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European Journal of Sport Science

Damir Zubac, Reid Reale, Hrvoje Karnincic, Anamaria Sivric, Igor Jelaska
Urine specific gravity (USG ) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of USG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via USG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Lotte L Lintmeijer, Gert S Faber, Hessel R Kruk, A J Knoek van Soest, Mathijs J Hofmijster
For a valid determination of a rower's mechanical power output, the anterior-posterior (AP) acceleration of a rower's centre of mass (CoM) is required. The current study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the determination of this acceleration using a full-body inertial measurement units (IMUs) suit in combination with a mass distribution model. Three methods were evaluated. In the first two methods, IMU data were combined with either a subject-specific mass distribution or a standard mass distribution model for athletes...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Christopher Latella, Ashlee Hendy, Dan Vanderwesthuizen, Wei-Peng Teo
OBJECTIVE: The acute responses to resistance training (RT) between males and females are poorly understood, especially from a neural perspective. Therefore, we aimed to compare the corticospinal and intracortical responses during fatigue and recovery following RT. METHODS: Twenty-two participants (12M, 10F) completed one-session of RT (3 × 12 repetition maximum) unilateral leg extensions with 60 s recovery. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation measured changes in the motor-evoked potential (MEP), corticospinal silent period (CSP), CSP/MEP ratio, and intracortical facilitation/inhibition (ICF, SICI)...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Johanna Belz, Jahan Heidari, Claudia Levenig, Monika Hasenbring, Michael Kellmann, Jens Kleinert
Back pain (BP), a prominent problem for competitive athletes, is a primary reason for limitations in athletic performance and daily life restrictions. As studies on the relationship between psychological variables and BP in athletes are scarce, the aim of this study was to investigate stress and depression in competitive athletes with BP. In a cross-sectional design, data of 154 competitive athletes (51% female; Mage  = 18.81 years, SDage  = 5.05 years) were collected, assessing Performance stress, Socio-emotional stress, Risk for depression and Psychological well-being and the two BP parameters BP Intensity and Disability...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer, Samuel Robertson
Tournament preparation in golf is used by players to increase course knowledge, develop strategy, optimise playing conditions and facilitate self-regulation. It is not known whether specific behaviours in tournament preparation should be given priority in education and practice at different stages of competition. This study aimed to achieve consensus on the importance of specific tournament preparation behaviours or "items" to players of five competitive levels. A two-round Delphi study was used, including an expert panel of 36 coaches, high-performance staff, players and academics...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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May 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Eline van der Kruk, Marco M Reijne
OBJECTIVE: Sport research often requires human motion capture of an athlete. It can, however, be labour-intensive and difficult to select the right system, while manufacturers report on specifications which are determined in set-ups that largely differ from sport research in terms of volume, environment and motion. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in the selection of a suitable motion capture system for their experimental set-up for sport applications. An open online platform is initiated, to support (sport)researchers in the selection of a system and to enable them to contribute and update the overview...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Israel Halperin, Brandon W Collins, Michael Monks, Chris T Compton, Joseph D Yetman, Angela Loucks-Atkinson, Fabien Basset, Duane C Button
PURPOSE: To compare the physiological and perceptual responses of the upper and lower body to all-out cyclical sprints with short or long rest periods between sprints. METHODS: Ten recreationally trained males completed four 10 × 10 s sprint protocols in a randomized order: upper body with 30 s and 180 s of rest between sprints, and lower body with 30 s and 180 s of rest between sprints. Additionally, maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) were measured at pre-sprint and post-sprints 5 and 10...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Francisco Gómez Chávez, Paola Cortés Almanzar, Adilson Marques
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and self-rated wellbeing have important benefits to health. However, scientific knowledge regarding their relationship among older adults is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between physical activity frequency and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing, in a representative sample of European older adults from 28 countries. METHODS: This study is based on the European Social Survey round 6, 2012...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
Many sports require athletes to rapidly transform visual information into a targeted motor response, a process referred to as visuomotor reaction. On the behavioural level, athletes have long been established to achieve faster simple visuomotor reaction times when compared to non-athletes. However, although the superior performance in athletes has been attributed to the central nervous system, the underlying neural mechanisms remained poorly studied. More recently, a growing number of neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies systematically addressed the functional and structural modulations in the athletes' visual and motor systems as well as their contribution to visuomotor performance...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Giuseppe Coratella, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez, Laurent Mourot
