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Journal of Ginseng Research

Mehdy Ghaeminia, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Hwee-Ling Koh, Gavin S Dawe, Chay Hoon Tan
Background: Panax ginseng is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs worldwide for a variety of therapeutic properties including neurocognitive effects. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most abundant active chemical constituents of this herb with known neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and cognition improving effects. Methods: We investigated the effects of Rg1 on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key brain region involved in cognition, information processing, working memory, and decision making...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Judith Sharmila, Adithan Aravinthan, Dong Gue Shin, Jeong Hun Seo, Bumseok Kim, Nam Soo Kim, Chang-Won Kang, Jong-Hoon Kim
The fermentation of medicinal herbs facilitated by microbes is assumed to exert promising therapeutic efficacy on the absorption, bioavailability, and pharmacological effects by speeding up the making or conversion of active constituents into their metabolites. We examined the cardioprotective potential of fermented ginseng, GBCK25, against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic and functional illnesses as following the essential analysis such as electrocardiographic parameters, alterations of body and organ weights, and echocardiographic studies...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Se-Jin Kim, Seungmok Choi, Minsoo Kim, Changmin Park, Gyu-Lee Kim, Si-On Lee, Wonku Kang, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Background: Ginseng has been the subject of many experimental and clinical studies to uncover the diverse biological activities of its constituent compounds. It is a traditional medicine that has been used for its immunostimulatory, antithrombotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Ginseng may interact with concomitant medications and alter metabolism and/or drug transport, which may alter the known efficacy and safety of a drug; thus, the role of ginseng may be controversial when taken with other medications...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ki Hyun Kim, Dahae Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Chang-Eop Kim, Kiwon Jung, Ki Sung Kang
In recent years, several therapeutic drugs have been rationally designed and synthesized based on the novel knowledge gained from investigating the actions of biologically active chemicals derived from foods, plants, and medicinal herbs. One of the major advantages of these naturalistic chemicals is their ability to interact with multiple targets in the body resulting in a combined beneficial effect. Ginseng is a perennial herb (Araliaceae family), a species within the genus Panax , and a highly valued and popular medicinal plant...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jeong-Ook Lee, Eunji Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Yo Han Hong, Han Gyung Kim, Deok Jeong, Juewon Kim, Su Hwan Kim, Chanwoong Park, Dae Bang Seo, Young-Jin Son, Sang Yun Han, Jae Youl Cho
Background: The antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng have been reported in several articles; however, little is known about the antimelanogenesis effect, skin-protective effect, and cellular mechanism of Panax ginseng , especially of P. ginseng calyx. To understand how an ethanol extract of P. ginseng berry calyx (Pg-C-EE) exerts skin-protective effects, we studied its activities in activated melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced keratinocytes. Methods: To confirm the antimelanogenesis effect of Pg-C-EE, we analyzed melanin synthesis and secretion and messenger RNA and protein expression levels of related genes...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong Hee Choi, Minhee Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Seikwan Oh, Ik-Hyun Cho
Background: Ginsenosides are the main ingredients of Korean Red Ginseng. They have extensively been studied for their beneficial value in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the multitarget effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) with various components are unclear. Methods: We investigated the multitarget activities of KRGE on neurological dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Hyeongmin Kim, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jee Eun Kim, Young Su Kim, Choong Ho Ryu, Hong Joo Lee, Hye Min Kim, Hyojin Jeon, Hyo-Joong Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Jaehwi Lee
Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Evelyn Saba, Seung-Hyung Kim, Sung-Dae Kim, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Jun-Hwan Oh, Chae-Kyu Park, Man Hee Rhee
In this study, we precisely showed how the Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract (Rg3-RGE) lowers glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in LDL-/- mice. Aspartate aminotransferase/serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), alanine aminotransferase /serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and steatohepatitis were found to be reduced, and atheroma formation was inhibited by Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract.
