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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

Shoichiro Ide, Atsushi Nishikawa
Recently, numerous musculoskeletal robots have been developed to realize the flexibility and dexterity analogous to human beings and animals. However, because the arrangement of many actuators is complex, the design of the control system for the robot is difficult and challenging. We believe that control methods inspired by living things are important in the development of the control systems for musculoskeletal robots. In this study, we propose a muscle coordination control method using attractor selection, a biologically inspired search method, for an antagonistic-driven musculoskeletal robot in which various muscles (monoarticular muscles and a polyarticular muscle) are arranged asymmetrically...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yunzhu Meng, Costin D Untaroiu
Pedestrian injuries are the fourth leading cause of unintentional injury-related death among children aged 1 to 19. The lower extremity represents the most frequently injured body region in car-to-pedestrian accidents. The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review of the data related to pedestrian lower extremity injuries, anatomy, anthropometry, structural, and mechanical properties, which can be used in the development of new pediatric computational models. The study began with a review of epidemiologic data related to pediatric pedestrian accidents...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Qi Zhou, Sixiang Zhang, Xu Zhang, Xu Ma, Wei Zhou
The simulation of the gas flow field and electrostatic field in the photoionization detector by COMSOL was conducted based on principle investigation in the present study. Under the guidance of simulation results, structural optimization was carried out to significantly reduce the dead volume of the ionization chamber, and finally, the relationship between offset voltage and collection efficiency was obtained which led to a remarkable increase in the collection efficiency of charged ions in the photoionization detector...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Marco Iosa, Manuela de Sanctis, Aurora Summa, Elena Bergamini, Daniela Morelli, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Background: Despite the increasing use of wearable magnetoinertial measurement units (MIMUs) for gait analysis, the efficacy of MIMU-based assessment for planning rehabilitation has not been adequately documented yet. Methods: The usefulness of a MIMU-based assessment was evaluated comparing the data acquired by three MIMUs located at the pelvis, sternum, and head levels in 12 children with cerebral palsy (CP, age: 2-9 years) and 12 age-matched children with typical development (TD)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Fang Wang, Chao Yu, Guibing Li, Yong Han, Bingyu Wang, Jikuang Yang, Diandian Lan
Thoracic injuries occur frequently in minivan-to-pedestrian impact accidents and can cause substantial fatalities. The present research work investigates the human thoracic responses and injury risks in minivan-to-pedestrian impacts, when changing the minivan front-end design and the impact velocity, by using computational biomechanics model. We employed three typical types of minivan model of different front-end designs that are quite popular in Chinese market and considered four impact velocities (20, 30, 40, and 50 km/h)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
José-Alfredo Leal-Naranjo, Christopher-René Torres-San Miguel, Marco Ceccarelli, Horacio Rostro-Gonzalez
This work presents the design of a low-cost prosthetic device for shoulder disarticulation. A proper design of the mechanisms has been addressed to obtain a prototype that presents 7 degrees of freedom. Shoulder movement is achieved by means of a spherical parallel manipulator, elbow movement is performed by a six-bar mechanism, and the wrist movement is implemented by a spherical parallel manipulator. A set of dynamic simulations was performed in order to assess the functionality of the design. The prototype was built using 3D printing techniques and implementing low-cost actuators...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yong Peng, Tuo Xu, Lin Hou, Chaojie Fan, Wei Zhou
With the development of the subway and the pressing demand of environmentally friendly transportation, more and more people travel by subway. In recent decades, the issues about passenger passive safety on the train have received extensive attention. In this research, the head injury of a standing passenger in the subway is investigated. Three MADYMO models of the different standing passenger postures, defined as baseline scenarios, are numerically set up. HIC15 values of passengers with different postures are gained by systematic parametric studies...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Ziqiang Zhang, Hanlong Chen, Zining Zhang
Compared with the traditional rigid finger actuator, the soft actuator has the advantages of light weight and good compliance. This type of finger actuator can be used for data acquisition or finger rehabilitation training, and it has broad application prospects. The motion differences between the soft actuator and finger may cause extrusion deformation at the binding point, and the binding forces along nonfunctional direction may reduce drive efficiency. In order to reduce the negative deformation of soft structure and improve comfort, the configuration synthesis and performance analysis of the finger soft actuator were conducted for the present work...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yuwan Yang, Mo Li, Jin Tong, Yunhai Ma
A mole is a born digger spending its entire existence digging tunnels. The five claws of a mole's hand are combinative to cut soil powerfully and efficiently. However, little was known in detail about the interaction between the soil and the five-claw combination. In this study, we simulated the soil cutting process of the five-claw combination using the discrete element method (DEM) as an attempt for the potential design of soil-engaging tools to reduce soil resistance. The five-claw combination moved horizontally in the soil bin...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Chloe L Chung, Derek M Kelly, Jeffery R Sawyer, Jack R Steele, Terry S Tate, Cody K Bateman, Denis J DiAngelo
Velcro fastening straps are commonly used to secure a scoliosis brace around the upper body and apply corrective forces to the spine. However, strap loosening and tension loss have been reported that reduce spinal correction and treatment efficacy. A novel fastening device, or controlled tension unit (CTU), was designed to overcome these limitations. A scoliosis analog model (SAM) was used to biomechanically compare the CTU fasteners and posterior Velcro straps on a conventional brace (CB) as well as on a modified brace (MB) that included a dynamic cantilever apical pad section...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Jun G San Juan, David N Suprak, Sean M Roach, Marc Lyda
