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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234219/concept-and-design-of-a-3d-printed-support-to-assist-hand-scanning-for-the-realization-of-customized-orthosis
#1
Gabriele Baronio, Paola Volonghi, Alberto Signoroni
In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230089/study-on-effects-of-titanium-surface-microporous-coatings-containing-zinc-on-osteoblast-adhesion-and-its-antibacterial-activity
#2
Quan-Ming Zhao, Guang-Zhong Li, Hao-Ming Zhu, Li Cheng
Metal surface structure/biomedical function integration is the current research focus. In previous studies, we have successfully prepared the microporous coatings containing zinc on the pure titanium surface by MAO. In the study, osteoblasts were seeded on the surface of the microporous coatings containing zinc and the adhesion of osteoblasts were evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of the microporous coatings containing zinc is observed through in vitro bacterial experiments. The result indicates that the adhesion ability of osteoblasts on the surface of microporous coatings containing zinc was very good, and the coatings could obviously inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and had good antibacterial activity...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209136/interaction-between-flow-diverter-and-parent-artery-of-intracranial-aneurysm-a-computational-study
#3
Wenyu Fu, Qixiao Xia
To evaluate the influence of deployment strategy on the mechanical interaction between braided stent and parent artery of intracranial aneurysm (the elasticity of the arterial wall is considered), finite-element analyses are carried out by referring to computational models of flow-diverter device and arterial wall. Two implantation strategies are used to virtually implant the braided stent into the ideal intracranial aneurysm model. One is the noncompacted implantation method, and the other is the implantation method of using push-pull technique...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200815/design-and-test-research-on-cutting-blade-of-corn-harvester-based-on-bionic-principle
#4
Kunpeng Tian, Xianwang Li, Bin Zhang, Qiaomin Chen, Cheng Shen, Jicheng Huang
Existing corn harvester cutting blades have problems associated with large cutting resistance, high energy consumption, and poor cut quality. Using bionics principles, a bionic blade was designed by extracting the cutting tooth profile curve of the B. horsfieldi palate. Using a double-blade cutting device testing system, a single stalk cutting performance contrast test for corn stalks obtained at harvest time was carried out. Results show that bionic blades have superior performance, demonstrated by strong cutting ability and good cut quality...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123373/the-structure-and-flexural-properties-of-typha-leaves
#5
Jingjing Liu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhenglei Yu, Yunhong Liang, Xiujuan Li, Luquan Ren
The Typha leaf has a structure of lightweight cantilever beam, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties with low density. Especially, the leaf blade evolved high strength and low density with high porosity. In this paper, the structure of Typha leaf was characterized by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the relationship with flexural properties was analyzed. The three-point bending test was performed on leaves to examine flexural properties, which indicated that the flexural properties vary from the base to the apex in gradient...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118571/crashworthiness-design-for-bionic-bumper-structures-inspired-by-cattail-and-bamboo
#6
Tao Xu, Nian Liu, Zhenglei Yu, Tianshuang Xu, Meng Zou
Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104425/analysis-of-drag-reduction-methods-and-mechanisms-of-turbulent
#7
REVIEW
Gu Yunqing, Liu Tao, Mu Jiegang, Shi Zhengzan, Zhou Peijian
Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104424/new-design-of-a-soft-robotics-wearable-elbow-exoskeleton-based-on-shape-memory-alloy-wire-actuators
#8
Dorin Copaci, Enrique Cano, Luis Moreno, Dolores Blanco
The elbow joint is a complex articulation composed of the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints (for flexion-extension movement) and the proximal radioulnar articulation (for pronation-supination movement). During the flexion-extension movement of the elbow joint, the rotation center changes and this articulation cannot be truly represented as a simple hinge joint. The main goal of this project is to design and assemble a medical rehabilitation exoskeleton for the elbow with one degree of freedom for flexion-extension, using the rotation center for proper patient elbow joint articulation...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097902/using-a-bayesian-network-to-predict-l5-s1-spinal-compression-force-from-posture-hand-load-anthropometry-and-disc-injury-status
#9
Richard E Hughes
Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951659/macrodamage-accumulation-model-for-a-human-femur
#10
Farah Hamandi, Tarun Goswami
The objective of this study was to more fully understand the mechanical behavior of bone tissue that is important to find an alternative material to be used as an implant and to develop an accurate model to predict the fracture of the bone. Predicting and preventing bone failure is an important area in orthopaedics. In this paper, the macrodamage accumulation models in the bone tissue have been investigated. Phenomenological models for bone damage have been discussed in detail. In addition, 3D finite element model of the femur prepared from imaging data with both cortical and trabecular structures is delineated using MIMICS and ANSYS® and simulated as a composite structure...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894351/prediction-of-epileptic-seizure-by-analysing-time-series-eeg-signal-using-k-nn-classifier
#11
Md Kamrul Hasan, Md Asif Ahamed, Mohiuddin Ahmad, M A Rashid
Electroencephalographic signal is a representative signal that contains information about brain activity, which is used for the detection of epilepsy since epileptic seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrophysiological activity of the brain. The prediction of epileptic seizure usually requires a detailed and experienced analysis of EEG. In this paper, we have introduced a statistical analysis of EEG signal that is capable of recognizing epileptic seizure with a high degree of accuracy and helps to provide automatic detection of epileptic seizure for different ages of epilepsy...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835733/in-vivo-assessment-of-elasticity-of-child-rib-cortical-bone-using-quantitative-computed-tomography
