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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

Shanhai Jin, Shijie Guo, Hashimoto Kazunobu, Xiaogang Xiong, Motoji Yamamoto
Metabolic cost during walking is positively linked to exercise intensity. For a walking assistive device, one of the major aims should be the maximization of wearers' metabolic benefits for different walking situations. Toward this goal, this paper experimentally evaluates the influence of an authors' soft robotic suit, which has been developed to assist hip flexion for energy-efficient walking of elderly persons in daily life activities, on metabolic cost reduction in the long-distance level and inclined walking...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Qiming Chen, Hong Cheng, Chunfeng Yue, Rui Huang, Hongliang Guo
Purpose: Powered lower-limb exoskeleton has gained considerable interests, since it can help patients with spinal cord injury(SCI) to stand and walk again. Providing walking assistance with SCI patients, most exoskeletons are designed to follow predefined gait trajectories, which makes the patient walk unnaturally and feels uncomfortable. Furthermore, exoskeletons with predefined gait trajectories cannot always maintain balance walking especially when encountering disturbances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper proposed a novel gait planning approach, which aims to provide reliable and balance gait during walking assistance...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Xiaojun Zhang, Lingling Gu, Wei Wei, Di Wu, Zhi Tao, Heming Zhao
Voice production occurs through vocal cord and vibration coupled to glottal airflow. Vocal cord lesions affect the vocal system and lead to voice disorders. In this paper, a pathological voice source analysis system is designed. This study integrates nonlinear dynamics with an optimized asymmetric two-mass model to explore nonlinear characteristics of vocal cord vibration, and changes in acoustic parameters, such as fundamental frequency, caused by distinct subglottal pressure and varying degrees of vocal cord paralysis are analyzed...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yoon No Gregory Hong, Jinkyu Lee, Choongsoo S Shin
During continuous uphill walking (UW) or downhill walking, human locomotion is modified to counteract the gravitational force, aiding or impeding the body's forward momentum, respectively. This study aimed at investigating the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) velocities and their relative distance during the transition from uphill to downhill walking (UDW) to determine whether locomotor adjustments differ between UDW and UW. Fourteen participants walked on a triangular slope and a continuous upslope of 15°...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Qingsong He, David Vokoun, Qi Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Naoto Matsunaga, Koji Kaneoka
This study investigated muscle synergy during smash shot in badminton and compared synergies of advanced players (more than 7 years experience) and beginner players (less than 3 years experience). The dominant hand of all players was the right side. Muscle activities were recorded on both sides of the rectus abdominis, external oblique (EO), internal oblique/transversus abdominis (IO/TrA), and erector spinae. Additionally, the right side of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor digitorum profundus muscle activities were recorded...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Vidhi Rawat, Alok Jain, Vibhakar Shrimali
Ultrasound (US) image segmentation methods, focusing on techniques developed for fetal biometric parameters and nuchal translucency, are briefly reviewed. Ultrasound medical images can easily identify the fetus using segmentation techniques and calculate fetal parameters. It can timely find the fetal abnormality so that necessary action can be taken by the pregnant woman. Firstly, a detailed literature has been offered on fetal biometric parameters and nuchal translucency to highlight the investigation approaches with a degree of validation in diverse clinical domains...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Saurabh Das, B Kollbe Ahn, Nadine R Martinez-Rodriguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Katja Oberhofer, Patrick D Wettenschwiler, Navrag Singh, Stephen J Ferguson, Simon Annaheim, Rene M Rossi, Silvio Lorenzetti
The introduction of hip belts to backpacks has caused a shift of loading from the spine to the hips with reported improvements in musculoskeletal comfort. Yet the effects of different hip belt tensions on gait biomechanics remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of backpack weight and hip belt tension on gait biomechanics. Data from optical motion capture and ground reaction forces (GRF) during walking were acquired in nine healthy male subjects (age 28.0 ± 3.9 years)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Shence Wang, Deshun Liu, Zhihua Cai
The human head will inevitably impact on the panel causing injury due to the inertia during dump truck collisions or emergency braking. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the effects of panel design parameters on occupant head injuries via simulations using finite element (FE) models of a human head and a dump truck cockpit. Special focus was applied to understand how panel type (soft and hard), elastic modulus of the filling and frame, and the fixing distance for the soft panel could affect head injuries in head-to-panel impacts under different impact conditions (impact speed and location)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Andrea Chiavenna, Alessandro Scano, Matteo Malosio, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Franco Molteni
Exoskeleton devices for upper limb neurorehabilitation are one of the most exploited solutions for the recovery of lost motor functions. By providing weight support, passively compensated exoskeletons allow patients to experience upper limb training. Transparency is a desirable feature of exoskeletons that describes how the device alters free movements or interferes with spontaneous muscle patterns. A pilot study on healthy subjects was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of assessing transparency in the framework of muscle synergies...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Eduardo Piña-Martínez, Ricardo Roberts, Salvador Leal-Merlo, Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal
Exoskeletons arise as the common ground between robotics and biomechanics, where rehabilitation is the main field in which these two disciplines find cohesion. One of the most relevant challenges in upper limb exoskeleton design relies in the high complexity of the human shoulder, where current devices implement elaborate systems only to emulate the drifting center of rotation of the shoulder joint. This paper proposes the use of 3D scanning vision technologies to ease the design process and its implementation on a variety of subjects, while a motion tracking system based on vision technologies is applied to assess the exoskeleton reachable workspace compared with an asymptomatic subject...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Anna Margherita Castronovo, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid, Silvia Conforto, Giacomo Severini
The term "task failure" describes the point when a person is not able to maintain the level of force required by a task. As task failure approaches, the corticospinal command to the muscles increases to maintain the required level of force in the face of a decreased mechanical efficacy. Nevertheless, most motor tasks require the synergistic recruitment of several muscles. How this recruitment is affected by approaching task failure is still not clear. The increase in the corticospinal drive could be due to an increase in synergistic recruitment or to overlapping commands sent to the muscles individually...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Bryant A Seamon, Richard R Neptune, Steven A Kautz
Factorization methods quantitatively group electromyographic signals from several muscles during dynamic tasks into multiple modules where each module consists of muscles that are coactive during the movement. Module-based analyses may provide an analytical framework for testing theories of poststroke motor control recovery based on one's ability to move independently from mass flexion-extension muscle group coactivation. Such a framework may be useful for understanding the causality between underlying neural impairments, biomechanical function, and walking performance in individuals poststroke...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Song Zhibin, Ma Tianyu, Nie Chao, Niu Yijun
Rehabilitation robotics has become a widely accepted method to deal with the training of people with motor dysfunction. In robotics medium training, shoulder repeated exercise training has been proven beneficial for improving motion ability of human limbs. An important and difficult paradigm for motor function rehabilitation training is the movement rhythm on the shoulder, which is not a single joint but complex and ingenious combination of bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The most robots for rehabilitation were designed previously considering simplified biomechanical models only, which led to misalignment between robots and human shoulder...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Wei-En Hsu, Ching-Hsiao Yu, Chih-Ju Chang, Hung-Kang Wu, Tsong-Han Yu, Ching-Shiow Tseng
Due to the curvature of the bone marrow cavity, the intramedullary nail used in long bone fracture fixation can be deformed, causing displacement of the locking holes. In this study, an algorithm using only one C-arm image to determine the center positions and axial directions of locking holes was developed for drilling guidance. Based on conventional method that the axial direction of locking hole would be identified when locking hole contour is presented as a circle, the proposed method can locate the circle contour centroid by using one C-arm image including two elliptical contours...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
M Marieswaran, Ishita Jain, Bhavuk Garg, Vijay Sharma, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Sishu Guan, Zhikang Liao, Hongyi Xiang, Xiyan Zhu, Zhong Wang, Hui Zhao, Peng Liu, Xinan Lai
To know the caudocephalad impact- (CCI-) induced injuries more clearly, 21 adult minipigs, randomly divided into three groups: control group ( n = 3), group I ( n = 9), and group II ( n = 9), were used to perform the CCI experiments on a modified deceleration sled. Configured impact velocity was 0 m/s in the control group, 8 m/s in group I, and 11 m/s in group II. The kinematics and mechanical responses of the subjects were recorded and investigated. The functional change examination and the autopsies were carried out, with which the injuries were evaluated from the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yi-Jia Lin, Shih-Chi Lee, Chao-Chin Chang, Tsung-Han Liu, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang, Wei-Chun Hsu
This study is aimed at determining the effects of midsole thickness on movement characteristic during side cutting movement. Fifteen athletes performed side-step cutting while wearing shoes with varying midsole thicknesses. Temporal-spatial and ground reaction force variables as well as foot and ankle frontal kinematics were used to describe breaking and propulsive movement characteristics and modulation strategies. Regardless of midsole thickness, temporal-spatial variables and breaking and propulsive force during side cutting were statistically unchanged...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Bin He, Chenghong Zhang, Yanmin Zhou, Zhipeng Wang
A new type of soft actuator material-an ionic liquid gel (ILG) that consists of BMIMBF4 , HEMA, DEAP, and ZrO2 -is polymerized into a gel state under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. In this paper, we first propose that the ILG conforms to the assumptions of hyperelastic theory and that the Mooney-Rivlin model can be used to study the properties of the ILG. Under the five-parameter and nine-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models, the formulas for the calculation of the uniaxial tensile stress, plane uniform tensile stress, and 3D directional stress are deduced...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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