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African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR

Allison K Groves, Denise D Hallfors, Bonita J Iritani, Stuart Rennie, Fredrick S Odongo, Daniel Kwaro, Nyaguara Amek, Winnie K Luseno
Despite a pressing need for adolescent HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa, ethical guidance for conducting research among minor adolescents is lacking. One ethical issue is the degree to which parents should be involved in the research process. The existing discourse is predominantly speculative and focuses on negative consequences of parental involvement. We use empirical data to describe the perspectives of Kenyan adolescents on parental involvement in consent and disclosure of HIV test results within a research study context...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Minilik Demissie, Lisa G Johnston, Mekonnen Muleta, Dires Desyebelew, Wudinesh Belete, Atsbeha G/Egxiabehre, Nigussie Gezahegn, Desta Kassa, Yibeltal Aseffa
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by HIV/AIDS. However, the country lacks data describing the extent of the epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Thus, a bio-behavioural study was conducted in 2015 to generate strategic information on the magnitude of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and related risk behaviours among PWID in Addis Ababa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling was conducted among people reported to have injected illicit drugs within 6 months before the study...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Edith A Ogalo, Japheth O Adina, Hesbon Ooko, James Batuka, Sylvester Kimaiyo
The objective of the study was to establish the mother-baby pair characteristics that contribute to vertical transmission of HIV and elucidate on remediation. We assessed for factors increasing the odds of HIV transmission in children born to HIV-infected mothers in western Kenya. We used a retrospective study which reviewed routinely collected data of 1 028 mother-baby pairs enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in western Kenya from January to December 2015. We compared the transmission rates amongst mothers known to have a positive HIV status before conception (known positives/KPs) versus the transmission amongst those who were newly diagnosed during maternal and child health (MCH) clinic attendance (new positives/NPs)...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Megan S McHenry, Edith Apondi, Carole I McAteer, Winstone M Nyandiko, Lydia J Fischer, Ananda R Ombitsa, Josephine Aluoch, Michael L Scanlon, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: Overwhelmed, under-trained medical staff working in resource-limited settings need efficient resources for HIV disclosure counselling. The objective of this study was to describe providers' experiences using tablet computers for disclosure-related counselling with HIV-infected children and their caregivers in western Kenya, with additional perspectives from adolescents. METHODS: A qualitative study design was implemented at three HIV clinics in western Kenya (Bumala, Busia and Port Victoria) within the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) partnership...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Anastasia Yenban Bongajum, Divine Mbiydzenyuy Dufe, Paul Théodore Biyaga Tjek, Daniel Ter Goon, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Julius Mbekem Nwobegahay, Robinson Mbu
BACKGROUND: Evidence from previous research has shown that antiretroviral (ARV) drug initiation to seropositive pregnant women could significantly contribute to eliminating new paediatric infections even when started during labour and delivery. This study therefore seeks to assess missed opportunities for ARV initiation during this critical period of pregnancy to improve outcomes of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes in Cameroon. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on the 2014 PMTCT data for labour and delivery among pregnant women of unknown HIV status within health facilities in six regions of Cameroon (428 eligible facilities)...
October 14, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Rachel Kawuma, Janet Seeley, Zivai Mupambireyi, Frances Cowan, Sarah Bernays
We examined the logic that individuals use to account for delaying HIV testing and/or initiating HIV treatment. Our qualitative study, situated within the REALITY trial (Reduction of EArly mortaLITY in HIV infected adults and children starting antiretroviral therapy), was conducted in Uganda and Zimbabwe in 2015. Forty-eight participants (different age groups, sex and viral load/WHO disease stage) were included. Each participant had 2 interviews (1 after 4 weeks of participation in the trial the other after 12 weeks)...
August 22, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Markus Haacker, Charles Birungi
Understanding barriers to access to essential health services is critical for devising effective strategies to improve access and align such strategies with national health and development policy objectives. However, while considerable empirical evidence exists on correlates of HIV prevalence and populations at risk of contracting HIV, there is very little such evidence on access to antiretroviral therapy. This paper addresses this gap through a cross-sectional analysis of coverage of antiretroviral therapy and its correlates across 47 counties in Kenya...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Cecilia Milford, Letitia Rambally Greener, Mags Beksinska, Ross Greener, Zonke Mabude, Jenni Smit
In South Africa, a lack of integration between sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV services has led to lost opportunities in the treatment cascade. In a context of high HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and unplanned pregnancies, a model for integrating SRH and HIV services was implemented in a hospital and six feeder clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Changes in healthcare provider knowledge, attitudes and understandings were explored following model implementation. Baseline data were collected via focus group discussions (FGDs) and a cross-sectional survey, and were used to inform the development of a model for integrating SRH and HIV services...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Smart Z Mabweazara, Clemens Ley, Lloyd L Leach
Physical activity can be used for the effective and comprehensive management of HIV and AIDS. Social support and socio-economic status (SES) are two factors that shape physical activity behaviours. Individuals of low SES carry a disproportionate burden of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, limited resources constitute socio-ecological barriers predisposing such individuals to physical inactivity. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the available literature on physical activity, social support and SES and to generate recommendations for designing and implementing physical activity interventions targeting people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) of low SES...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Anthony Brown, Lesley Wood
HIV education is an important component of the life orientation curriculum, since an intersectional understanding of HIV provides an entry point to appreciate the interrelatedness of various social injustices. Yet, our interaction with predominantly white and privileged pre-service life orientation students led us to believe that they did not perceive HIV education as something that was relevant to their personal or professional lives. Their rigid, stigmatising belief systems and "othering" attitudes prevented them from embodying the inclusive and life-enhancing values that life orientation is supposed to develop...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Deborah Simpson