#12
Y Zhu, F Bermond, J Payen de la Garanderie, J-B Pialat, B Sandoz, D Brizard, J-P Pracros, F Rongieras, W Skalli, D Mitton
Elasticity of the child rib cortical bone is poorly known due to the difficulties in obtaining specimens to perform conventional tests. It was shown on the femoral cortical bone that elasticity is strongly correlated with density for both children and adults through a unique relationship. Thus, it is assumed that the relationships between the elasticity and density of adult rib cortical bones could be expanded to include that of children. This study estimated in vivo the elasticity of the child rib cortical bone using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831239/comparison-of-machine-learning-methods-for-the-arterial-hypertension-diagnostics
#13
Vladimir S Kublanov, Anton Yu Dolganov, David Belo, Hugo Gamboa
The paper presents results of machine learning approach accuracy applied analysis of cardiac activity. The study evaluates the diagnostics possibilities of the arterial hypertension by means of the short-term heart rate variability signals. Two groups were studied: 30 relatively healthy volunteers and 40 patients suffering from the arterial hypertension of II-III degree. The following machine learning approaches were studied: linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine with radial basis, decision trees, and naive Bayes classifier...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827977/ankle-foot-orthosis-made-by-3d-printing-technique-and-automated-design-software
#14
Yong Ho Cha, Keun Ho Lee, Hong Jong Ryu, Il Won Joo, Anna Seo, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Sang Jun Kim
We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient's lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the "STL" file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819344/positioning-performance-of-power-and-manual-drivers-in-posterior-spinal-fusion-procedures
#15
J Micah Prendergast, Alexander C Perry, Vikas V Patel, Emily M Lindley, Mark E Rentschler
This work presents an analysis and comparison of the efficacy of two methods for pedicle screw placement during posterior spinal fusion surgery. A total of 100 screws (64 manual and 36 power driven), all placed utilizing a surgical navigation system, were analyzed and compared. Final screw placement was compared to initial surgical plans using the navigation system, and the final screw locations were analyzed on the basis of angular deviation from these planned trajectories as well as screw translation within a critical reference plane...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811739/a-fem-experimental-approach-for-the-development-of-a-conceptual-linear-actuator-based-on-tendril-s-free-coiling
#16
Luca Cortese, Selena Milanovic, Renato Vidoni
Within the vastness of the plant species, certain living systems show tendril structures whose motion is of particular interest for biomimetic engineers. Tendrils sense and coil around suitable grips, and by shortening in length, they erect the remaining plant body. To achieve contraction, tendrils rotate along their main axis and shift from a linear to a double-spring geometry. This phenomenon is denoted as the free-coiling phase. In this work, with the aim of understanding the fundamentals of the mechanics behind the free coiling, a reverse-engineering approach based on the finite element method was firstly applied...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790799/bilateral-misalignment-compensating-full-dof-hip-exoskeleton-design-and-kinematic-validation
#17
Karen Junius, Marc Degelaen, Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
A shared design goal for most robotic lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion for the user. Despite this, only a limited amount of devices was able to actually reduce user metabolic consumption. Preservation of the natural motion kinematics was defined as an important requirement for a device to be metabolically beneficial. This requires the inclusion of all human degrees of freedom (DOF) in a design, as well as perfect alignment of the rotation axes. As perfect alignment is impossible, compensation for misalignment effects should be provided...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785159/structural-geometric-functionalization-of-the-additively-manufactured-prototype-of-biomimetic-multispiked-connecting-ti-alloy-scaffold-for-entirely-noncemented-resurfacing-arthroplasty-endoprostheses
#18
Ryszard Uklejewski, Mariusz Winiecki, Piotr Rogala, Adam Patalas
The multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) prototype, inspired by the biological system of anchorage of the articular cartilage in the periarticular trabecular bone by means of subchondral bone interdigitations, is the essential innovation in fixation of the bone in resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprostheses. The biomimetic MSC-Scaffold, due to its complex geometric structure, can be manufactured only using additive technology, for example, selective laser melting (SLM). The major purpose of this work is determination of constructional possibilities for the structural-geometric functionalization of SLM-manufactured MSC-Scaffold prototype, compensating the reduced ability-due to the SLM technological limitations-to accommodate the ingrowing bone filling the interspike space of the prototype, which is important for the prototype bioengineering design...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757796/bionic-design-for-reducing-adhesive-resistance-of-the-ridger-inspired-by-a-boar-s-head
#19
Jianqiao Li, Yunpeng Yan, Benard Chirende, Xuejiao Wu, Zhaoliang Wang, Meng Zou
The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757795/a-new-model-to-study-fatigue-in-dental-implants-based-on-probabilistic-finite-elements-and-cumulative-damage-model
#20
María Prados-Privado, José Antonio Bea, Rosa Rojo, Sérgio A Gehrke, José Luis Calvo-Guirado, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos
The aim of this study was to predict the fatigue life of two different connections of a dental implant as in load transfer to bone. Two three-dimensional models were created and assembled. All models were subjected to a natural masticatory force of 118 N in the angle of 75° to the occlusal plane. All degrees of freedom in the inferior border of the cortical bone were restrained, and the mesial and distal borders of the end of the bone section were constrained. Fatigue material data and loads were assumed as random variables...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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