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African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003850/poverty-as-a-barrier-to-antiretroviral-therapy-access-for-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kenya
#1
Markus Haacker, Charles Birungi
Understanding barriers to access to essential health services is critical for devising effective strategies to improve access and align such strategies with national health and development policy objectives. However, while considerable empirical evidence exists on correlates of HIV prevalence and populations at risk of contracting HIV, there is very little such evidence on access to antiretroviral therapy. This paper addresses this gap through a cross-sectional analysis of coverage of antiretroviral therapy and its correlates across 47 counties in Kenya...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003849/provider-understandings-of-and-attitudes-towards-integration-implementing-an-hiv-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-service-integration-model-south-africa
#2
Cecilia Milford, Letitia Rambally Greener, Mags Beksinska, Ross Greener, Zonke Mabude, Jenni Smit
In South Africa, a lack of integration between sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV services has led to lost opportunities in the treatment cascade. In a context of high HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and unplanned pregnancies, a model for integrating SRH and HIV services was implemented in a hospital and six feeder clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Changes in healthcare provider knowledge, attitudes and understandings were explored following model implementation. Baseline data were collected via focus group discussions (FGDs) and a cross-sectional survey, and were used to inform the development of a model for integrating SRH and HIV services...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003848/physical-activity-social-support-and-socio-economic-status-amongst-persons-living-with-hiv-and-aids-a-review
#3
Smart Z Mabweazara, Clemens Ley, Lloyd L Leach
Physical activity can be used for the effective and comprehensive management of HIV and AIDS. Social support and socio-economic status (SES) are two factors that shape physical activity behaviours. Individuals of low SES carry a disproportionate burden of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, limited resources constitute socio-ecological barriers predisposing such individuals to physical inactivity. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the available literature on physical activity, social support and SES and to generate recommendations for designing and implementing physical activity interventions targeting people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) of low SES...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003847/a-critical-participatory-pedagogical-approach-to-enabling-life-orientation-students-to-develop-social-literacy-through-hiv-education
#4
Anthony Brown, Lesley Wood
HIV education is an important component of the life orientation curriculum, since an intersectional understanding of HIV provides an entry point to appreciate the interrelatedness of various social injustices. Yet, our interaction with predominantly white and privileged pre-service life orientation students led us to believe that they did not perceive HIV education as something that was relevant to their personal or professional lives. Their rigid, stigmatising belief systems and "othering" attitudes prevented them from embodying the inclusive and life-enhancing values that life orientation is supposed to develop...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003846/-bringing-back-hope-how-faith-based-responses-to-hiv-and-aids-differ-from-secular-responses
#5
Deborah Simpson
This article investigates an assertion by faith-based organisations (FBO) that spirituality is the defining feature of their HIV and AIDS interventions. It is based on interviews with 24 people working on the issue of HIV and AIDS in churches or church organisations in Johannesburg, Rustenburg, Pretoria, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Cape Town. The article critically assesses the perceived difference between faith-based responses to HIV and AIDS and secular responses, including government programmes, in relation to the research literature on spirituality...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003845/promoting-mental-health-of-students-living-with-hiv-using-appreciative-inquiry
#6
Teolene Diedricks, Christoffel Myburgh, Marie Poggenpoel
Living with HIV poses many challenges. This is especially true for students living with HIV (SLHIV) within a university setting. The challenges faced by SLHIV makes it difficult for them to see new possibilities in living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to describe the experiences of being a student living with HIV and being a practitioner caring for them by using Appreciative Inquiry which incorporated individual interviews. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was applied in this study...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003844/barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-for-hiv-positive-children-aged-2-18-months-in-swaziland
#7
Pauline Jolly, Luz A Padilla, Charisse Ahmed, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Megha Jha, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah P Hope, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
Although early antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV-related mortality in children by up to 75%, almost half of HIV-positive children younger than 1 year old in Swaziland do not initiate ART. This study was conducted to identify barriers to early ART initiation among HIV-positive infants. This was a case-control study among HIV-positive infants, aged 2 to 18 months, who either did not initiate ART (cases), or initiated ART (controls), during 18 months after testing. Multivariable logistic regression showed that infants who visited the clinic every month, or every 2 months, were 5...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745291/programmatic-mapping-to-determine-the-size-and-dynamics-of-sex-work-and-injecting-drug-use-in-mauritius
