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African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714809/reticence-in-disclosure-of-hiv-infection-and-reasons-for-bereavement-impact-on-perinatally-infected-adolescents-mental-health-and-understanding-of-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#1
Nataly Woollett, Vivian Black, Lucie Cluver, Heena Brahmbhatt
Survival rates of perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents (PIA) are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a gap in understanding how disclosure and bereavement have an impact on PIA beliefs and understanding of their HIV infection and its management. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adolescents aged 13-19 years from 5 public health clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were analysed using NVivo 10 using a thematic approach. PIA experience incomplete disclosure both of their HIV status and reasons for their bereavements, which limits their understanding of how they became infected, vertical transmission and prevention options like prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)...
July 17, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714805/partnership-duration-concurrency-and-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Larry Sawers, Alan Isaac
A widely accepted explanation for the exceptionally high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is the practice of long-term overlapping heterosexual partnering. This article shows that long-duration concurrent partnering can be protective against HIV transmission rather than promoting it. Monogamous partnering prevents sexual transmission to anyone outside the partnership and, in an initially concordant-seronegative partnership, prevents sexual acquisition of HIV by either partner. Those protections against transmission and acquisition last as long as the partnership persists without new outside partnerships...
July 17, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712347/cultural-competence-a-framework-for-promoting-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-varemba-communities-in-zimbabwe
#3
Kemist Shumba, Musara Lubombo
Almost a decade after the formal introduction of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important technology for HIV prevention, its implementation is still fraught with acceptability challenges. This is especially true among ethnic groups where male circumcision is conducted as a rite of passage into adulthood. In this article we question why VMMC is being met with resistance despite widespread awareness of its promise to reduce HIV incidence in a culturally circumcising community in Zimbabwe. In-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with selected VaRemba initiation graduates and surgeons respectively in Mposi area in Mberengwa to explore why VMMC has not been readily accepted in their community...
July 17, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639512/the-relationship-between-nairobi-adolescents-media-use-and-their-sexual-beliefs-and-attitudes
#4
Ann Neville Miller, William Kinnally, Hellen Maleche, Nancy Achieng' Booker
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639500/a-review-of-interprovincial-variations-in-hiv-prevalence-rates-in-zimbabwe
#5
Elisa Sibanda, Prudence Khumalo
Despite the proven remarkable decline of HIV prevalence in the sub-Saharan Africa region, both sub-regional and within-country disparities in HIV prevalence persist. This paper is a survey of literature on HIV prevalence and spread in Zimbabwe, focusing on provincial differences within the national picture of a decline in new infections. In particular, it raises the question of why prevalence and infection rates seem to be disproportionately higher in Matabeleland relative to other provinces of the country...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639499/hiv-and-aids-related-stigma-and-discrimination-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#6
Befekadu S Wodajo, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Oluwaseyi A Akpor
The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639475/ecological-correlates-of-multiple-sexual-partnerships-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-urban-cape-town-a-cumulative-risk-factor-approach
#7
Evans Muchiri, Clifford Odimegwu, Pamela Banda, Lorreta Ntoimo, Sunday Adedini
Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639469/barriers-and-facilitators-of-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-rural-eastern-province-zambia-the-role-of-household-economic-status
#8
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583021/relationships-matter-contraceptive-choices-among-hiv-positive-women-in-tanzania
#9
Tabitha Alexandria Njeri Nyanja, Charlotte Tulinius
Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania...
June 6, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565973/the-dimensionality-of-disclosure-of-hiv-status-amongst-post-partum-women-in-cape-town-south-africa
#10
Jo Hunter-Adams, Allison Zerbe, Tamsin Philips, Zanele Rini, Landon Myer, Greg Petro, Elaine Abrams
Disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners and others has been presented as positive health behaviour and is widely encouraged by antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, providers and policies. However, disclosure is also highly contextual and its positive effects are not universal. We explore the dimensions of disclosure amongst post-partum women who initiated ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Forty-seven semi-structured interviews with post-partum women were conducted as part of the Maternal Child Health-Antiretroviral Therapy (MCH-ART) study...
