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History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326726/making-things-new-invention-privileges-and-the-configuration-of-priority
#1
Marius Buning
It was because of the early modern system of invention privileges that questions concerning inventorship became a recurrent subject matter of legal dispute. This essay focuses mainly on the details of one such dispute, namely the 1597 case litigated in the Dutch Republic between Jacob Floris van Langren (ca. 1525-1610) and Jodocus Hondius Sr. (1563-1611). The essay assesses how the law shaped, challenged, and constrained claims to innovation, pushing the argument that it was because of the privilege system that the borders between imitation and novelty became ever more clearly defined...
October 16, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309265/laboratory-of-domesticity-gender-race-and-science-at-the-bermuda-biological-station-for-research-1903-30
#2
Jenna Tonn
During the early twentieth century, the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) functioned as a multipurpose scientific site. Jointly founded by New York University, Harvard University, and the Bermuda Natural History Society, the BBSR created opportunities for a mostly US-based set of practitioners to study animal biology in the field. I argue that mixed gender field stations like the BBSR supported professional advancement in science, while also operating as important places for women and men to experiment with the social and cultural work of identity formation, courtship and marriage, and social critique...
October 11, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295092/science-and-terminology-in-between-empires-ukrainian-science-in-a-search-for-its-language-in-the-nineteenth-century
#3
Jan Surman
Ukrainian science and its terminology in the nineteenth century experienced a number of twists and turns. Divided between two empires, it lacked institutions, scholars pursuing it, and a unified literary language. One could even say that until the late nineteenth century there was a possibility for two communities with two literary languages to emerge - Ruthenian (Habsburg Empire) and Ukrainian (Russian Empire). Eventually, both communities and languages merged. This article tracks the meanderings of this process, arguing that scholarly publications played a crucial role in shaping the standard for the scientific language...
October 8, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270676/learning-anatomy-in-late-sixteenth-century-padua
#4
Michael Stolberg
Based on the newly discovered, extensive manuscript notes of a virtually unknown German medical student by the name of Johann Konrad Zinn, who studied in Padua from 1593 to 1595, this paper offers a detailed account of what medical students could expect to learn about anatomy in late sixteenth-century Padua. It highlights the large number and wide range of anatomical demonstrations, most of which were private anatomies for a small circle of students and do not figure in Acta of the German Nation, the principal source historians have so far relied upon...
September 30, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270663/ancient-egypt-and-the-geological-antiquity-of-man-1847-1863
#5
Meira Gold
The 1850s through early 60s was a transformative period for nascent studies of the remote human past in Britain, across many disciplines. Naturalists and scholars with Egyptological knowledge fashioned themselves as authorities to contend with this divisive topic. In a characteristic case of long-distance fieldwork, British geologist Leonard Horner employed Turkish-born, English-educated, Cairo-based engineer Joseph Hekekyan to measure Nile silt deposits around pharaonic monuments in Egypt to address the chronological gap between the earliest historical and latest geological time...
September 30, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270660/the-sphere-and-the-dome-the-calouste-gulbenkian-planetarium-in-lisbon-and-the-imperial-myth-of-the-estado-novo
#6
Pedro M P Raposo
Inaugurated in 1965, the Calouste Gulbenkian Planetarium (CGP) was the first institution of its kind in Portugal. The CGP was established in the context of the relocation of the Maritime Museum of Lisbon (Museu de Marinha) to Belém, an area of the Portuguese capital highly symbolic of Portuguese maritime and imperial history. The dictatorial regime known as Estado Novo used Belém as a ground for major events that affirmed the legitimacy of Portugal's overseas empire by celebrating the maritime deeds of erstwhile sovereigns and navigators, in a mythical narrative of a glorious imperial destiny...
