle-active-force-on-whiplash-injury-of-the-cervical-spine
#16
Yu Yan, Jing Huang, Fan Li, Lin Hu
The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of neck muscle activation on whiplash neck injury of the occupants of a passenger vehicle under different severities of frontal and rear-end impact collisions. The finite element (FE) model has been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the whiplash injury mechanism for occupant injury prevention. However, whiplash injuries and injury mechanisms have rarely been investigated in connection with neck active muscle forces, which restricts the complete reappearance and understanding of the injury mechanism...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849759/a-highly-reliable-embedded-optical-torque-sensor-based-on-flexure-spring
#17
Yuwang Liu, Tian Tian, Jibiao Chen, Fuhua Wang, Defu Zhang
We propose a new highly reliable and lightweight embedded optical torque sensor for biomimetic robot arm enabling the torque measurement in joints, which can measure torque of the joint by detecting torsion of its elastic element (mechanical structure or flexure element). Flexure spring is introduced as the elastic element of the torque sensor in this paper. Because of its curve modeling, flexure spring is not inclined to be broken contrast to crossbeam structure, which is commonly used in torque sensor. Thanks to this structure, we can build a torque sensor as an extremely compact and highly reliable size...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849758/numerical-analysis-of-masticatory-forces-on-a-lower-first-molar-considering-the-contact-between-dental-tissues
#18
Rosa Alicia Hernández-Vázquez, Beatriz Romero-Ángeles, Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Sosa, Juan Alejandro Vázquez-Feijoo, Ángel Javier Vázquez-López, Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Calderón
The aim of the present work is to identify the reactions of the dental organs to the different forces that occur during chewing and the transcendence of the union and contact maintained by the dental tissues. The study used a lower first molar biomodel with a real morphology and morphometry and consisting of the three dental tissues (enamel, dentin, and pulp) each with its mechanical properties. In it, two simulations were carried out, as would the process of chewing a food. One of the simulations considers the contact between the enamel and the dentin, and the other does not take it into account...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849757/injury-source-and-correlation-analysis-of-riders-in-car-electric-bicycle-accidents
#19
Tiefang Zou, Liang Yi, Ming Cai, Lin Hu, Yuelin Li
The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849756/a-systematic-review-on-muscle-synergies-from-building-blocks-of-motor-behavior-to-a-neurorehabilitation-tool
#20
REVIEW
Rajat Emanuel Singh, Kamran Iqbal, Gannon White, Tarun Edgar Hutchinson
The central nervous system (CNS) is believed to utilize specific predefined modules, called muscle synergies (MS), to accomplish a motor task. Yet questions persist about how the CNS combines these primitives in different ways to suit the task conditions. The MS hypothesis has been a subject of debate as to whether they originate from neural origins or nonneural constraints. In this review article, we present three aspects related to the MS hypothesis: (1) the experimental and computational evidence in support of the existence of MS, (2) algorithmic approaches for extracting them from surface electromyography (EMG) signals, and (3) the possible role of MS as a neurorehabilitation tool...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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