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European Journal of Sport Science

Neil E Bezodis, Alexandra Atack, Alexander P Willmott, Jon E B Callard, Grant Trewartha
Place kicking is a complex whole-body movement that contributes 45% of the points scored in international Rugby Union. This study compared the kicking foot swing plane characteristics of accurate and inaccurate kickers, underpinned by differences in their support leg and pelvis kinematics at support foot contact, to identify key technique characteristics. Motion capture data (240 Hz) were collected from 33 experienced kickers, and distinct groups of accurate (n = 18) and inaccurate (n = 8) kickers were identified based on their performance characteristics...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ben Piggott, Sean Müller, Paola Chivers, Carmen Papaluca, Gerard Hoyne
Sports science research is traditionally monodisciplinary despite calls for an interdisciplinary focus. The primary purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies on talent identification, talent selection and competition performance to determine whether interdisciplinary research is being conducted. Thirty-six studies met the selection criteria. These studies were critiqued relative to sport, skill level, sport science sub-disciplines included, and whether the research was multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary...
September 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Daniel M Duvnjak-Zaknich, Karen E Wallman, Brian T Dawson, Peter Peeling
The aim of this study was to compare the impact of continuous (CON) and intermittent (INT) heat acclimation protocols on repeat-sprint performance, and to also assess the degree of performance decay following acclimation. Using a pair-matched, between subjects design, 16 trained male team sport athletes were allocated to either INT (8 sessions over 15 days) or CON acclimation (8 sessions over 8 days) groups. Participants performed a heat tolerance test (HTT) involving 60-min of repeat-sprint cycling with a 10-min half time break (in 35...
September 3, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ayhan Korkmaz, Mika Venojärvi, Niko Wasenius, Sirpa Manderoos, Keith C Deruisseau, Eva-Karin Gidlund, Olli J Heinonen, Harri Lindholm, Sirkka Aunola, Johan G Eriksson, Mustafa Atalay
Irisin is a myokine that is thought to be secreted in response to exercise that may help to prevent obesity and maintain normal glucose metabolism. In this study we investigated the associations between irisin and glucose homeostasis in middle-aged, overweight and obese men (n =  144) with impaired glucose regulation, and the impact of exercise training on these relationships. The participants underwent 12 weeks of resistance or aerobic (Nordic walking) exercise training three times per week, 60 minutes per session...
August 22, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Robert Vaughan, Sylvain Laborde, Christopher McConville
The quality of decision and assessment of risk are key determinants of successful sport performance. Athletes differ fundamentally in their decision-making ability according to their athletic expertise level. Moreover, given the influence of emotions on decision-making, it is likely that a trait reflecting emotional functioning, trait emotional intelligence, may also influence decision-making. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the respective contribution of athletic expertise and trait emotional intelligence to non-athletic decision-making...
August 22, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Iván Clavel San Emeterio, Jorge García-Unanue, Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Jose Luis Felipe, Leonor Gallardo
RESEARCH QUESTION: The increase of physical exercise in fitness centres has turned these facilities in important active lifestyle promoters. However, only between 30% and 60% of subscribers still linked to the sports centre after a year. The aim of this study is to design a model to predict the drop out in fitness centres. RESEARCH METHODS: Monthly data corresponding to the actual behaviour of 14,522 members of three sport centres in Spain were recorded over the course of one year...
August 22, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Chris Saward, John G Morris, Mary E Nevill, Caroline Sunderland
This mixed-longitudinal study examined the development of match skills in elite male youth footballers (aged 11-18 years), while considering the effect of playing status, maturity status, and playing position. Across two seasons, 126 elite male youth footballers were assessed in 1-10 competitive matches (401 player-matches). For each match, the on-the-ball actions of each player were recorded using a notation system. The match skills observed were frequencies of successful passes, on-target shots, dribbles, crosses, clearances, and tackles/blocks/interceptions...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Janet Moeijes, Jooske T Van Busschbach, Krista L Lockhart, Ruud J Bosscher, Jos W R Twisk
Several studies suggest that sports participation is beneficial for psychosocial health. There is, however, only a limited number of studies about the relationship of specific characteristics of sports participation with psychosocial health. The present study investigated associations between characteristics of sports participation and three aspects of psychosocial health, i.e. internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour. The examined characteristics of sports participation pertained to individual versus team sports, indoor versus outdoor sports, involvement in competition or not, and contact sports versus non-contact sports...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Gregory C Bogdanis, Athanasios Tsoukos, Spyridon K Methenitis, Elisavet Selima, Panagiotis Veligekas, Gerasimos Terzis
This study compared knee angle-specific neuromuscular adaptations after two low-volume isometric leg press complex training programmes performed at different muscle lengths. Fifteen young males were divided into two groups and trained three times per week for 6 weeks. One group (n = 8) performed 5-7 sets of 3 s maximum isometric leg press exercise, with 4 min recovery, with knee angle at 85° ± 2° (longer muscle-tendon unit length; L-MTU). The other group (n = 7) performed the same isometric training at a knee angle of 145° ± 2° (180°  = full extension; shorter muscle-tendon unit length; S-MTU)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Howie J Carson, Jim Richards, Bruno Mazuquin
Wrist movements have been identified as an important factor in producing a successful golf swing, with their complex motion influencing both club head velocity and orientation. However, a detailed analysis of wrist angles is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine kinematics across wrists and club head characteristics during the golf swing under weak, neutral and strong grip conditions. Twelve professional male golfers executed 24 shots using a driver under three grip conditions...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Daniel J Owens, Craig Twist, James N Cobley, Glyn Howatson, Graeme L Close
