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European Journal of Sport Science

Cornelius John, Karsten Hollander, Johanna Elsabe de Villiers, Daniel Hamacher, Ranel Venter, Astrid Zech
Biological maturation is associated with physiological changes which in turn affect motor performance. No study has assessed the association between growing up habitually shod versus habitually barefoot and motor performance in the context of maturation, so this approach is unique. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of biological maturity on motor performance dependent on the participants' footwear habits. Sixty-five German habitually shod (mean age 13.28 ± 0.83 years) and fifty-five South African habitually barefoot (mean age 13...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Youngju Choi, Mizuho Makita, Yuki Nakamura, Kousaku Yamatomo, Takaaki Nara, Takashi Kawamura, Hidehiro Fukuda, Hideki Katano, Shumpei Miyakawa, Seiji Maeda
Based on research suggesting that nanomaterial containing nanodiamond- and nanoplatinum-coated fibres (DPV576-C) may reduce the stress response, garments to enhance athletes' recovery from training-induced stress have been manufactured. This study examined the effects of wearing recovery garments on the physical and psychological stress of Japanese male baseball players. Thirty-eight players aged 18-21 (19.6 ± 0.2 years) who participated in a two-week intensified training programme were randomly assigned to two groups: 19 wore recovery (DPV576-C) garments (RG group) and 19 wore non-recovery garments (placebo group)...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pierre Touzard, Richard Kulpa, Benoit Bideau, Bernard Montalvan, Caroline Martin
Waiter's serve (WS) is a specific tennis serve posture frequently observed in young players, and commonly considered as a technical error by tennis coaches. However, biomechanical impact of WS is unknown. The aims of this study were to identify the potential consequences of WS in young elite players relating to performance and injury risk, and to explain the kinematic causes of WS. Serve of 18 male junior elite players (Top 10 national French ranking, aged 12-15 years) was captured with a 20 camera, 200 Hz VICON MX motion analysis system...
November 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Satoru Hashizume, Hiroaki Hobara, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi
Negative work, which is mainly generated by eccentric muscle contraction, has an important influence on the associated muscle damage. Generally, mechanical parameters are determined for one side of a lower extremity on the assumption of negligible between-limb differences. However, between-limb differences in the negative work of lower extremity joints during running remain unclear. This study examines between-limb differences in negative work and associated mechanical parameters during the contact phase of running...
November 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Erreka Gil-Rey, Sara Maldonado-Martín, Natalia Palacios-Samper, Esteban M Gorostiaga
OBJECTIVES: To investigate how objectively measured physical activity (PA) levels differ according to absolute moderate intensity recommendation (3-6 METs) and relative to individual lactate thresholds (LT1 and LT2), and to verify if high-fit women record higher PA levels compared to women with lower aerobic fitness. METHODS: Seventy-five postmenopausal women performed an incremental exercise test and several constant-velocity tests wearing an accelerometer to identify the activity counts (ct min-1 ) corresponding to LT1 and LT2...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Matt Cross, Alex Ross, Pierre Samozino, Matt Brughelli, Nicholas Gill, Jean-Benoît Morin
This study aimed to analyse fatigue-induced changes in mechanical sprinting properties during a specific repeated-sprint test in elite rugby sevens athletes. Twenty elite rugby sevens players performed ten 40 m sprints on a 30 s cycle with participant's running back and forth in a marked lane. Radar was used to assess maximal overground sprint performance over each 40 m. Macroscopic mechanical properties (maximal horizontal force (F0 ), maximal horizontal power (Pmax ), maximal ratio of horizontal force (RFpeak ), decrease in the ratio of horizontal-to-total force (DRF ), total force and maximal sprinting velocity (v0 )) were drawn from horizontal force velocity relationships, using a validated method applied to the speed-time data...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Matthew Farrow, Christof Lutteroth, Peter C Rouse, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: To determine if: (i) mean power output and enjoyment of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are enhanced by virtual-reality (VR)-exergaming (track mode) compared to standard ergometry (blank mode), (ii) if mean power output of HIIT can be increased by allowing participants to race against their own performance (ghost mode) or by increasing the resistance (hard mode), without compromising exercise enjoyment. METHODS: Sixteen participants (8 males, 8 females, VO2 max: 41...
November 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Samuel Galle, Pieter Fiers, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the effect of speed-induced changes in foot contact patterns on the vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR). We hypothesized that transition runners, i.e. runners that shift towards a mid- (MF) or forefoot contact pattern (FF) when running speed increases, show smaller increases in VILR than non-transition runners, i.e. runners that remain with a rearfoot contact pattern (RF). METHODS: Fifty-two male and female runners ran overground at 3...
