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European Journal of Sport Science

Dominik Meffert, Craig O'Shannessy, Philipp Born, Ralph Grambow, Tobias Vogt
Tennis comprises specific match situations when winning the next point is crucial. These big points can decide about a win or loss and, thus, reasonably arouse mental stress. Break points (BPs) are considered as big points and the outcome is influenced by, among a variety of other factors, the serve, which is well accepted being one of the dominant strokes in Men's tennis. In this study, we examined the serve behaviour for male players in the Wimbledon tournament 2016 to investigate the possible impacts of presumed mental stress within the situation of BPs, and further, if winning players perform better than losing players...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
James J Wild, Ian N Bezodis, Jamie S North, Neil E Bezodis
The initial steps of a sprint are important in team sports, such as rugby, where there is an inherent requirement to maximally accelerate over short distances. Current understanding of sprint acceleration technique is primarily based on data from track and field sprinters, although whether this information is transferable to athletes such as rugby players is unclear, due to differing ecological constraints. Sagittal plane video data were collected (240 Hz) and manually digitised to calculate the kinematics of professional rugby forwards (n = 15) and backs (n = 15), and sprinters (n = 18; 100 m personal best range = 9...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Oliver C Witard, Dane Baker, Philip Healey, Victoria Lewis, Francisco Tavares, Sam Christensen, Tom Pease, Brett Smith
Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could reduce muscle soreness and maintain muscle function following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The aim of this applied field study was to investigate the effectiveness of consuming a protein-based supplement containing 1546 mg of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (551 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 551 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) twice daily (FO) compared to a protein-based placebo (P) on muscle soreness, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and psychological well-being in 20 professional Rugby Union players during 5 weeks of pre-season training...
July 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Federico Onali, Carla M Calò, Myosotis Massidda, Miguel M Álvarez-Álvarez, Maria Esther Esteban
A common missense mutation (1470T > A) in gene SLC16A1 responsible for an amino acid substitution in protein MCT1 has been associated with differential lactate transport and hence, differences in physical performance and muscle injuries in relation to physical exercise. This study describes, for the first time, the worldwide variation of MCT1 variant 1470T > A at an intra- and inter-continental level. Two thousand five hundred and four individual genotypes of 26 populations clustered in 5 population groups have been analysed with data downloaded from the public database 1000 Genomes Phase 3 Browser...
July 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Neil C Williams, Sophie C Killer, Ida Siobhan Svendsen, Arwel Wyn Jones
Evidence suggests that periods of heavy intense training can result in impaired immune cell function, and whether this leaves elite athletes at greater risk of infections and upper respiratory symptoms (URS) is still debated. There is some evidence that episodes of URS do cluster around important periods of competition and intense periods of training. Since reducing URS, primarily from an infectious origin, may have implications for performance, a large amount of research has focused on nutritional strategies to improve immune function at rest and in response to exercise...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Adrien Combes, Jeanne Dekerle, Valérie Bougault, Frédéric N Daussin
VO2 fluctuations are argued to be an important mechanism underpinning chronic adaptations following interval training. We compared the effect of exercise modality, continuous vs. intermittent realized at a same intensity, on electrical muscular activity, muscular oxygenation and on whole body oxygen uptake. Twelve participants (24 ± 5 years; VO2peak: 43 ± 6 mL· min-1 ·kg-1 ) performed (i) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine peak work rate (WRpeak ); two randomized isocaloric exercises at 70%WRpeak; (ii) 1 bout of 30 min; (iii) 30 bouts of 1 min work intercepted with 1 min passive recovery...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jason D Vescovi, Olesya Falenchuk
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of contextual factors on relative locomotor and metabolic power distances during professional female soccer matches. Twenty-eight players (forwards, n = 4; midfielders, n = 12; defenders, n = 12) that competed in a 90-min home and away match (regular season only). The generalised estimating equations (GEE) was used to evaluate relative locomotor and metabolic power distances for three contextual factors: location (home vs. away), type of turf (natural vs...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Rasmus K Storm, Christian Gjersing Nielsen, Tor Georg Jakobsen
Many scholars do not find evidence of a trickle-down effect from elite sport success to mass sport participation. Contrary to what is assumed by the trickle-down effect "theorem", successful elite sportspeople do not seem to inspire amateurs to take up sport themselves. However, recent studies present evidence that elite sport can have an influence. In this article, we apply regression models on time series data from one of the most successful Danish sports, team handball. Our findings are mixed, but lean towards supporting scholars who argue that trickle-down effects are not necessarily an inherent part of international sporting success...
June 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ricardo Peterson Silveira, Pro Stergiou, Pedro Figueiredo, Flávio de S Castro, Larry Katz, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical parameters that explain ventral start performance in swimming. For this purpose, 13 elite swimmers performed different variants of the ventral start technique. Two-dimensional video analyses of the aerial and underwater phases were used to assess 16 kinematic parameters from the starting signal to 5 m, and an instrumented starting block was used to assess kinetic data. A Lasso regression was used to reduce the number of parameters, providing the main determinants to starting performance, revealing different combinations of key determinants, depending on the variant (r² ≥ 0...
