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Journal of Ginseng Research

Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kwang-Soo Baek, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Sulgi Yoo, Nak Yoon Sung, Yong Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Although Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used for a long time, its anti-inflammatory role and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly understood. In this study, the anti-inflammatory roles of KRG-derived components, namely, water extract (KRG-WE), saponin fraction (KRG-SF), and nonsaponin fraction (KRG-NSF), were investigated. METHODS: To check saponin levels in the test fractions, KRG-WE, KRG-NSF, and KRG-SF were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jae Gwang Park, Young-Jin Son, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies of the anticancer activities of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) have been performed, the therapeutic effect of KRG on leukemia has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the antileukemia activities of KRG and its cellular and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: An established leukemia tumor model induced by xenografted T cell lymphoma (RMA cells) was used to test the therapeutic activity of KRG water extract (KRG-WE)...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Mira Jun, Soon-Gi Hong, Jong-Won Lee, Woo-Sik Jeong
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellular defensive genes such as phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes is a highly effective strategy for protection against carcinogenesis as well as slowing cancer development. Transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) is responsible for activation of phase II enzymes induced by natural chemopreventive compounds. METHODS: Red ginseng oil (RGO) was extracted using a supercritical CO2 extraction system and chemical profile of RGO was investigated by GC/MS...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Hua Yao, Xuwen Li, Ying Liu, Qian Wu, Yongri Jin
BACKGROUND: Rare ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolius L. have strong bioactivities. The fact that it is hard to obtain large amounts of rare ginsenosides seriously restricts further research on these compounds. An easy, fast, and efficient method to obtain different kinds of rare ginsenosides simultaneously and to quantify each one precisely is urgently needed. METHODS: Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was used to extract nine kinds of rare ginsenosides from P...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong Youn Kim, Dong Hwi Kim, Young Chang Kim, Kee Hong Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi
BACKGROUND: The low survival rate of in vitro regenerated Panax ginseng plantlets after transfer to soil is the main obstacle for their successful micropropagation and molecular breeding. In most cases, young plantlets converted from somatic embryos are transferred to soil. METHODS: In vitro thickened taproots, which were produced after prolonged culture of ginseng plantlets, were transferred to soil. RESULTS: Taproot thickening of plantlets occurred near hypocotyl and primary roots...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jianjun Yang, Donghong Yuan, Tongchao Xing, Hongli Su, Shengjun Zhang, Jiansheng Wen, Qiqiang Bai, Dongmei Dang
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is the main bioactive component in American ginseng, a commonly used herb, and its antitumor activity had been studied in previous studies. PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is highly expressed in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: We examined the effect of GRh2 on HCT116 cells ex vivo. Next, we performed in vitro binding assay and in vitro kinase assay to search for the target of GRh2...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong-Hak Kim, Min-Kyeoung Kim, Hongtao Wang, Hee-Nyeong Lee, Chi-Gyu Jin, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Deok-Chun Yang
BACKGROUND: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Among nine cultivars of P. ginseng, Chunpoong commands a much greater market value and has been planted widely in Korea. Chunpoong has superior quality "Chunsam" (1(st) grade ginseng) when made into red ginseng. METHODS: A rapid and reliable method for discriminating the Chunpoong cultivar was developed by exploiting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the auxin repressed protein gene of nine Korean ginseng cultivars using specific primers...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Hong-Ping Wang, You-Bo Zhang, Xiu-Wei Yang, Da-Qing Zhao, Ying-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides are the characteristic and principal components which manifest a variety of the biological and pharmacological activities of the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng (GRR). This study was carried out to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the ginsenosides in the cultivated and forest GRR. METHODS: A rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole/time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was applied to the qualitative analysis of ginsenosides and a 4000 QTRAP triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS) was applied to quantitative analysis of 19 ginsenosides...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Dal-Sik Kim, Yunjeong Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Min-Gul Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers. METHODS: This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Lei Cui, Song-Quan Wu, Cheng-Ai Zhao, Cheng-Ri Yin
