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European Journal of Sport Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323574/the-effects-of-an-increased-calorie-breakfast-consumed-prior-to-simulated-match-play-in-academy-soccer-players
#1
Marc A Briggs, Liam D Harper, Ged McNamee, Emma Cockburn, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Mark Russell
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (Bhab; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (Binc; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323541/3d-technology-of-sony-bloggie-has-no-advantage-in-decision-making-of-tennis-serve-direction-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Sicong Liu, Jason Ritchie, Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Savanna K Ward, Cody Paulsen, Tyler Klein, Oscar Gutierrez, Gershon Tenenbaum
This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319679/evaluation-of-body-composition-with-bioimpedence-a-comparison-between-athletic-and-non-athletic-children
#3
Domenico Meleleo, Nicola Bartolomeo, Liliana Cassano, Alessandro Nitti, Giovanna Susca, Giuseppina Mastrototaro, Umberto Armenise, Annapaola Zito, Fiorella Devito, Pietro Scicchitano, Marco Matteo Ciccone
PURPOSE: Conventional Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) or Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) can provide direct evaluations of body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lean and fat mass (FM), and hydration of children involved in daily competitive sports. METHODS: 190 non-athletic [8.2-10.5 years] and 29 competitive children [8.0-10.5 years] were enrolled. They were evaluated: at baseline (t0), 6 months (t1) and one year (t2)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317427/fatigue-is-it-all-neurochemistry
#4
Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
Fatigue during exercise can be approached from different angles. Peripheral fatigue is usually described as an impairment located in the muscle and characterized by a metabolic end point, while central fatigue is defined as a failure of the central nervous system to adequately drive the muscle. The aim of the present narrative review paper is to look at the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of fatigue during prolonged exercise, predominantly from a brain neurochemical point of view. From studies in rodents it is clear that exercise increases the release of several neurotransmitters in different brain regions, and that the onset of fatigue can be manipulated when dopaminergic influx in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus is increased, interfering with thermoregulation...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316263/individualised-dietary-strategies-for-olympic-combat-sports-acute-weight-loss-recovery-and-competition-nutrition
#5
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316262/tribute-to-dr-jacques-rogge-muscle-activity-and-fatigue-during-hiking-in-olympic-dinghy-sailing
#6
Jan G Bourgois, Jasmien Dumortier, Margot Callewaert, Bert Celie, Carlo Capelli, Gisela Sjøgaard, Dirk De Clercq, Jan Boone
'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316261/effects-of-different-strength-training-frequencies-during-reduced-training-period-on-strength-and-muscle-cross-sectional-area
#7
Lucas Duarte Tavares, Eduardo Oliveira de Souza, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Gilberto Candido Laurentino, Hamilton Roschel, André Yui Aihara, Fabiano Nassar Cardoso, Valmor Tricoli
This study investigated the effects of different reduced strength training (RST) frequencies on half-squat 1 RM and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA). Thirty-three untrained males (24.7 ± 3.9 years; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74.6 ± 8.4 kg) underwent a 16-week experimental period (i.e. eight weeks of strength training [ST] followed by additional eight weeks of RST). During the ST period, the participants performed 3-4 sets of 6-12 RM, three sessions/week in half-squat and knee extension exercises...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316258/walking-football-as-sustainable-exercise-for-older-adults-a-pilot-investigation
#8
Peter Reddy, Irundika Dias, Carol Holland, Niyah Campbell, Iaysha Nagar, Luke Connolly, Peter Krustrup, Harry Hubball
The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316257/acute-kinematic-and-kinetic-adaptations-to-wearable-resistance-during-vertical-jumping
#9
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Grace Couture, Chloe Evison
One variation of vertical jump (VJ) training is resisted or weighted jump training, where wearable resistance (WR) enables jumping to be overloaded in a movement specific manner. A two-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc contrasts was used to determine the acute changes in VJ performance with differing load magnitudes and load placements. Kinematic and kinetic data were quantified using a force plate and contact mat. Twenty sport active subjects (age: 27.8 ± 3.8 years; body mass (BM): 70...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287901/the-acute-effects-of-bodyweight-suspension-exercise-on-muscle-activation-and-muscular-fatigue
#10
Trent E Cayot, Jakob D Lauver, Barry W Scheuermann
This investigation examined effects of two exercise modes (barbell, BB; bodyweight suspension, BWS) on muscle activation, resistance load, and fatigue. During session one, nine resistance-trained males completed an elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1RM). During sessions two and three, subjects completed standing biceps curls to fatigue at 70% 1RM utilizing a randomized exercise mode. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded muscle activation of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287046/acute-effects-of-kinesio-taping-on-muscle-function-and-self-perceived-fatigue-level-in-healthy-adults