This article investigates an assertion by faith-based organisations (FBO) that spirituality is the defining feature of their HIV and AIDS interventions. It is based on interviews with 24 people working on the issue of HIV and AIDS in churches or church organisations in Johannesburg, Rustenburg, Pretoria, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Cape Town. The article critically assesses the perceived difference between faith-based responses to HIV and AIDS and secular responses, including government programmes, in relation to the research literature on spirituality...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Teolene Diedricks, Christoffel Myburgh, Marie Poggenpoel
Living with HIV poses many challenges. This is especially true for students living with HIV (SLHIV) within a university setting. The challenges faced by SLHIV makes it difficult for them to see new possibilities in living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to describe the experiences of being a student living with HIV and being a practitioner caring for them by using Appreciative Inquiry which incorporated individual interviews. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was applied in this study...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Pauline Jolly, Luz A Padilla, Charisse Ahmed, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Megha Jha, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah P Hope, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
Although early antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV-related mortality in children by up to 75%, almost half of HIV-positive children younger than 1 year old in Swaziland do not initiate ART. This study was conducted to identify barriers to early ART initiation among HIV-positive infants. This was a case-control study among HIV-positive infants, aged 2 to 18 months, who either did not initiate ART (cases), or initiated ART (controls), during 18 months after testing. Multivariable logistic regression showed that infants who visited the clinic every month, or every 2 months, were 5...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Amita Pathack, Ahmed Saumtally, Sarah Soobhany, Carly A Comins, Said A H Kinoo, Faran Emmanuel
HIV in Mauritius is in a concentrated phase. Most HIV infection is among key populations (KPs) including female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender sex workers (TGSW). The objective of this research was to use geographical mapping to determine the precise locations, typologies and population estimates of each KP in Mauritius. From May to July 2014 a programmatic mapping approach determined national estimates and information on the specific locations, "hotspots", frequented by KPs in Mauritius...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Ross Greener, Cecilia Milford, Francis Bajunirwe, Faith N Mosery, Claudia K Ng, Rachel Rifkin, Jasmine Kastner, Lavanya Pillay, Angela Kaida, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Lynn T Matthews
HIV transmission within stable heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples accounts for almost half the new incident infections in South Africa and Uganda. Advances in HIV prevention provide opportunities to reduce transmission risk within serodiscordant partnerships (e.g., antiretroviral treatment (ART), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), medical male circumcision, and couples-based HIV counselling and testing). These interventions require a clinical encounter with a provider who recognises prevention opportunities within these partnerships...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Muki Johnson, Benjamin L Lemi, Hillary L Tonny, Adelina D David, Waqo Boru, James Ransom
Late diagnosis of HIV and enrolment to care are global public health challenges. This study aimed to characterise late HIV diagnoses and initiation of treatment among patients at Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan. We conducted a retrospective review of lab-confirmed HIV patients at JTH, 2013-2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were entered into and descriptive statistics were calculated using Microsoft Excel. We identified 401 patients, with mean age 33.71±4.54 years, 235 (59%) were female, 307 (77%) were late entry, 64 (16%) were lost to follow-up, and 57 (14%) died within 12 months of diagnosis...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Matthew L Romo, Gavin George, Joanne E Mantell, Eva Mwai, Eston Nyaga, Jacob O Odhiambo, Kaymarlin Govender, Elizabeth A Kelvin
The 90-90-90 strategy from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020 includes, as its first goal, to have 90% of all people living with HIV to know their status. Achieving this goal will depend on effectively reaching high risk populations, which include mobile populations such as truck drivers. This study aimed to characterise a sample of 305 truck drivers recruited from 2 roadside wellness clinics in Kenya in terms of anticipated HIV stigma, self-efficacy, fatalism, gender equity, sensation seeking, and self-esteem, and then determine the association of these psychosocial characteristics with HIV testing behaviour...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Firoza Haffejee, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Thulasizwe Buthelezi, Ayesha B M Kharsany
HIV-related stigma, and particularly perceived stigma, has a negative impact across the HIV care continuum. This study adds to our understanding of stigma by assessing how perceived stigma varies from one context to another and how such differences are associated with the location where individuals would prefer an HIV test. We used self-administered questionnaire data (n = 378) obtained from a convenience sample of students (18 years and older) attending a tertiary education institution in Durban, South Africa...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Ravi Prakash, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Andrea Blanchard, Helgar Musyoki, John Anthony, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gakii, Martin Sirengo, Nicholas Muraguri, Elizabeth Mziray, Lombe Kasonde, James Blanchard, Shajy Isac, Stephen Moses
While Kenya has had a long-standing national HIV-prevention programme, evidence on the level of exposure to its interventions and related effects on behavioural changes among female sex workers (FSWs) is limited. Using cross-sectional behavioural data collected in 2013 from 1 357 FSWs aged 18 years and above in Nairobi, Kenya, this study explores the relationship between FSW programme exposure levels and behavioural outcomes including condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-treatment, and empowerment measures like disclosure of self-identity and violence reporting...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Nothando Ngwenya, Dumile Gumede, Maryam Shahmanesh, Nuala McGrath, Alison Grant, Janet Seeley
Following calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions in so-called "hotspots", we explored subjective perceptions of community members in places considered to be high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission areas and those with low prevalence. Although more people now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), some areas are still experiencing high HIV transmission rates, presenting a barrier to the elimination of HIV. A rapid qualitative assessment approach was used to access a sample of 230 people who contributed narratives of their experiences and perceptions of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV and TB in their communities...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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