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a standardized fatiguing protocol on central and peripheral fatigue in knee-flexors and knee-extensors. Thirteen healthy men (age: 23 ± 3 years; height: 1.78 ± 0.09 m; body-mass: 73.6 ± 9.2 kg) volunteered for the present study. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), Electromyography (EMG) activity, voluntary activation level (VAL) as an index of central fatigue and twitch potentiation as an index of peripheral fatigue were measured before and after the fatiguing protocol...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Luca Oppici, Derek Panchuk, Fabio Rubens Serpiello, Damian Farrow
This study investigated how learning a passing skill with futsal or soccer task constraints influenced transfer to a new task. Futsal (n = 24, 13.6 ± 1.2 years old, 7.0 ± 1.6 years of experience) and soccer (n = 24, 13.6 ± 1.2 years old, 6.8 ± 1.2 years of experience) players performed two 5v5 + goalkeeper modified games - a futsal-like task (small playing area with the futsal ball) and soccer-like task (large playing area with the soccer ball). Participants' passing accuracy and their orientation of attention were assessed during the two tasks...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Victor Silveira Coswig, Paulo Gentil, Francine Irigon, Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio
The number of offensive actions and glycolytic energy in combat sports both increase with caffeine (CAF) ingestion. In addition, the effects of CAF on technical-tactical and time-motion analysis and physiological parameters in boxing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CAF ingestion on physiological parameters and the notational analysis of boxing matches. Ten male boxers were recruited; the participants ingested 6 mg kg-1 BM of CAF or placebo (PLA) 30 min prior to the match in a crossover design...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Vincent Gouttebarge, Philip Hopley, Gino Kerkhoffs, Evert Verhagen, Wayne Viljoen, Paul Wylleman, Mike Lambert
The primary aims were to determine the 12-month incidence (and comorbidity) of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) among male professional rugby players and to explore their association with potential stressors. A secondary aim was to explore the view of male professional rugby players about the consequences of symptoms of CMD and related medical support/needs. An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a 12-month period was conducted among male professional rugby players from several countries...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
I González-Ponce, F M Leo, R Jiménez, D Sánchez-Oliva, H Sarmento, A Figueiredo, T García-Calvo
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching competency and team conflict, at individual and team levels, over the season. The participants were professional female and male soccer players, who participated in the First and Second Division. A longitudinal study was performed. At Time 1, the sample of participants consisted of 581 soccer players aged between 15 and 39 years. At Time 2, 549 players were recruited from the original sample aged between 15 and 37 years. Finally, at Time 3, the sample comprised 576 players aged between 15 and 37 years...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Martin Schnitzer, Janette Walde, Sabrina Scheiber, Roman Nagiller, Gottfried Tappeiner
On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Lucas Rosiello Trojbicz, Mayara Vieira Damasceno, Leonardo Alves Pasqua, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi
The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the constant load and self-paced exercise with similar total work on autonomic control after endurance exercise. Ten physically active men were submitted to (i) a maximal incremental exercise test, (ii) a 4-km cycling time trial (4-km TT), and (iii) a constant workload test with identical total external work performed at 4-km TT. Gas exchange was measured throughout the tests, while blood lactate, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during the passive recovery...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Adriana Marin-Urquiza, José Pedro Ferreira, Debbie Van Biesen
Athletic identity (AI) has been suggested as a variable that can have an impact on the psychological health of the athletes upon retirement. The aim of this study was to provide more insight on the transition out of elite sport by assessing and comparing the extent of AI and self-esteem in an active group (AG) and a retired group (RG) of Paralympic athletes. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were additionally assessed in the AG and RG, respectively. A non-probability sampling method was used to recruit active and retired Paralympic athletes (AG, n = 43; RG, n = 41, where 35 retired voluntarily and 6 retired involuntarily) with visual or physical impairments, from Dutch-, English-, Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking countries...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Michael J Segel, Ronen Reuveny, Jacob Luboshitz, Dekel Shlomi, Issahar Ben-Dov
Local symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency after deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are well described, but little is known about the effect of residual venous obstruction on exercise capacity. We tested our hypothesis that chronic residual iliofemoral vein occlusion (IFVO) after DVT may impair exercise capacity. Nine post-DVT patients with residual IFVO and effort intolerance were studied; a comparison cohort consisted of 11 healthy volunteers. Exercise tolerance was assessed by bimodality incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary testing, using leg and arm ergometers...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Neil P Walsh
Numerous studies over the last 35 years report an increase in upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms in athletes during periods of heavy training and competition. Challenges athletes face such as heavy exercise and life stress influence immune function via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system and the resulting immunoregulatory hormones. Both innate and acquired immunity are often reported to decrease transiently in the hours after heavy exertion, typically 15-70%: prolonged heavy training sessions in particular have been shown to decrease immune function; potentially providing an 'open window' for opportunistic infections...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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