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European Journal of Sport Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068210/how-players-exploit-variability-and-regularity-of-game-actions-in-female-volleyball-teams
#1
Ana Ramos, Patrícia Coutinho, Pedro Silva, Keith Davids, Isabel Mesquita
Variability analysis has been used to understand how competitive constraints shape different behaviours in team sports. In this study, we analysed and compared variability of tactical performance indices in players within complex I at two different competitive levels in volleyball. We also examined whether variability was influenced by set type and period. Eight matches from the 2012 Olympics competition and from the Portuguese national league in the 2014-2015 season were analysed (1496 rallies). Variability of setting conditions, attack zone, attack tempo and block opposition was assessed using Shannon entropy measures...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068193/the-improvement-in-walking-speed-induced-by-resistance-training-is-associated-with-increased-muscular-strength-but-not-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-older-women
#2
Leandro Santos, Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Matheus A Nascimento, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Mariana F Souza, Fábio L C Pina, Edilson S Cyrino
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to analyze whether improvements in fast walking speed induced by resistance training (RT) are associated with changes in body composition, muscle quality, and muscular strength in older women. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy older women (69.6 ± 6.4 years, 64.95 ± 12.9 kg, 1.55 ± 0.07 m, 27.06 ± 4.6 kg/m²) performed a RT program for 8 weeks consisting of 8 exercises for the whole body, 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions maximum, 3 times a week...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038503/hiking-strap-force-decreases-during-sustained-upwind-sailing
#3
R Buchardt, J Bay, J Bojsen-Møller, N B Nordsborg
The hypothesis, that sailing upwind in wind speeds above 12 knots causes fatigue, which manifests as a reduction in exerted hiking strap force and/or maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) of the knee extensors, was evaluated. Additionally, it was investigated if a relationship exists between maximal exerted hiking force (hMVC) and sailing performance. In part 1 of the study, 12 national level athletes sailed upwind for 2 × 10 min while hiking strap forces were continuously acquired. Before, in between and after sailing periods, the MVC of the knee extensors was measured...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038502/interaction-between-motor-ability-and-skill-learning-in-children-application-of-implicit-and-explicit-approaches
#4
Jon P Maxwell, Catherine M Capio, Rich S W Masters
The benefits of implicit and explicit motor learning approaches in young adults have been studied extensively, but much less in children. This study investigated the relationship between fundamental motor ability and implicit/explicit learning in children using the errorless learning paradigm. First, the motor ability of 261 children (142 boys, 119 girls) aged 9-12 years (M = 9.74, SD = 0.67) was measured. Second, children with motor ability scores in the upper and lower quartile learned a golf-putting skill in either an errorless (implicit) or errorful (explicit) learning condition...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038501/the-impact-of-physical-growth-and-relative-age-effect-on-assessment-in%C3%A2-physical-education
#5
Terje Dalen, Rolf Petter Ingvaldsen, Truls Valland Roaas, Arve Vorland Pedersen, Ingebrigt Steen, Tore Kristian Aune
Physical education (PE) is perhaps the school subject most likely to produce relative age effects (RAE). Like in sports, physical maturity gives students an advantage in PE, which might well be mistaken for superior ability. The aim of the present study is to investigate the extent to which physical growth, measured as height, and RAE reflect the assessment in Norwegian PE. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether there is any gender differences in the assessment in PE as a function of physical growth and RAE...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996694/no-effect-of-acute-and-chronic-supramaximal-exercise-on-circulating-levels-of-the-myokine-sparc
#6
Preeyaphorn Songsorn, José Ruffino, Niels B J Vollaard
Myokines may play a role in the health benefits of regular physical activity. Secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a pleiotropic myokine that has been shown to be released into the bloodstream by skeletal muscle in response to aerobic exercise. As there is evidence suggesting that SPARC release may be linked to glycogen breakdown and activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, we hypothesised that brief supramaximal exercise may also be associated with increased serum SPARC levels...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927073/the-importance-of-cohesion-and-enjoyment-for-the-fitness-improvement-of-8-10-year-old-children-participating-in-a-team-and-individual-sport-school-based-physical-activity-intervention
#7
Anne-Marie Elbe, Johan Michael Wikman, Miky Zheng, Malte Nejst Larsen, Glen Nielsen, Peter Krustrup
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923330/the-influence-of-race-length-on-arterial-compliance-following-an-ultra-endurance-marathon
#8
Alis Bonsignore, Shannon S D Bredin, Holly Wollmann, Barb Morrison, Andrew Jeklin, Lauren Buschmann, Josh Robertson, Elizabeth Jean Buckler, Duncan McGuinty, Mark S Rice, Darren E R Warburton
There is inconclusive evidence concerning the effects of routine participation in ultra-endurance events on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Arterial compliance is a reliable, non-invasive, and effective tool for evaluating CVD risk. The purpose of this research was to examine if race length influences acute changes in arterial compliance following an ultra-marathon event. A total of 46 ultra-marathon runners were recruited including 21 participants (39.8 ± 8.3 years, 6 females) in the 80-km event and 25 participants (43...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912681/how-valid-are-wearable-physical-activity-trackers-for-measuring-steps
#9
Hyun-Sung An, Gregory C Jones, Seoung-Ki Kang, Gregory J Welk, Jung-Min Lee
Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871205/the-effects-of-two-different-swimming-training-periodization-on-physiological-parameters-at-various-exercise-intensities