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Qing-Xiu Liu, Wei Zhang, Jia Wang, Wei Hou, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Red ginseng is a popularly used traditional medicine with antiaging effects in Asian countries. The present study aimed to explore the changes in protein expression underlying the mechanisms of life span extension and antiaging caused by red ginseng extract (RGE) in Drosophila melanogaster . Methods: A proteomic approach of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify the differential abundance of possible target proteins of RGE in D...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Zhenzhong Yang, Jieqiang Zhu, Han Zhang, Xiaohui Fan
Background: Panax notoginseng is a highly valued medicine and functional food, whose quality is considered to be influenced by the size, botanical parts, and growth environments. Methods: In this study, a HPLC method integrating fingerprinting and determination of multiconstituents by single reference standard was established and adopted to investigate the chemical profiles and active constituent contents of 215 notoginseng samples with different sizes, from different botanical parts and geographical regions...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Zuly Elizabeth Jiménez-Pérez, Priyanka Singh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myoung Hee Lee, Deok Chun Yang
Background: Bioactive compounds in plant extracts are able to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. Panax ginseng is an oriental medicinal herb and an adaptogen which has been historically used to cure various diseases. In addition, the P. ginseng leaves-mediated gold nanoparticles are the value-added novel materials. Its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, moisture retention and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles ( Pg AuNPs) in cosmetic applications...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Sang-Jun Lee, Sumi Oh, Mi-Ja Kim, Gun-Sub Sim, Tae Wha Moon, JaeHwan Lee
Background: Explosive puffing can induce changes in the chemical, nutritional, and sensory quality of red ginseng. The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of red ginseng and puffed red ginseng were determined in bulk oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Methods: Bulk oils were heated at 60°C and 100°C and O/W emulsions were treated under riboflavin photosensitization. In vitro antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhudrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content, were also performed...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Zhipeng Li, Hee Jung Kim, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Background: Previous studies have shown that both ginseng root and ginseng berry exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. However, a direct comparison of the efficacy and mechanisms between the root and the berry after oral administration remains to be illuminated. Methods: In this study, we observed the effects of fermented ginseng root (FGR) and fermented ginseng berry (FGB) on obesity and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Results: FGR and FGB significantly inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro ...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Zhuo Sun, Limin Yang, Lianxue Zhang, Mei Han
Background: Ginseng black spot disease resulting from Alternaria panax Whuetz is a common soil-borne disease, with an annual incidence rate higher than 20-30%. In this study, the bacterial strains with good antagonistic effect against A. panax are screened. Methods: A total of 285 bacterial strains isolated from ginseng rhizosphere soils were screened using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the Oxford cup plate assay. We analyzed the antifungal spectrum of SZ-22 by confronting incubation...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Eui Joo Kim, Kwang An Kwon, Young Eun Lee, Ju Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Kim, Jung Ho Kim
Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing, with metastasis of newly diagnosed CRC reported in a large proportion of patients. However, the effect of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (KRGE) on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC is unknown. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms by which KRGE regulates EMT of CRC in hypoxic conditions. Methods: Human CRC cell lines HT29 and HCT116 were incubated under hypoxic (1% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xin-Fang Xu, Yan Gao, Shu-Ya Xu, Huan Liu, Xue Xue, Ying Zhang, Hui Zhang, Meng-Nan Liu, Hui Xiong, Rui-Chao Lin, Xiang-Ri Li
Background: Temperature is an essential condition in red ginseng processing. The pharmacological activities of red ginseng under different steam temperatures are significantly different. Methods: In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to distinguish the red ginseng products that were steamed at high and low temperatures. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were used to determine the influential components of the different samples...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ru-Feng Wang, Juan Li, Hai-Jun Hu, Jia Li, Ying-Bo Yang, Li Yang, Zheng-Tao Wang
Background: Notoginsenoside Ft1 is a promising potential candidate for cardiovascular and cancer disease therapy owing to its positive pharmacological activities. However, the yield of Ft1 is ultralow utilizing reported methods. Herein, an acid hydrolyzing strategy was implemented in the acquirement of rare notoginsenoside Ft1. Methods: Chemical profiles were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-ESI-MS)...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong-Hoon Kim
Panax ginseng , also called Asian or Korean ginseng, has long been traditionally used in Korea and China to treat various diseases. The major active ingredients of P. ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergic, antidiabetic, and anticancer. To date, approximately 40 ginsenoside components have been reported. Current research is concentrating on using a single ginseng compound, one of the ginsenosides, instead of the total ginseng compounds, to determine the mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Dong-Hyun Kim
Orally administered ginsengs come in contact with the gut microbiota, and their hydrophilic constituents, such as ginsenosides, are metabolized to hydrophobic compounds by gastric juice and gut microbiota: protopanxadiol-type ginsenosides are mainly transformed into compound K and ginsenoside Rh2; protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides to ginsenoside Rh1 and protopanaxatriol, and ocotillol-type ginsenosides to ocotillol. Although this metabolizing activity varies between individuals, the metabolism of ginsenosides to compound K by gut microbiota in individuals treated with ginseng is proportional to the area under the blood concentration curve for compound K in their blood samples...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Akash Ahuja, Ji Hye Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Su Yi, Jae Youl Cho
Ginseng is a natural product best known for its curative properties in diverse physiological processes such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, and maintenance of hemostasis in the immune system. In previous decades, there have been some promising studies into the pharmacology and chemistry of ginseng components and the relationship between their structure and function. The emerging use of modified ginseng and development of new compounds from ginseng for clinical studies have been topics of study for many researchers...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
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