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History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756494/lexical-properties-trademarks-dictionaries-and-the-sense-of-the-generic
#1
Jose Bellido, Alain Pottage
The third edition of Webster's International Dictionary, first published in 1961, represented a novel approach to lexicography. It recorded the English language used in everyday life, incorporating colloquial terms that previous grammarians would have considered unfit for any responsible dictionary. Many were scandalized by the new lexicography. Trademark lawyers were not the most prominent of these critics, but the concerns they expressed are significant because they touched on the core structure of the trademark as a form of property in language...
May 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732917/introduction-to-history-of-science-special-issue-on-tong
#2
Volker Scheid, Curie Virág
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707977/ghosts-of-inventions-patent-law-s-digital-mediations
#3
Hyo Yoon Kang
This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699431/examining-inventions-shaping-property-the-savants-and-the-french-patent-system
#4
Jérôme Baudry
In 1791, the Loi relative aux découvertes utiles instituted a new patent system in France. Because patents were seen as the expression of the natural right of inventors, prior examination was abolished. However, only a few years after the law was passed, an unofficial examination was reinstated, and it was entrusted to the Comité Consultatif des Arts et Manufactures - a consultative body composed of prominent scientists. I analyze the political significance of the involvement of the savants in the patent system, and based on the archives of the Comité, I study the scope and practicalities of the examination process, paying close attention to the ways through which the savants of the Comité directly intervened in the writing and drawing of specifications...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683000/re-examining-the-early-history-of-the-leiden-jar-stabilization-and-variation-in-transforming-a-phenomenon-into-a-fact
#5
Cibelle Celestino Silva, Peter Heering
In this paper, we examine the period that immediately followed the invention of the Leiden jar. Historians of science have developed narrations that emphasize the role of grounding during the process of charging the jar. In this respect, this episode shows significant aspects that can be used to characterize science, scientific knowledge production, and the nature of science. From our own experimentation, we learned that grounding was not necessary in order to produce the effect. These experiences inspired us to go back to primary sources...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682996/the-latin-stranger-science-or-l-anthropologie-among-the-lusitanians
#6
Ricardo Roque
This essay traces the connected histories of Portuguese and French anthropology in the late nineteenth century. By looking at a Portuguese scientific institution, the Carlos Ribeiro Society, it considers how French race science, known as anthropologie, was adopted and adapted across the European Latin world as a type of "stranger-science." That is: as an authoritative outsider scientific formation, installed into national terrain in accordance with insider strategies for turning foreign elements into native forms of scientific sovereignty and modernity...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644879/the-executioner-s-shadow-coerced-sterilization-and-the-creation-of-latin-eugenics-in-chile
#7
Sarah Walsh
Scholars such as Nancy Leys Stepan, Alexandra Minna Stern, Marius Turda and Aaron Gillette have all argued that the rejection of coerced sterilization was a defining feature of "Latin" eugenic theory and practice. These studies highlight the influence of neo-Lamarckism in this development not only in Latin America but also in parts of Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. This article builds upon this historiographical framework to examine an often-neglected site of Latin American eugenic knowledge production: Chile...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241363/science-state-and-spirituality-stories-of-four-creationists-in-south-korea
#8
Hyung Wook Park, Kyuhoon Cho
This paper presents an analysis of the birth and growth of scientific creationism in South Korea by focusing on the lives of four major contributors. After creationism arrived in Korea in 1980 through the global campaign of leading American creationists, including Henry Morris and Duane Gish, it steadily grew in the country, reflecting its historical and social conditions, and especially its developmental state with its structured mode of managing science and appropriating religion. We argue that while South Korea's creationism started with the state-centered conservative Christianity under the government that also vigilantly managed scientists, it subsequently constituted some technical experts' efforts to move away from the state and its religion and science through their negotiation of a new identity as Christian intellectuals ( chisigin)...
March 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130353/for-the-greater-credibility-jesuit-science-and-education-in-modern-portugal-1858-1910
#9
Francisco Malta Romeiras
Upon the restoration of the Society of Jesus in Portugal in 1858, the Jesuits founded two important colleges that made significant efforts in the promotion of hands-on experimental teaching of the natural sciences. At the Colégio de Campolide (Lisbon, 1858-1910) and the Colégio de São Fiel (Louriçal do Campo, 1863-1910) the Jesuits created modern chemistry and physics laboratories, organized significant botanical, zoological and geological collections, promoted scientific expeditions with their students to observe eclipses and to collect novel species of animals and plants, and engaged in original research work in physics, botany, and zoology...
