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European Journal of Sport Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504054/exploring-the-challenges-in-obtaining-physical-activity-data-from-women-using-hip-worn-accelerometers
#1
Wendy J O'Brien, Sarah P Shultz, Ridvan T Firestone, Lily George, Bernhard H Breier, Rozanne Kruger
Quality objective physical activity data are required to inform physical activity-based health improvement initiatives, however, various challenges undermine acquisition of such data. We examined the efficacy and challenges of a hip-worn accelerometry protocol in women. Specific objectives included determining accelerometer-wear-compliance rates and understanding the barriers and acceptability of wearing accelerometers. Healthy New Zealand women (n = 406) of three ethnicities (Māori (indigenous New Zealander), Pacific, European) aged 16-45 years (30...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492342/social-cognitive-behavioural-and-neighbourhood-characteristics-associated-with-sedentary-time-in-men-and-women-living-in-deprived-neighbourhoods
#2
Paul Watts, Mahwish Hayee Shahid, Marcello Bertotti, Patrick Tobi
Multiple individual and neighbourhood characteristics are theorised to influence adult sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine associations between individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics in 40 deprived neighbourhoods in London, UK. A cross-sectional design was utilised with baseline data from the Well London Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial in 40 deprived neighbourhoods in London. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine associations between individual characteristics (measured by household survey), neighbourhood characteristics (neighbourhood audit, GIS and routinely available datasets) and sedentary behaviour (sitting time)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488937/traditional-balance-and-slackline-training-are-associated-with-task-specific-adaptations-as-assessed-with-sensorimotor-tests
#3
Samuel Volery, Navrag Singh, Eling D de Bruin, Renate List, Marc Morten Jaeggi, Brigitte Mattli Baur, Silvio Lorenzetti
The purpose of this study was to measure alterations in sensorimotor skills and balance resulting from slackline training and conventional balance training. Forty-three physically fit subjects were randomized into three groups. Two groups practiced three times a week for 15 minutes, including at least once supervised session, on the slackline or perform conventional balance training for 6 weeks. The control group was not allowed to perform any balance training. Before and after the intervention, the subjects underwent sensorimotor and strength tests...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488928/do-subjective-assessments-of-running-patterns-reflect-objective-parameters
#4
Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Laurent Mourot, Kim Hébert-Losier
Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486086/the-effect-of-two-different-interval-training-programmes-on-physiological-and-performance-indices
#5
Mahmood Sindiani, Alon Eliakim, Daria Segev, Yoav Meckel
The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of an increasing-distance, interval-training programme and a decreasing-distance, interval-training programme, matched for total distance, on aerobic and anaerobic physiological indices. Forty physical education students were randomly assigned to either the increasing- or decreasing-distance, interval-training group (ITG and DTG), and completed two similar relevant sets of tests before and after six weeks of training. One training programme consisted of increasing-distance interval-training (100-200-300-400-500 m) and the other decreasing-distance interval training (500-400-300-200-100 m)...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478704/the-interaction-of-psychological-and-physiological-homeostatic-drives-and-role-of-general-control-principles-in-the-regulation-of-physiological-systems-exercise-and-the-fatigue-process-the-integrative-governor-theory
#6
A St Clair Gibson, J Swart, R Tucker
Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463598/development-of-two-short-measures-for-recovery-and-stress-in-sport
#7
Anu Nässi, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann
The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale were first established in German for the purposes of monitoring athletes' current recovery-stress states in an economical and multidimensional manner. The aim of this paper is to document the development and initial validation of the English versions of these two psychometric monitoring tools. A total of 267 English-speaking athletes from a variety of team and individual sports participated in the study. The English versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency for both instruments (Cronbach α of ...