September 30, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173566/the-history-of-science-and-the-history-of-bureaucratic-knowledge-saxon-mining-circa-1770
#7
Sebastian Felten
This article looks into mining in central Germany in the late eighteenth century as one area of highly charged exchange between (specific manifestations of early modern) science and the (early modern) state. It describes bureaucratic knowledge as socially distributed cognition by following the steps of a high-ranking official that led him to discover a rich silver ore deposit. Although this involved hybridization of practical/artisanal and theoretical/scientific knowledge, and knowers, the focus of this article is on purification or boundary work that took place when actors in and around the mines consciously contributed to different circuits of knowledge production...
September 3, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936869/eurasianism-versus-indogermanism-linguistics-and-mythology-in-the-1930s-controversies-over-european-prehistory
#8
Stefanos Geroulanos, Jamie Phillips
In 1935, the Russian linguist Prince Nicolai S. Trubetskoi and the French mythologist Georges Dumézil engaged in a vicious debate over a seemingly obscure subject: the structure of Northwest Caucasian languages. Based on unknown archival material in French, German, and Russian, this essay uses the debate as a pathway into the 1930s scientific and political stakes of IndoEuropeanism - the belief that European cultures emerged through the spread of a single IndoEuropean people out of a single "motherland...
September 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909654/placing-plants-on-paper-lists-herbaria-and-tables-as-experiments-with-territorial-inventory-at-the-mid-seventeenth-century-gotha-court
#9
Alix Cooper
Over the past several decades, historians of science have come increasingly to focus on the role of so-called "paper technologies," reorganizing and transforming information through the use of paper and pen, in the emergence of modern science. Taking as a case study an effort by administrators in the seventeenth-century German princely state of Saxe-Gotha to enlist foresters and herb-women to catalog the medicinal plants of the territory, this article analyzes the varied forms of paperwork produced in the process, including an extremely unusual table, and argues that the table represented an effort to produce a synoptic visualization, akin to but not identical to a map, of the location of the territory's herbs...
September 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909642/riotous-assemblage-and-the-materials-of-regulation
#10
Jenny Bulstrode
In the stores of the British Museum are three exquisite springs, made in the late 1820s and 1830s, to regulate the most precise timepieces in the world. Barely the thickness of a hair, they are exquisite because they are made entirely of glass. Combining new documentary evidence, funded by the Antiquarian Horological Society, with the first technical analysis of the springs, undertaken in collaboration with the British Museum, the research presented here uncovers their extraordinary significance to the global extension of nineteenth century capitalism through the repeal of the Corn Laws...
September 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683000/re-examining-the-early-history-of-the-leiden-jar-stabilization-and-variation-in-transforming-a-phenomenon-into-a-fact
#11
Cibelle Celestino Silva, Peter Heering
In this paper, we examine the period that immediately followed the invention of the Leiden jar. Historians of science have developed narrations that emphasize the role of grounding during the process of charging the jar. In this respect, this episode shows significant aspects that can be used to characterize science, scientific knowledge production, and the nature of science. From our own experimentation, we learned that grounding was not necessary in order to produce the effect. These experiences inspired us to go back to primary sources...
September 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058376/when-life-gives-you-lemons-frank-meyer-authority-and-credit-in-early-twentieth-century-plant-hunting
#12
Xan Sarah Chacko
In the early twentieth century, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funded international expeditions with the aim of finding plant specimens for introduction into the agricultural landscape and the new experimental projects in hybridization. One such agricultural explorer, noted for his eponymous lemon, was Frank Nicholas Meyer, an immigrant from the Netherlands whose expeditions in Asia have brought to the United States celebrated fruit and toxic weeds. Neither professional botanists nor farmers, plant hunters like Meyer worked by taking advantage of historical allegiances to academic programs, while leaning on the authority of their newer national institutions...
July 29, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987947/sensory-studies-or-when-physics-was-psychophysics-ernst-mach-and-physics-between-physiology-and-psychology-1860-71
#13
Richard Staley
This paper highlights the significance of sensory studies and psychophysical investigations of the relations between psychic and physical phenomena for our understanding of the development of the physics discipline, by examining aspects of research on sense perception, physiology, esthetics, and psychology in the work of Gustav Theodor Fechner, Hermann von Helmholtz, Wilhelm Wundt, and Ernst Mach between 1860 and 1871. It complements previous approaches oriented around research on vision, Fechner's psychophysics, or the founding of experimental psychology, by charting Mach's engagement with psychophysical experiments in particular...