March 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980481/-no-former-travellers-having-attained-such-a-height-on-the-earth-s-surface-instruments-inscriptions-and-bodies-in-the-himalaya-1800-1830
#10
Lachlan Fleetwood
East India Company surveyors began gaining access to the high Himalaya in the 1810s, at a time when the mountains were taking on increasing political significance as the northern borderlands of British India. Though never as idiosyncratic as surveyors insisted, these were spaces in which instruments, fieldbook inscriptions, and bodies were all highly prone to failure. The ways surveyors managed these failures (both rhetorically and in practice) demonstrate the social performances required to establish credible knowledge in a world in which the senses were scrambled...
March 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791892/voluntarist-theology-and-early-modern-science-the-matter-of-the-divine-power-absolute-and-ordained
#11
Francis Oakley
This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley...
March 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284301/john-smeaton-and-the-vis-viva-controversy-measuring-waterwheel-efficiency-and-the-influence-of-industry-on-practical-mechanics-in-britain-1759-1808
#12
Andrew M A Morris
In this paper, I will examine John Smeaton's contribution to the vis viva controversy in Britain, focusing on how the hybridization of science, technology, and industry helped to establish vis viva, or mechanic power, as a measure of motive force. Smeaton, embodying the 'hybrid expert' who combined theoretical knowledge and practical knowhow, demonstrated that the notion of vis viva possessed a greater explanatory power than momentum, because it could be used to explain the difference in efficiency between overshot and undershot waterwheels...
December 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219000/techniques-for-nothingness-debate-over-the-comparability-of-hypnosis-and-zen-in-early-twentieth-century-japan
#13
Yu-Chuan Wu
This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields...
December 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901181/disassembling-archeology-reassembling-the-modern-world
#14
William Carruthers, Stéphane Van Damme
This article provides a substantive discussion of the relevance of the history of archeology to the history of science. At the same time, the article introduces the papers contained in this special issue as exemplars of this relevance. To make its case, the article moves through various themes in the history of archeology that overlap with key issues in the history of science. The article discusses the role and tension of regimes of science in antiquarian and archeological practices, and also considers issues of scale and place, particularly in relation to the field...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901180/connecting-sites-and-images-archeology-as-controversial-knowledge-in-modern-%C3%A4-zmir
#15
Melania Savino
In Turkey, the period after the establishment of the Republic saw archeological representations play an active role in defining the ancient past and producing new disciplinary knowledge. Visual practices emerged as important sites for the formation of a new conception of the ancient past in the larger context of the political and cultural discourse over the modernization of the country. Based on museum guidebooks, official publications, and archival documents, this paper focuses on the İzmir region after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923 and explores how the ancient past was perceived and displayed in relation to the historical and cultural transformations that occurred in Turkey after the Greco-Turkish War...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901179/visualizing-a-monumental-past-archeology-nasser-s-egypt-and-the-early-cold-war
#16
William Carruthers
This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901178/hitting-two-birds-with-one-stone-an-afterword-on-archeology-and-the-history-of-science
#17
Mirjam Brusius
This afterword comments on the articles gathered together in this special section of History of Science ("Disassembling Archaeology, Reassembling the Modern World"). Criticizing the consistent lack of institutional infrastructure for histories of archaeology in the history of science, the piece argues that scholars should recognize the commonality of archaeology's practices with those of the nineteenth and twentieth century field sciences that have received more historical attention. The piece also suggests avenues to help take this approach further, such as combining expertise from historians of the biological sciences and of antiquarianism and archaeology to look at the history of the understanding of human variation and race...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758503/defending-metropolitan-identity-through-colonial-politics-the-role-of-portuguese-naturalists-1870-91
#18
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation...
July 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681627/the-publication-of-newton-s-opera-omnia-in-geneva-and-lausanne-1739-1761-a-chapter-in-the-reception-of-newtonianism
#19
Niccolò Guicciardini
During the eighteenth century, several towns located in what is known today as the Suisse romande were extremely receptive toward scientific culture, and most notably Newtonianism. In this paper I deal with a nine-volume publication of Newton's Opera Omnia that was planned in Geneva and Lausanne during the late 1730s and 1740s. This publication has not received the attention it deserves. To the best of my knowledge, even an awareness of its existence is lacking in the literature devoted to the reception of Newtonianism...
July 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691535/promoting-free-flow-in-the-networks-reimagining-the-body-in-early-modern-suzhou
#20
Volker Scheid
The history of Chinese medicine is still widely imagined in terms dictated by the discourse of modernity, that is as 'traditional' and 'Chinese.' And yet, so as to be intelligible to us moderns, it must simultaneously be framed through categories that make it comparable somehow to the 'West' and the 'modern' from which it is said to be essentially different. This is accomplished, for instance, by viewing Chinese medicine as fundamentally shaped by cosmological thinking, as focusing on process rather than matter, and as forever hampered by attachments to the past even when it tries to innovate...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
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