May 2, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448210/body-composition-and-inflammatory-markers-in-pubertal-girls-comparison-between-athletes-and-non-athletic-controls
#8
Jaak Jürimäe, Kristel Võsoberg, Anna-Liisa Tamm, Katre Maasalu, Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann
Various inflammation parameters are increased with childhood obesity, but few comparable data are found in lean growing athletes. This study aims to characterize differences in 12 simultaneously measured inflammatory parameters between pubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and untrained controls (UC), and to examine the relationship between body composition and inflammatory markers. Sixty 10-12-year-old girls were divided into RG (n = 30) and UC (n = 30). Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445110/normobaric-hypoxia-increases-the-growth-hormone-response-to-maximal-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#9
Dean Filopoulos, Stuart J Cormack, Douglas G Whyte
This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO2) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO2 0.21, SpO2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445078/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-canoeing-performance
#10
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441908/glucose-fructose-ingestion-and-exercise-performance-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-beyond
#11
Robin Rosset, Léonie Egli, Virgile Lecoultre
Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance exercise performance. In the past two decades, research has repeatedly reported the performance benefits of formulations comprising both glucose and fructose (GLUFRU) over those based on glucose (GLU). This has been usually related to additive effects of these two monosaccharides on the gastrointestinal tract whereby intestinal carbohydrate absorption is enhanced and discomfort limited. This is only a partial explanation, since glucose and fructose are also metabolized through different pathways after being absorbed from the gut...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394730/resistance-training-prescription-with-different-load-management-methods-improves-phase-angle-in-older-women
#12
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Mariana F Souza, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Analiza M Silva, Denílson C Teixeira, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two different resistance training (RT) prescription methods on phase angle (PA) in older women. Seventy-six older women (68.5 ± 5.7 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: two training groups that performed an eight-week RT programme either in a constant load (CT, n = 25) or an ascending pyramidal load (PR, n =  26) routine three times per week, or a control group (CG, n =  25) that performed no exercise. The CT programme consisted of three sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) with a constant load for the three sets, whereas the PR training consisted of three sets of 12/10/8 RM with incremental loads for each set...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394719/effects-of-strength-explosive-and-plyometric-training-on-energy-cost-of-running-in-ultra-endurance-athletes
#13
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Stefano Lazzer
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323574/the-effects-of-an-increased-calorie-breakfast-consumed-prior-to-simulated-match-play-in-academy-soccer-players
#14
Marc A Briggs, Liam D Harper, Ged McNamee, Emma Cockburn, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Mark Russell
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (Bhab; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (Binc; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323541/3d-technology-of-sony-bloggie-has-no-advantage-in-decision-making-of-tennis-serve-direction-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#15
Sicong Liu, Jason Ritchie, Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Savanna K Ward, Cody Paulsen, Tyler Klein, Oscar Gutierrez, Gershon Tenenbaum
This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317427/fatigue-is-it-all-neurochemistry
#16
Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
Fatigue during exercise can be approached from different angles. Peripheral fatigue is usually described as an impairment located in the muscle and characterized by a metabolic end point, while central fatigue is defined as a failure of the central nervous system to adequately drive the muscle. The aim of the present narrative review paper is to look at the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of fatigue during prolonged exercise, predominantly from a brain neurochemical point of view. From studies in rodents it is clear that exercise increases the release of several neurotransmitters in different brain regions, and that the onset of fatigue can be manipulated when dopaminergic influx in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus is increased, interfering with thermoregulation...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316262/tribute-to-dr-jacques-rogge-muscle-activity-and-fatigue-during-hiking-in-olympic-dinghy-sailing
#17
Jan G Bourgois, Jasmien Dumortier, Margot Callewaert, Bert Celie, Carlo Capelli, Gisela Sjøgaard, Dirk De Clercq, Jan Boone
'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316258/walking-football-as-sustainable-exercise-for-older-adults-a-pilot-investigation
#18
Peter Reddy, Irundika Dias, Carol Holland, Niyah Campbell, Iaysha Nagar, Luke Connolly, Peter Krustrup, Harry Hubball
The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316257/acute-kinematic-and-kinetic-adaptations-to-wearable-resistance-during-vertical-jumping
#19
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Grace Couture, Chloe Evison
One variation of vertical jump (VJ) training is resisted or weighted jump training, where wearable resistance (WR) enables jumping to be overloaded in a movement specific manner. A two-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc contrasts was used to determine the acute changes in VJ performance with differing load magnitudes and load placements. Kinematic and kinetic data were quantified using a force plate and contact mat. Twenty sport active subjects (age: 27.8 ± 3.8 years; body mass (BM): 70...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287024/combined-training-fndc5-irisin-levels-and-metabolic-markers-in-obese-men-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Ivan Luiz Padilha Bonfante, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil, Diego Trevisan Brunelli, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Renata Garbellini Duft, Wendell Arhur Lopes, Valéria Bonganha, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri
The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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