Cross-country running is becoming an increasingly popular sport, with a significant participation noted at the high school level. The aim of this study was to compare gender and bilateral hip extension range of motion and hip and knee extension strength of high school cross-country runners. 31 participants volunteered from a local high school cross-country team (16 males and 15 females). The modified Thomas test was utilized to measure hip extension range of motion bilaterally using a digital inclinometer. In order to measure hip and knee isometric strengths, an isokinetic dynamometer was employed...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Yan Xiong, Xueliang Zhao, Hongyi Xiang, Yunjiao Wang, Zhikang Liao, Xiyan Zhu, Hui Zhao
Background and Objective: Knee joint collision injuries occur frequently in military and civilian scenarios, but there are few studies assessing longitudinal impacts on knee joints. In this study, the mechanical responses and damage characteristics of knee longitudinal collisions were investigated by finite element analysis and human knee impact tests. Materials and methods: Based on a biocollision test plateau, longitudinal impact experiments were performed on 4 human knee joints (2 in the left knee and 2 in the right knee) to measure the impact force and stress response of the bone...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Caidong Wang, Chen Wang, Yu Ning, Lumin Chen, Xinjie Wang
In order to improve the flight performance of collapsible aircrafts, a novel mechanism of bionic foldable wings of beetle is designed based on the four-plate mechanism theory. The folding and unfolding movements of the bionic foldable wings are driven by motor and torsion hinges. Based on the D-H method, a kinematic model of wings is established to analyze the dihedral angle of adjacent plates. The folding ratio of an area in different plate creasing angles has been derived and calculated. Utilizing the kinematic and static models produced, as well as considering the folding ratio and output motor torque, the optimal physical parameters of folding wings are obtained...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
K Jendoubi, Y Khadri, M Bendjaballah, N Slimane
Purpose: The pedicle screw is a surgical device that has become widely used in spinal fixation and stabilization. Postsurgical complications such as screw loosening due to fatigue loading and screw breakage still need investigations. Clinical parameters such as the screw insertion type and depth, the bone density, and the patient degree of mobility greatly affect the mechanisms of the implant's failure/success. Methods: The current finite element study focused on the prediction of the pedicle screw pullout strength under various conditions such as insertion type, insertion depth, bone quality, and loading mode...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Amândio A Dias, Luís A Redinha, Luís M Silva, Pedro C Pezarat-Correia
Occlusal splints, to some extent, have been related to reduced body sway in a static position and increased muscle activity in the upper limbs. However, how dental occlusion status affects sports performance remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether occlusal splints that reposition the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) influenced body posture, muscle activity, and performance in 10-meter pistol shooters. Thirteen national-level male shooters (age = 38.8 ± 10.9 yrs) were recruited for this study, and cleared of any cervical pathology...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Ran Zhao, Qan-Guo Lu, Qinghua Cao
A magnetostrictive bioinspired whisker sensor based on a galfenol/beryllium-bronze/galfenol composite cantilever beam was developed in this work. According to the new design concept, the proposed whisker can output positive and negative voltages under different bending directions. Besides, the proposed whisker sensor can realize the bidirectional distance and microforce perception. Using the classical beam theory, a theoretical model was used to predict the output performance of the whisker. An experimental system was established to test the whisker's output performance...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Aya Yatsugi, Takashi Morishita, Hiroyuki Fukuda, Naoya Kotani, Kenji Yagi, Hiroshi Abe, Etsuji Shiota, Tooru Inoue
Recent studies of robotic rehabilitation have demonstrated its efficacy for neurological disorders. However, few studies have used the Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) during the early postoperative stage of spine disorders. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HAL treatment during the early postoperative period for spine disorder patients. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent spine surgery and who could complete HAL treatment. We evaluated the 10-m walking test (10MWT), the modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), Barthel Index (BI), and the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) score results before and after robotic rehabilitation...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Nurul Azira Azizan, Khairul Salleh Basaruddin, Ahmad Faizal Salleh
Various studies have examined body posture stability, including postural sway and associated biomechanical parameters, to assess the severity effects of leg length discrepancy (LLD). However, various viewpoints have been articulated on the results of these studies because of certain drawbacks in the comprehensive analysis of the effect of variations in LLD magnitude. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to help focus on the current findings to help identify which biomechanical parameters are most relevant, commonly used, and able to distinguish and/or have specific clinical relevance to the effect of variations in LLD magnitude during static (standing) and dynamic (walking) conditions...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
I L Cruz-Jaramillo, C R Torres-San-Miguel, O Cortes-Vásquez, L Martínez-Sáez
This work studies descriptively the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Chest Severity Index (CSI), with a finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy type, for six-year-old subjects in a frontal vehicular collision, using the low-back booster (LBB) passive safety system. The vehicle seats and the passive safety systems were modelled in CAD (computer aided design) software. Then, the elements were analysed by the finite element method (FEM) in LS-DYNA® software. The boundary conditions were established for each study, according to the regulations established by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS), following the FMVSS 213 standard...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Wei Wei, Zhicheng Qu, Wei Wang, Pengcheng Zhang, Fuchun Hao
To assist hemiplegic patients with the activities of daily life, many upper limb soft exoskeletons have been developed. In this paper, we propose the structure of upper limb soft exoskeleton for rehabilitation training based on human biomechanics. The soft driving structure based on Bowden cable is devised. Man-machine interaction force must be considered because it can damage on the joint and lead to arm discomfort. We focus on structural optimization to minimize man-machine interaction force. Human arm model is established to perform motion simulation in ADAMS...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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