November 3, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Valle Guio de Prada, Juan Fernando Ortega, Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Felix Morales-Palomo, Jesús G Pallares, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
The aim of the present study was to study if training intensity relative to ventilatory thresholds (VTs) determines the improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged sedentary individuals with obesity. Before and after 16-weeks of HIIT (43-min alternating bouts at 70/90% of HRMAX ), oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2 ) and heart rate (HR) at ventilatory threshold 1 ([Formula: see text]O2VT1, HRVT1 ), ventilatory threshold 2 ([Formula: see text]O2VT2 , HRVT2 ) and at maximal effort ([Formula: see text]O2MAX , HRMAX ) were assessed during a graded cycle-ergometer exercise test...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Marcos Gutiérrez-Davila, F Javier Rojas, Carmen Gutiérrez-Cruz, Enrique Navarro
Applying the Go/No-Go paradigm to fencing, we investigated the relationship between the moment at which the No-Go signal appeared after a movement had been initiated and the time required by fencers to suppress the motor execution of a step-lunge. Secondarily, we determined a time threshold from which movement inhibition results in an error. The No-Go stimulus was represented by a real attack movement. 18 elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. Four force plates measured the horizontal components of the fencer's and master's reaction forces, which were used to calculate the time components of the attack and the response inhibition process...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Andrés Pérez, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Tomás T Freitas, Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias, Elena Marín-Cascales, Pedro E Alcaraz
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different intensity distribution training programmes (polarized (POL) and threshold (THR)) on aerobic performance, strength and body composition variables in ultra-endurance runners. Twenty recreationally trained athletes were allocated to POL (n = 11; age: 40.6 ± 9.7 years; height: 175.4 ± 7 cm; weight: 73.5 ± 10.8 kg; fat mass 18.4 ± 6.0%; VO2 max: 55.8 ± 4.9 ml/kg/min) or THR group (n = 9; age: 36.8 ± 9.2 years; height: 178...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Lewis J James, Emma J Stevenson, Penny L S Rumbold, Carl J Hulston
Post-exercise recovery is a multi-facetted process that will vary depending on the nature of the exercise, the time between exercise sessions and the goals of the exerciser. From a nutritional perspective, the main considerations are: (1) optimisation of muscle protein turnover; (2) glycogen resynthesis; (3) rehydration; (4) management of muscle soreness; (5) appropriate management of energy balance. Milk is approximately isotonic (osmolality of 280-290 mosmol/kg), and the mixture of high quality protein, carbohydrate, water and micronutrients (particularly sodium) make it uniquely suitable as a post-exercise recovery drink in many exercise scenarios...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Raoof Negaresh, Juan Del Coso, Motahare Mokhtarzade, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva, Julien S Baker, Mark E T Willems, Sina Talebvand, Mostafa Khodadoost, Farid Farhani
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different forms of caffeine administration on physical performance during a simulated wrestling tournament. In a double-blind and randomized experiment, twelve male freestyle wrestlers competed in a simulated wrestling tournament (5 wrestling matches consisting of 2 × 3-min wrestling rounds) following the ingestion of: a placebo, a high-dose of caffeine (10 mg/kg), a moderate-dose caffeine (4 mg/kg), a repeated-dose caffeine (2 mg/kg before each match to a total of 10 mg/kg) or a selective caffeine administration based on performance decrement previously measured (6...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Teresa Zwierko, Wojciech Jedziniak, Beata Florkiewicz, Miłosz Stępiński, Rafał Buryta, Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Robert Nowak, Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Woźniak
The ability to quickly locate objects within the visual field has a significant influence on athletic performance. Saccades are conjugate eye movements responsible for the rapid shift that brings a new part of the visual field into foveal vision. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sport expertise and intense physical effort on saccade dynamics during a free-viewing visual search task in skilled soccer players. Two groups of male subjects participated in this study: 18 soccer players and 18 non-athletes as the control group...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Andy Hill, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins
Given sport's ever-increasing value and competitiveness, the race to identify and develop the next generation of sporting talent has never been more intense. Accordingly, in an effort to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of talent development, and recognising the critical role that psychology plays in these processes, this paper seeks to develop a formative assessment tool that will allow practitioners to measure and monitor the development of the psychological skills, characteristics and behaviours - both adaptive and maladaptive - that underpin effective development...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Katharina Petri, Nicole Bandow, Simon Salb, Kerstin Witte
Facial expressions play a crucial role in human daily life interactions, so it is possible that they contain relevant anticipatory cues. Therefore, we conducted two studies in karate kumite to analyse the influence of facial expressions on the attack recognition (study A) and on the response behaviour (study B). In study A, 10 karate athletes (age 14-26 years, national and international level) had to recognize temporally occluded karate attacks in 2 conditions (normal and blurred face of the attacker) and identify the upcoming attack (verbal reports)...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Wing-Kai Lam, Jia-Xing Fan, Yi Zheng, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee
Table tennis players often execute one-step, side-step or cross-step to move to an appropriate position for topspin forehand. However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the footwork effects on lower-limb kinetics and kinematics, which are related to playing performance and injury prevention. This study examined the ground reaction forces, joint kinetics and in-shoe plantar pressure distribution during topspin forehand with three typical footwork patterns. Fifteen male table tennis players performed cross-court topspin forehands in one-step, side-step and cross-step...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jingfei Xu, Siu Ngor Fu, Dong Zhou, Chen Huang, François Hug
This study aimed to determine whether pre-exercise muscle stiffness is related to the amount of muscle damage induced by an eccentric exercise and to determine whether the post-exercise increase in stiffness is homogenously distributed between the synergist muscles. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric exercise group or a control group. The shear modulus (an index of stiffness) of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) was measured before, immediately after and at 48 h after eccentric exercise...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Germano Gallicchio, Thomas Finkenzeller, Gerold Sattlecker, Stefan Lindinger, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
This study examined the influence of physical exercise on the relation between shooting accuracy and the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the shot is fired. Thirteen experienced biathletes (8 females, mean age 17 years) fired from the standing position at rest and right after a submaximal exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Shooting accuracy and the timing of each shot relative to the R-waves of the electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded. Best shots (with greatest accuracy) and worst shots (with lowest accuracy) were fired prevalently in different phases of the cardiac cycle...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Joshua D Clayton, Renata N Kirkwood, Diane E Gregory
Rugby Union scrumming puts the spine under a high degree of loading. The aim of the current study was to determine how sagittal hip range of motion and quadriceps fatigue influence force output, spinal posture, and activation of the trunk and quadriceps muscles in rugby scrumming. Measures of sagittal hip flexion/extension range of motion were collected from 16 male varsity and club first XV level participants. Sagittal spine motion (electromagnetic motion capture), trunk and quadriceps activation (electromyography), and applied horizontal compressive force (force plate) were measured during individual machine scrumming...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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