July 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909655/intangible-machines-patent-protection-for-software-in-the-united-states
#14
Brad Sherman
Intellectual property law has been interacting with software for over sixty years. Despite this, the law in this area remains confused and uncertain: this is particularly evident in patent law. Focusing on U.S. patent law from the 1960s through to the mid-1970s, this article argues that a key reason for this confusion relates to the particular way that the subject matter was construed. While the early discussions about subject matter eligibility were framed in terms of the question "is software patentable?", what was really at stake in these debates was the preliminary ontological question: what is software? Building on work that highlights the competing ways that software was construed by different parts of the information technology industry at the time, the article looks at the particular way that the law responded to these competing interpretations and how in so doing it laid the foundation for the confusion that characterizes the area...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900759/circulation-and-flow-immanent-metaphors-in-the-financial-debates-of-northern-song-china-960-1127-ce
#15
Christian de Pee
The Song Empire (960-1279 CE) had a larger population, a higher agricultural output, a more efficient infrastructure, and a more extensive monetary system than any previous empire in Chinese history. As local jurisdictions during the eleventh century became entangled in empire-wide economic relations and trans-regional commercial litigation, imperial officials sought to reduce the bewildering movement of people, goods, and money to an immanent cosmic pattern. They reasoned that because money and commerce brought to imperial subjects the goods they required to survive, money and commerce must be beneficent, and because they were beneficent, they must conform to the immanent pattern of the moral cosmos, as did everything else that was enduringly sustaining of life and wellbeing...
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882432/seeking-the-museum-of-the-future-public-exhibitions-of-science-industry-and-the-social-1910-1940
#16
Loïc Charles, Yann Giraud
Using as case studies the initiatives developed by two museum curators, the Belgian bibliographer Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and the Austrian social scientist Otto Neurath (1882-1945), and their subsequent collaboration with an extended network of scientists, philanthropists, artists, and social activists, this article provides a portrait of the general movement toward the creation of a new form of museum: the "museum of the future," as Neurath labeled it. This museum would be able to enlighten the people by showing the nature of modern industrial civilization...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882430/-science-in-action-the-politics-of-hands-on-display-at-the-new-york-museum-of-science-and-industry
#17
Jaume Sastre-Juan
This article analyzes the changing politics of hands-on display at the New York Museum of Science and Industry by following its urban deambulation within Midtown Manhattan, which went hand in hand with sharp shifts in promoters, narrative, and exhibition techniques. The museum was inaugurated in 1927 as the Museum of the Peaceful Arts on the 7th and 8th floors of the Scientific American Building. It changed its name in 1930 to the New York Museum of Science and Industry while on the 4th floor of the Daily News Building, and it was close to being renamed the Science Center when it finally moved in 1936 to the ground floor of the Rockefeller Center...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732917/introduction-to-history-of-science-special-section-on-tong
#18
Volker Scheid, Curie Virág
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284301/john-smeaton-and-the-vis-viva-controversy-measuring-waterwheel-efficiency-and-the-influence-of-industry-on-practical-mechanics-in-britain-1759-1808
#19
Andrew M A Morris
In this paper, I will examine John Smeaton's contribution to the vis viva controversy in Britain, focusing on how the hybridization of science, technology, and industry helped to establish vis viva, or mechanic power, as a measure of motive force. Smeaton, embodying the 'hybrid expert' who combined theoretical knowledge and practical knowhow, demonstrated that the notion of vis viva possessed a greater explanatory power than momentum, because it could be used to explain the difference in efficiency between overshot and undershot waterwheels...
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758503/defending-metropolitan-identity-through-colonial-politics-the-role-of-portuguese-naturalists-1870-91
#20
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation...
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
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