May 31, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367751/love-grows-with-sex-teenagers-negotiating-sex-and-gender-in-the-context-of-hiv-and-the-implications-for-sex-education
#11
Deevia Bhana
How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power continue to feature prominently within relationship dynamics fuelling the gendering of HIV, attention to the micro-processes through which relationships are forged remain significant in illustrating the complex connections between love, sex and gender...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367750/sexual-and-reproductive-health-risk-behaviours-among-south-african-university-students-results-from-a-representative-campus-wide-survey
#12
Susie Hoffman, Michael Levasseur, Joanne E Mantell, Mags Beksinska, Zonke Mabude, Claudia Ngoloyi, Elizabeth A Kelvin, Theresa Exner, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Lavanya Pillay, Jennifer A Smit
Among South African university students, HIV prevalence is lower than in age-peers, but at 3.8% it is not negligible. We examined prevalence of factors potentially associated with HIV risk, focusing on partnership characteristics and consistent condom use. We hypothesised that contraceptive-related factors, for example, desire to prevent pregnancy and not using hormonal contraceptives, would be positively associated with consistent condom use. Data were drawn from a representative interviewer-administered survey of 2nd to 4th year students conducted during registration at a university campus in KwaZulu-Natal...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367749/improving-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-standards-adherence-and-post-procedure-follow-up-in-uganda-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Sarah Smith Lunsford, John Byabagambi, Zachariah Falconer-Stout, Esther Karamagi
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine facilities in Uganda. We also qualitatively explored why some men return for follow-up care and others do not. The completeness and quality of clinical documentation was poor at baseline, but significantly improved at endline...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367748/conceptions-of-agency-and-constraint-for-hiv-positive-patients-and-healthcare-workers-to-support-long-term-engagement-with-antiretroviral-therapy-care-in-khayelitsha-south-africa
#14
Erin Stern, Christopher Colvin, Nobom Gxabagxaba, Charlotte Schutz, Rosie Burton, Graeme Meintjes
In the context of the optimism around antiretroviral therapy (ART) as prevention of HIV/AIDS, addressing the barriers to long-term ART adherence is critical. This is particularly important given the tendency to individualise or use a blame discourse when exploring why HIV-infected patients "fail" to adequately adhere to ART, and not sufficiently exploring contextual reasons for poor adherence that may require varying solutions. This study took place at three clinics and one hospital in Khayelitsha, South Africa, to document the contextual factors that challenged ART adherence in this community...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367747/hiv-risk-and-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-rural-south-africa
#15
Kabelo Maleke, Nosipho Makhakhe, Remco Ph Peters, Geoffrey Jobson, Glenn De Swardt, Joseph Daniels, Timothy Lane, James A McIntyre, John Imrie, Helen Struthers
Rural South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are likely to be underserved in terms of access to relevant healthcare and HIV prevention services. While research in urban and peri-urban MSM populations has identified a range of factors affecting HIV risk in South African MSM, very little research is available that examines HIV risk and prevention in rural MSM populations. This exploratory study begins to address this lack by assessing perceptions of HIV risk among MSM in rural Limpopo province. Using thematic analysis of interview and discussion data, two overarching global themes that encapsulated participants' understandings of HIV risk and the HIV risk environment in their communities were developed...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367746/the-multidimensional-nature-of-hiv-stigma-evidence-from-mozambique
#16
Maria A Carrasco, Rosario Arias, Maria E Figueroa
HIV stigma continues to be a major challenge to addressing HIV/AIDS in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. This paper explores the multidimensional nature of HIV stigma through the thematic analysis of five qualitative studies conducted in high HIV prevalence provinces in Mozambique between 2009 and 2012. These studies included 23 interviews with people living with HIV (PLHIV) (10 women and 13 men); 6 focus groups with 32 peer educators (24 women and 8 men) working for community-based organisations (CBOs) providing services to PLHIV; 17 focus groups with community members (72 men and 70 women); 6 interviews (4 women and 2 men) with people who had family members living with HIV/AIDS; 24 focus groups (12 with men and 12 with women) and 6 interviews with couples...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367745/the-intersection-of-abandonment-hiv-positive-status-and-residential-care-for-a-group-of-perinatally-infected-adolescents
#17
REVIEW
Jeanette Schmid, Jenita Chiba
Although anti-retroviral treatments have significantly reduced the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and AIDS, there remains, for the foreseeable future, a group of adolescents who have been perinatally infected. Noting the paucity of information regarding the impact of paediatric AIDS and its intersection with residential care, this paper investigates the lived realities of 20 South African adolescents who were vertically infected with HIV and AIDS, were abandoned, and have been raised in residential care...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367744/the-role-of-civil-society-in-health-policy-making-in-south-africa-a-review-of-the-strategies-adopted-by-the-treatment-action-campaign
#18
Stella C Sabi, Mark Rieker
The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367743/prevalence-of-hiv-and-malaria-a-cross-sectional-study-on-bioko-island-equatorial-guinea
#19
Xiangbin Zheng, Min Lin, Dong-De Xie, Jian Li, Jiang-Tao Chen, Urbano Monsuy Eyi, Santiago-M Monte-Nguba, Juan Carlos Sala Ehapo, Hui Yang, Hui-Tian Yang, Li-Ye Yang
Malaria and HIV are two of the most severe public health problems in Africa. However, epidemiological data on Bioko Island is scarce. To investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV infections and assess association of malaria and HIV infections and possible confounding factors, we performed a cross-sectional survey of people of malaria-endemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. A cross-sectional study of 1 526 subjects was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV infection in Malabo region hospital on Bioko Island...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367742/-the-child-can-remember-your-voice-parent-child-communication-about-sexuality-in-the-south-african-context
#20
Esmeralda Vilanculos, Mzikazi Nduna
There is a wealth of research on parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and its influence on young people's sexual behaviours. However, most of it is from the global North. The aim of this study was to explore parent-child communication in three South African provinces: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga. Nine, peer, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with young and adult black African men and women in their spoken languages. Data were analysed thematically...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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