BACKGROUND: In this study, we screened and identified an endophyte JG09 having strong biocatalytic activity for ginsenosides from Platycodon grandiflorum, converted ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers, determined the source of minor ginsenosides and the transformation pathways, and calculated the maximum production of minor ginsenosides for the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to assess the transformation activity of endophyte JG09. METHODS: The transformation of ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1 into minor ginsenosides F2, C-K and Rh1 using endophyte JG09 isolated by an organizational separation method and Esculin-R2A agar assay, as well as the identification of transformed products via TLC and HPLC, were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jung-Hae Shin, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Hyun-Jeong Cho, Man Hee Rhee, Hwa-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) is involved in platelet adhesion, and triggers a series of intracellular signaling cascades, leading to platelet shape change, granule secretion, and clot retraction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) on the binding of fibrinogen to αIIb/β3. METHODS: We investigated the effect of G-Ro on regulation of signaling molecules affecting the binding of fibrinogen to αIIb/β3, and its final reaction, clot retraction...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Weijie Chen, Junlian Wang, Yong Luo, Tao Wang, Xiaochun Li, Aiyun Li, Jia Li, Kang Liu, Baolin Liu
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and compound K (CK) ameliorated insulin resistance by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation in adipose tissue. METHODS: To induce ER stress, epididymal adipose tissue from mice or differentiated 3T3 adipocytes were exposed to high glucose. The effects of Rb1 and CK on reactive oxygen species production, ER stress, TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, insulin signaling activation, and glucose uptake were detected by western blot, emzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or fluorometry...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xin-Fang Xu, Xian-Long Cheng, Qing-Hua Lin, Sha-Sha Li, Zhe Jia, Ting Han, Rui-Chao Lin, Dan Wang, Feng Wei, Xiang-Ri Li
BACKGROUND: Mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and cultivated ginseng (CG) both belong to Panax ginseng and have similar ingredients. However, their pharmacological activities are different due to their significantly different growth environments. METHODS: An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based approach was developed to distinguish MCG and CG. Multivariate statistical methods, such as principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial-least-squares discrimination analysis were used to select the influential components...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ho Sung Lee, Young Joo Lee, Yoon Hee Chung, Moo Yeol Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Sung Kwon Ko, Mariko Momoi, Yutaka Kondoh, Fumio Sasaki, Ji Hoon Jeong
BACKGROUND: Progressed tissue culture techniques have allowed us to easily obtain mass products of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng over 100 yr old (TCMG-100). We investigated the effects of TCMG-100 extract on erectile function using in vitro and in vivo studies. METHODS: To examine the relaxation effects and mechanisms of action of TCMG-100 on rabbit cavernosal strips evaluated in an organ bath. To investigate the long-term treatment effect of TCMG-100, 8-wk administration was performed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Sung-Hee Hwang, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Kyung Jong Won, Hwan Myung Lee, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Ginseng extracts are known to have angiogenic effects. However, to date, only limited information is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the angiogenic effects and the main components of ginseng that exert these effects. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are used as an in vitro model for screening therapeutic agents that promote angiogenesis and wound healing. We recently isolated gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, from ginseng...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ting Xu, Xiangfeng Shen, Huali Yu, Lili Sun, Weihong Lin, Chunxiao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng root is used in traditional oriental medicine for human health. Its main active components such as saponins and polysaccharides have been widely evaluated for treating diseases, but secondary active components such as oligosaccharides have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the impact of water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (WGOS), which were isolated from the warm-water extract of Panax ginseng root, on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice and its antineuroinflammatory mechanisms...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jae Gwang Park, Wie-Soo Kang, Kyung Tae Park, Dong Jun Park, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Joboksansam, Korean bird wild ginseng, is an artificially cultivated wild ginseng germinated from bird feces. Although numerous pharmacologic activities of wild ginsengs have been reported, the beneficial effect of joboksansam in cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro anticancer activities of joboksansam powder. METHODS: To evaluate the in vivo anticancer activity of joboksansam, we established a xenograft mouse model bearing RMA cell-derived cancer...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
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