#11
Nan Hee Lee, Hyun Chul Jung, Gina Ok, Sukho Lee
This study investigated the acute effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on muscular power, strength, endurance, and self-perceived fatigue level. This is a randomized, partial double-blind, crossover trial. Eighteen healthy adults (7 males [23.86 ± 1.68 years] and 11 females [24.82 ± 3.71 years]) were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent three different trials which included no tap (NT), placebo tap (PT), and KT. Idividuals were assessed for peak and mean power, muscular strength and endurance, and self-perceived fatigue after each condition...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287036/collective-effectiveness-in-the-xv-de-france-selections-and-time-matter
#12
Adrien Sedeaud, Guillaume Saulière, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Scott Del Vecchio, Avner Bar-Hen, Jean-François Toussaint
The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of selections and shared selections in the rugby union. Players' names, positions, and number of selections were collected for all XV de France's games (1906-2014). Every team's percentage of renewal of workforce was calculated for backs and forwards. During the 1987-2014 period, all second row forwards (locks), halfbacks, and centres' shared selections (number of times when two players have competed together) were recreated. The Best vs. Rest method was applied to these remodelled dyads...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287029/gender-influence-on-the-adaptation-of-atrial-performance-to-training
#13
Laura Sanchis, Maria Sanz-De La Garza, Bart Bijnens, Genevieve Giraldeau, Gonzalo Grazioli, Josefa Marin, Luigi Gabrielli, Silvia Montserrat, Marta Sitges
BACKGROUND: High-intensity training has been associated with atrial remodelling and arrhythmias in men. Our purpose was to analyse atrial performance in female endurance athletes, compared to male athletes and controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. We included four groups: female athletes, females controls, male athletes and male controls. Left (LA) and right atrial (RA) volumes and function were assessed using 2D and speckle-tracking echocardiography to determine peak atrial strain-rate at atrial (SRa) and ventricular contraction (SRs), as surrogates of atrial contractile and reservoir function, respectively...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287024/combined-training-fndc5-irisin-levels-and-metabolic-markers-in-obese-men-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Ivan Luiz Padilha Bonfante, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil, Diego Trevisan Brunelli, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Renata Garbellini Duft, Wendell Arhur Lopes, Valéria Bonganha, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri
The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287021/evaluation-of-a-static-stretching-intervention-on-vascular-endothelial-function-and-arterial-stiffness
#15
Hiromi Shinno, Satoshi Kurose, Yutaka Yamanaka, Kyoko Higurashi, Yaeko Fukushima, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Yutaka Kimura
PURPOSE: Maintenance and enhancement of vascular endothelial function contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and prolong a healthy life expectancy. Given the reversible nature of vascular endothelial function, interventions to improve this function might prevent arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, we studied the effects of a 6-month static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function (reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry index: RH-PAT index) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: baPWV) and investigated the reversibility of these effects after a 6-month detraining period following intervention completion...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276909/how-should-we-categorise-self-reported-data-on-subsequent-injuries
#16
Philip von Rosen, Annette Heijne
Classifying subsequent injuries is of high importance in injury epidemiology since a previous injury has been reported to increase the risk of a new injury or increase the risk of a more severe injury. Multiple reports have shown that self-reported data provide an extensive view of an injury problem and add valuable information to the understanding of the athlete's health. The purpose of this study was to display a method that can be used to facilitate classification of subsequent injuries and to discuss challenges faced when categorising subsequent injuries based on self-reported data...
March 5, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276910/physical-activity-sedentary-behaviour-and-socioeconomic-status-among-finnish-girls-and-boys-aged-6-8-years
#17
Eeva-Kaarina Lampinen, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Eero A Haapala, Virpi Lindi, Juuso Väistö, Niina Lintu, Panu Karjalainen, Katriina Kukkonen-Harjula, David Laaksonen, Timo A Lakka
We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276911/the-effect-of-physical-contact-on-changes-in-fatigue-markers-following-rugby-union-field-based-training
#18
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Kevin Till, Padraic Phibbs, Dale Read, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Ben Jones
Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276912/soreness-related-changes-in-three-dimensional-running-biomechanics-following-eccentric-knee-extensor-exercise
#19
Max R Paquette, Shelby A Peel, Brian K Schilling, Dan A Melcher, Richard J Bloomer
Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276913/postural-stability-clicker-reaction-time-and-bow-draw-force-predict-performance-in-elite-recurve-archery
#20
Wayne Spratford, Rhiannon Campbell
Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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