#10
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Athanasios Dalamitros, João Ribeiro, Ana Sousa, Ricardo J Fernandes, J Paulo Vilas-Boas
This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863460/the-effects-of-a-three-year-integrated-olympic-education-programme-on-adolescents-prosocial-behaviours
#11
Saulius Sukys, Daiva Majauskiene, Audrone Dumciene
The concept of Olympic education and its use of moral education to shape the development of personality have received insufficient empirical support. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated Olympic education programme on the development of prosocial behaviour in adolescents. A natural experimental research design was applied in this study. The pre-test sample included 411 adolescents (aged 13-14) who were randomly selected from schools that had begun to apply an integrated Olympic education programme, along with 430 adolescents from schools without an Olympic education programme...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863457/the-effects-of-high-resistance-few-repetitions-and-low-resistance-high-repetitions-resistance-training-on-climbing-performance
#12
Espen Hermans, Vidar Andersen, Atle Hole Saeterbakken
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different strength training intensities on climbing performance, climbing-specific tests and a general strength test. Thirty lower grade and intermediate-level climbers participated in a 10-week training programme. The participants were randomized into three groups: high resistance-few repetitions training groups (HR-FR), low resistance-high repetitions training groups (LR-HR) and a control group (CON) which continued climbing/training as usual. Post-testing results demonstrated statistical tendencies for climbing performance improvements in the HR-FR and LR-HR (p = 0...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863454/sensory-organisation-and-reactive-balance-control-of-amateur-rugby-players-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Gary C C Chow, Joanne W Y Chung, Ada W W Ma, Duncan J Macfarlane, Shirley S M Fong
PURPOSE: This study compared the sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players and a control group. METHODS: Forty-one amateur rugby players (22 males: 19 females; mean height ± SD = 168.8 ± 8.8 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.9 ± 12.5 kg) and 31 control participants (22 males: 9 females; mean height ± SD = 171.5 ± 10.3 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.8 ± 10.3 kg) completed the study...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839238/effects-of-a-structured-midsole-on-spatio-temporal-variables-and-running-economy-in-overground-running
#14
Tobias Wunsch, Josef Kröll, Thomas Stöggl, Hermann Schwameder
Research to enhance running performance has led to the design of a leaf spring-structured midsole shoe (LEAF). In treadmill running, it has been shown that LEAF led to an increased running economy and increased stride length (SL) through a horizontal foot shift during stance compared to a standard foam shoe (FOAM). The purpose of this study was to analyse whether (a) these findings can also be observed in overground running and (b) relations exist between spatio-temporal variables and running economy. Ten male long-distance heel-strike runners ran at their individual 2 mmol/l blood lactate speed with LEAF and FOAM in randomized order...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838957/stress-related-psychological-factors-for-back-pain-among-athletes-important-topic-with-scarce-evidence
#15
Jahan Heidari, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Michael Kellmann
Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829323/the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-fencing-performance-and-cognitive-function-following-fatigue-inducing-fencing
#16
G Rowlatt, L Bottoms, C J Edmonds, R Buscombe
This study investigated the impact that mouth rinsing carbohydrate solution has on skill-specific performance and reaction time following a fatigue-inducing bout of fencing in epee fencers. Nine healthy, national-level epee fencers visited a laboratory on two occasions, separated by a minimum of five days, to complete a 1-minute lunge test and Stroop test pre- and post-fatigue. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during completion of the fatiguing protocol. Between fights the participant's mouth rinsed for 10 seconds, either 25 ml of 6...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821022/the-sensory-tolerance-limit-a-hypothetical-construct-determining-exercise-performance
#17
Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817249/a-prospective-examination-of-the-impact-of-high-levels-of-exercise-training-on-sedentary-behaviour
#18
Ann M Swartz, Nora E Miller, Young Ik Cho, Whitney A Welch, Scott J Strath
: The aim of this study is to determine changes in sedentary behaviour in response to extensive aerobic exercise training. Participants included adults who self-selected to run a marathon. Sedentary behaviour, total activity counts and physical activity (PA) intensity were assessed (Actigraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days during seven assessment periods (-3, -2, and -1 month prior to the marathon, within 2 weeks of the marathon, and +1, +2, and +3 months after the marathon). Models were fitted with multiple imputation data using the STATA mi module...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817246/effects-of-strength-and-endurance-exercise-order-on-endocrine-responses-to-concurrent-training
#19
Thomas W Jones, Glyn Howatson, Mark Russell, Duncan N French
The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806677/power-duration-relationship-physiology-fatigue-and-the-limits-of-human-performance
#20
Mark Burnley, Andrew M Jones
The duration that exercise can be maintained decreases as the power requirements increase. In this review, we describe the power-duration (PD) relationship across the full range of attainable power outputs in humans. We show that a remarkably small range of power outputs is sustainable (power outputs below the critical power, CP). We also show that the origin of neuromuscular fatigue differs considerably depending on the exercise intensity domain in which exercise is performed. In the moderate domain (below the lactate threshold, LT), fatigue develops slowly and is predominantly of central origin (residing in the central nervous system)...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
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