#8
Amita Pathack, Ahmed Saumtally, Sarah Soobhany, Carly A Comins, Said A H Kinoo, Faran Emmanuel
HIV in Mauritius is in a concentrated phase. Most HIV infection is among key populations (KPs) including female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender sex workers (TGSW). The objective of this research was to use geographical mapping to determine the precise locations, typologies and population estimates of each KP in Mauritius. From May to July 2014 a programmatic mapping approach determined national estimates and information on the specific locations, "hotspots", frequented by KPs in Mauritius...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745290/healthcare-providers-understanding-of-hiv-serodiscordance-in-south-africa-and-uganda-implications-for-hiv-prevention-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Ross Greener, Cecilia Milford, Francis Bajunirwe, Faith N Mosery, Claudia K Ng, Rachel Rifkin, Jasmine Kastner, Lavanya Pillay, Angela Kaida, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Lynn T Matthews
HIV transmission within stable heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples accounts for almost half the new incident infections in South Africa and Uganda. Advances in HIV prevention provide opportunities to reduce transmission risk within serodiscordant partnerships (e.g., antiretroviral treatment (ART), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), medical male circumcision, and couples-based HIV counselling and testing). These interventions require a clinical encounter with a provider who recognises prevention opportunities within these partnerships...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745288/late-entry-to-hiv-and-aids-care-and-treatment-juba-teaching-hospital-juba-south-sudan-2013-2016
#10
Muki Johnson, Benjamin L Lemi, Hillary L Tonny, Adelina D David, Waqo Boru, James Ransom
Late diagnosis of HIV and enrolment to care are global public health challenges. This study aimed to characterise late HIV diagnoses and initiation of treatment among patients at Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan. We conducted a retrospective review of lab-confirmed HIV patients at JTH, 2013-2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were entered into and descriptive statistics were calculated using Microsoft Excel. We identified 401 patients, with mean age 33.71±4.54 years, 235 (59%) were female, 307 (77%) were late entry, 64 (16%) were lost to follow-up, and 57 (14%) died within 12 months of diagnosis...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690829/psychosocial-characteristics-of-primary-care-seeking-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-kenya-and-associations-with-hiv-testing
#11
Matthew L Romo, Gavin George, Joanne E Mantell, Eva Mwai, Eston Nyaga, Jacob O Odhiambo, Kaymarlin Govender, Elizabeth A Kelvin
The 90-90-90 strategy from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020 includes, as its first goal, to have 90% of all people living with HIV to know their status. Achieving this goal will depend on effectively reaching high risk populations, which include mobile populations such as truck drivers. This study aimed to characterise a sample of 305 truck drivers recruited from 2 roadside wellness clinics in Kenya in terms of anticipated HIV stigma, self-efficacy, fatalism, gender equity, sensation seeking, and self-esteem, and then determine the association of these psychosocial characteristics with HIV testing behaviour...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669456/perceived-hiv-related-stigma-among-university-students-in-south-africa-implications-for-hiv-testing
#12
Firoza Haffejee, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Thulasizwe Buthelezi, Ayesha B M Kharsany
HIV-related stigma, and particularly perceived stigma, has a negative impact across the HIV care continuum. This study adds to our understanding of stigma by assessing how perceived stigma varies from one context to another and how such differences are associated with the location where individuals would prefer an HIV test. We used self-administered questionnaire data (n = 378) obtained from a convenience sample of students (18 years and older) attending a tertiary education institution in Durban, South Africa...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514590/effects-of-exposure-to-an-intensive-hiv-prevention-programme-on-behavioural-changes-among-female-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#13
Ravi Prakash, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Andrea Blanchard, Helgar Musyoki, John Anthony, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gakii, Martin Sirengo, Nicholas Muraguri, Elizabeth Mziray, Lombe Kasonde, James Blanchard, Shajy Isac, Stephen Moses
While Kenya has had a long-standing national HIV-prevention programme, evidence on the level of exposure to its interventions and related effects on behavioural changes among female sex workers (FSWs) is limited. Using cross-sectional behavioural data collected in 2013 from 1 357 FSWs aged 18 years and above in Nairobi, Kenya, this study explores the relationship between FSW programme exposure levels and behavioural outcomes including condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-treatment, and empowerment measures like disclosure of self-identity and violence reporting...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504507/community-perceptions-of-the-socio-economic-structural-context-influencing-hiv-and-tb-risk-prevention-and-treatment-in-a-high-prevalence-area-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Nothando Ngwenya, Dumile Gumede, Maryam Shahmanesh, Nuala McGrath, Alison Grant, Janet Seeley