June 24, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Dominique Hansen, Kenneth Verboven, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Antoine Zorenc, Lennert Minten, Kevin Smeets, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C Van Loon
AIMS: Exercise combined with adipose tissue lipolytic inhibition augments intramuscular lipid and glycogen use in type 2 diabetes patients. The present study investigates the impact of adipose tissue lipolytic inhibition during exercise on subsequent postprandial glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Fourteen male type 2 diabetes patients (age 65 ± 2 years, HbA1c 6.7 ± 0.1% (50 ± 2 mmol/mol)) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study in which subjects performed endurance-type exercise after being administered 250 mg of a nicotinic acid analogue (acipimox; ACP) or a placebo (PLA)...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Chris Pocock, Neil E Bezodis, Keith Davids, Jamie S North
Place kicks in Rugby Union present valuable opportunities to score points outside the spatiotemporal dynamics of open play but are executed under varying performance constraints. We analysed effects of specific task constraints and relevant contextual factors on place kick performance in the 2015 Rugby Union World Cup. Data were collected from television broadcasts for each place kick. In addition to kick outcomes, contextual factors, including time of the kick in the match, score margin at the time of the kick, and outcome of the kicker's previous kick, were recorded...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Andrew David Govus, Erik Petrus Andersson, Oliver Michael Shannon, Holly Provis, Mathilda Karlsson, Kerry McGawley
This study investigated whether commercially available compression garments (COMP) exerting a moderate level of pressure and/or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) accelerate recovery following a cross-country sprint skiing competition compared with a control group (CON) consisting of active recovery only. Twenty-one senior (12 males, 9 females) and 11 junior (6 males, 5 females) Swedish national team skiers performed an outdoor sprint skiing competition involving four sprints lasting ∼3-4 min. Before the competition, skiers were matched by sex and skiing level (senior versus junior) and randomly assigned to COMP (n = 11), NMES (n = 11) or CON (n = 10)...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Nick Dobbin, Samantha Louise Moss, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
This study examined how starting each shuttle in the prone position altered the internal, external and perceptual responses to the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Using a randomized crossover design, 17 male rugby players completed the Yo-Yo IR1 and prone Yo-Yo IR1 on two separate occasions. External loads (via microtechnology), [Formula: see text], heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at 160, 280 and 440 m (sub-maximal) and when the test was terminated (peak)...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Nicolas Babault, Maxime Poisson, Guiseppe Cimadoro, Carole Cometti, Christos Païzis
Nowadays, fixed gear competitions on outdoor circuits such as criteriums are regularly organized worldwide. To date, no study has investigated this alternative form of cycling. The purpose of the present study was to examine fixed gear performance indexes and to characterize physiological determinants of fixed gear cyclists. This study was carried out in two parts. Part 1 (n = 36) examined correlations between performance indexes obtained during a real fixed gear criterium (time trial, fastest laps, averaged lap time during races, fatigue indexes) and during a sprint track time trial...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
L M Lobigs, P Peeling, B Dawson, Y O Schumacher
It is well described that numerous environmental factors, including exercise, modulate plasma volume (PV). These modulations prove problematic when a number of haematological markers are measured as a concentration in blood plasma. A primary example is haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), a marker of erythropoiesis commonly used within medicine and also used to detect blood doping. Natural changes in PV can confound [Hb] values when a volume change is detected rather than a true change in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) (e...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Maria Stella Valle, Luciano Lombardo, Matteo Cioni, Antonino Casabona
Learning precision ball throwing was mostly studied to explore the early rapid improvement of accuracy, with poor attention on possible adaptive processes occurring later when the rate of improvement is reduced. Here, we tried to demonstrate that the strategy to select angle, speed and height at ball release can be managed during the learning periods following the performance stabilization. To this aim, we used a multivariate linear model with angle, speed and height as predictors of changes in accuracy. Participants performed underarm throws of a tennis ball to hit a target on the floor, 3...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Luigi Gabrielli, Marta Sitges, Mario Chiong, Jorge Jalil, María Ocaranza, Silvana Llevaneras, Sebastian Herrera, Rodrigo Fernandez, Rodrigo Saavedra, Fernando Yañez, Luis Vergara, Alexis Diaz, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo Castro
Moderate endurance exercise has long been considered an essential element to maintain cardiovascular health, and sedentary behaviour in the general population has been related to a significant increase in all-causes of mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence. However, a growing group of people performs an intense exercise that leads to multiple heart adaptive changes that are collectively called "athlete's heart". In this review, we discussed the evidence of cardiac remodelling process secondary to repetitive and strenuous exercise in some predisposed athletes that produces intense and probably deleterious changes in cardiac morphology and function with no clear clinical significance in long-term follow-up...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
M Moinat, O Fabius, K S Emanuel
So far, the relationship between wind and athletics performance has been studied mainly for 100 m sprint, based on simulation of biomechanical models, requiring several assumptions. In this study, this relationship is quantified empirically for all five horizontal jump and sprint events where wind is measured, with freely available competition results. After systematic scraping several elite and sub-elite results sites, the obtained results (n = 150,169) were filtered and matched to athletes. A quadratic mixed effects model with athlete and season as random effects was applied to express the influence of wind velocity on performance in each event...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Amanda D Hagstrom, Kathleen A Shorter
Physiological or performance tests are routinely utilised to assess athletes' recovery. At present, the ideal tool to assess recovery remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the change in creatine kinase (CK) and neuromuscular function as measured via a countermovement jump (CMJ) following a match in the contact codes of football. A comprehensive search of databases was undertaken with RevMan (V 5.3) used for statistical analysis. Our results demonstrated that CK pre- versus post-match (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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