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterized by symptoms that present both immediately and for up to 14 days after the initial exercise bout. The main consequence of EIMD for the athlete is the loss of skeletal muscle function and soreness. As such, numerous nutrients and functional foods have been examined for their potential to ameliorate the effects of EIMD and accelerate recovery, which is the purpose of many nutritional strategies for the athlete. However, the trade-off between recovery and adaptation is rarely considered...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Michael J Duncan, Alexandra P Dobell, Chloe L Caygill, Emma Eyre, Jason Tallis
The current study examined the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on mean and peak power production during upper body Wingate test (WANT) performance, rating of perceived exertion, readiness to invest effort and cognitive performance. Using a double-blind design, 12 males undertook upper body WANTs, following ingestion of caffeine (5 mg*kg-1 ) or placebo. Pre-substance ingestion, 60 mins post substance ingestion and post exercise participants completed measures of readiness to invest physical and mental effort and cognitive performance...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Joel T Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Joseph Hamill, Jonathan D Buckley
This study investigated whether male runners improve running performance, running economy, ankle plantar flexor strength, and alter running biomechanics and lower limb bone mineral density when gradually transitioning to using minimalist shoes for 100% of weekly running. The study was a planned follow-up of runners (n = 50) who transitioned to minimalist or conventional shoes for 35% of weekly structured training in a previous 6-week randomised controlled trial. In that trial, running performance and economy improved more with minimalist shoes than conventional shoes...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Natalia Ribeiro, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Valmor Tricoli
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of the aerobic exercise volume on maximum strength and strength-endurance performance; and possible causes of strength decrements (i.e. central and peripheral fatigue). Twenty-one moderately trained men were submitted to a maximal incremental test to determine anaerobic threshold (AnT) and maximum dynamic strength (1RM) and strength-endurance (i.e. total volume load [TV]) tests to determine their baseline strength performance. Following, subjects performed six experimental sessions: aerobic exercise sessions (continuous running at 90% AnT) with different volumes (3 km, 5 km or 7 km) followed by 1RM or strength-endurance test in the 45° leg press exercise...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, Beatríz Redondo, Alejandro Torrejón, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Amador García-Ramos
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the influence of the level of effort during four basic resistance exercises leading to muscular failure on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion (OPP), as well as the role of exercise type and sex. METHODS: Twenty-five young adults (12 women) performed 10 repetitions against their 10-RM (repetition maximum) load in the squat, military press, biceps curl and calf raise exercises. IOP was measured before, during and after exercise, whereas OPP was indirectly assessed before and after each exercise...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Aynollah Naderi, Hans Degens, Ainollah Sakinepoor
Excessive foot pronation during gait is a risk factor in medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Arch-support foot-orthoses are commonly used to manage overpronation, but it is unknown whether it is effective to manage MTSS. The present study investigated the effects of bilateral foot orthoses during running on dynamic foot-pressure distribution patterns in recreational runners with MTSS. Fifty novice (started within the last 4 months) runners diagnosed with MTSS (20.7 ± 2.2 years; 71.1 ± 8.6 kg; 1...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Naoto Fujii, Hiroki Hara, Yasushi Enomoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
We tested the hypothesis that work-matched supramaximal intermittent warm-up improves final-sprint power output to a greater degree than submaximal constant-intensity warm-up during the last 30 s of a 120-s supramaximal exercise simulating the final sprint during sports events lasting approximately 2 min. Ten male middle-distance runners performed a 120-s supramaximal cycling exercise consisting of 90 s of constant-workload cycling at a workload corresponding to 110% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) followed by 30 s of maximal-effort cycling...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Eimear Dolan, Bruno Gualano, Eric S Rawson
The ergogenic and therapeutic effects of increasing muscle creatine by supplementation are well-recognized. It appears that similar benefits to brain function and cognitive processing may also be achieved with creatine supplementation, however research in this area is more limited, and important knowledge gaps remain. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge about the influence of creatine supplementation on brain function in healthy individuals. It appears that brain creatine is responsive to supplementation, however higher, or more prolonged dosing strategies than those typically used to increase muscle creatine, may be required to elicit an increase in brain creatine...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Kay Winkert, Jürgen M Steinacker, Katja Machus, Jens Dreyhaupt, Gunnar Treff
INTRODUCTION: Successful rowers are heavier and taller than their opponents, but the effect of these variables on long-term career attainment in juniors has not been examined. We therefore analysed this in a large sample of elite German junior rowers. METHODS: Former German Junior National Team rowers (N = 910; 399 females) were grouped according to their highest career attainment, i.e., participation in U19-, U23-, Senior World Championships or Olympic Games (OG)...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Jorge Sánchez-Sabaté, Luis Izquierdo-Lupón, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal
Plyometric training composed by unilateral exercises with horizontal jumping direction seems to be an effective way to improve physical performance in athletes. The present study aimed to compare the influence of a combined jumping direction and force application (horizontal-unilateral vs. vertical-bilateral) plyometric training on linear sprinting, jumping, change of direction (COD) and dynamic balance in young elite basketball players. Twenty young (U-13 to U-14) male basketball players (age: 13.2 ± 0...
July 28, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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