Following calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions in so-called "hotspots", we explored subjective perceptions of community members in places considered to be high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission areas and those with low prevalence. Although more people now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), some areas are still experiencing high HIV transmission rates, presenting a barrier to the elimination of HIV. A rapid qualitative assessment approach was used to access a sample of 230 people who contributed narratives of their experiences and perceptions of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV and TB in their communities...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504506/the-role-of-children-in-their-hiv-positive-parents-management-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-uganda
#15
Ruth Nalugya, Steven Russell, Flavia Zalwango, Janet Seeley
Adjustment to life on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and living with HIV as a long-term chronic condition, pose significant medical, social and economic challenges. We investigated children's role in supporting HIV-positive parents to self-manage life on ART. Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 38 HIV-positive parents who had been on ART for over a year. They were randomly selected from people accessing ART from three delivery sites in Wakiso district, Uganda...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504505/estimating-risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-among-women-in-mozambique-using-population-based-survey-data
#16
Sara S Dias, Francisco Mbofana, Sheyla R Cassy, Sónia Dias, Gonçalo F Augusto, Victor Agadjanian, Maria R O Martins
The use of population-based survey data together with sound statistical methods can enhance better estimation of HIV risk factors and explain variations across subgroups of the population. The distribution and determinants of HIV infection in populations must be taken into consideration. We analysed data from the HIV Prevalence and Behaviour Survey in Mozambique aiming to find risk factors associated with HIV infection among Mozambican women. The paper provides a complex survey logistic regression model to explain the variation in HIV seropositivity using demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504504/the-role-of-community-health-workers-in-supporting-south-africa-s-hiv-aids-treatment-programme
#17
Shauna Mottiar, Tom Lodge
Community health workers deployed around South Africa's primary health care clinics, supply indispensable support for the world's largest HIV/AIDS treatment programme. Interviews with these workers illuminated the contribution they make to anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of HIV/AIDS patients and the motivations that sustain their engagement. Their testimony highlights points of stress in the programme and supplies insights into the quality of its implementation. Finally, the paper addresses issues about the sustainability of a programme that depends on a group of workers who are not yet fully incorporated into the public sector...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504503/managing-hiv-positive-sero-status-in-ghana-s-most-hiv-concentrated-district-self-perceived-explanations-and-theoretical-discourse
#18
Adobea Y Owusu, Amos Laar
As of December 2015 there were 37 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), 70% of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana, which contributes a relatively small number to Africa's HIV burden, has a generalised HIV epidemic. The current national prevalence is 1.47%. Agormanya, one of the HIV sentinel sites in the county and where this study was conducted, has current prevalence of 11.6%. This makes it critical to explore how persons infected with HIV manage their lives, especially in the midst of entrenched stigma and discrimination...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504502/teenage-pregnancies-in-mozambique-the-experience-of-servicios-amigos-dos-adolescentes-clinics-in-beira
#19
Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Chiara Boscardin, Giovanni Putoto, Elena Cuppini, Graciana Pita, Alexandra George, Laura Monno, Annalisa Saracino, Liviana Da Dalt, Angela De Palma
The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the demand for pregnancy-related health services by adolescent girls and young women in Mozambique. We analysed the patient registers for the first year of operation (2014) of the Servicios Amigos dos Adolescentes (SAAJ) [Friendly Services for Adolescents] clinics in Beira, Mozambique. These registers provide details of the service demands of, and services provided to the 8 290 adolescent girls and young women who accessed the 6 SAAJ clinics in 2014. Analysis of that record, with disaggregation of the patients according to age (9 years or less; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25 and older), show that 3 021 (36%) were pregnant or had previously been pregnant; most being girls in the 15-19 age band (59%)...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504501/structural-barriers-to-south-african-volunteer-home-based-caregivers-providing-quality-care-the-need-for-a-policy-for-caregivers-not-affiliated-to-primary-healthcare-clinics
#20
David Morton, Thoko Mayekiso, Peter Cunningham
Community home-based care (CHBC) is a critical component of non-formal care in communities in Africa that have a high prevalence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). Community carers consisting primarily of volunteers are critical role players in African healthcare systems and particularly in South Africa's strategy to fight HIV and AIDS. This paper explores the structural barriers volunteer caregivers need to overcome to provide quality CHBC. The researchers used two focus group discussions with key informants (each with four participants), and semi-structured interviews with six key informants to collect data relating to the meaning of quality CHBC...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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