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History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791892/voluntarist-theology-and-early-modern-science-the-matter-of-the-divine-power-absolute-and-ordained
#1
Francis Oakley
This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley...
August 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758503/defending-metropolitan-identity-through-colonial-politics-the-role-of-portuguese-naturalists-1870-91
#2
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation...
July 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681627/the-publication-of-newton-s-opera-omnia-in-geneva-and-lausanne-1739-1761-a-chapter-in-the-reception-of-newtonianism
#3
Niccolò Guicciardini
During the eighteenth century, several towns located in what is known today as the Suisse romande were extremely receptive toward scientific culture, and most notably Newtonianism. In this paper I deal with a nine-volume publication of Newton's Opera Omnia that was planned in Geneva and Lausanne during the late 1730s and 1740s. This publication has not received the attention it deserves. To the best of my knowledge, even an awareness of its existence is lacking in the literature devoted to the reception of Newtonianism...
July 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691535/promoting-free-flow-in-the-networks-reimagining-the-body-in-early-modern-suzhou
#4
Volker Scheid
The history of Chinese medicine is still widely imagined in terms dictated by the discourse of modernity, that is as 'traditional' and 'Chinese.' And yet, so as to be intelligible to us moderns, it must simultaneously be framed through categories that make it comparable somehow to the 'West' and the 'modern' from which it is said to be essentially different. This is accomplished, for instance, by viewing Chinese medicine as fundamentally shaped by cosmological thinking, as focusing on process rather than matter, and as forever hampered by attachments to the past even when it tries to innovate...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675937/d-176-sextants-numbers-and-the-hydrographic-office-of-the-admiralty
#5
Megan Barford
In the 1830s and 1840s, the Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty developed and oversaw one of the major state-run surveying projects of the nineteenth century. This involved a range of instruments whose circulation was increasingly regulated. Using extant museum collections and the correspondence of those involved, this article explores how such objects can be used to discuss both bureaucratic organization at a time of expanding government and the complex issues of sociability involved in hydrographic surveying...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670939/zaccaria-lilio-and-the-shape-of-the-earth-a-brief-response-to-allegro-s-flat-earth-science
#6
C Philipp E Nothaft
This is a response to James J. Allegro's article "The Bottom of the Universe: Flat Earth Science in the Age of Encounter," published in Volume 55, Number 1, of this journal. Against the solid consensus of modern scholars, Allegro contends that the decades around 1500 saw a resurgence of popular and learned doubts about the existence of a southern hemisphere and the concept of a spherical earth more generally. It can be shown that a substantial part of Allegro's argument rests on an erroneous reading of his main textual witness, Zaccaria Lilio's Contra Antipodes (1496), and on a failure adequately to place this source in the context of the cosmographical debate of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627249/astrology-in-court-the-spanish-inquisition-authority-and-expertise
#7
Tayra M C Lanuza-Navarro
Astrology, its legitimacy, and the limits of its acceptable practice were debated in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. Many of the related arguments were mediated by the work of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and the responses to it. Acknowledging the complexities of the relationship between astrological ideas and Christian teachings, this paper focuses on the Catholic debates by specifically considering the decisions about astrology taken by the Spanish Inquisition. The trials of astrologers are examined with the aim of understanding the role of experts in astrology in early modern Spain...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627248/methodological-challenges-involved-in-compiling-the-nahua-pharmacopeia
#8
Paula De Vos
Recent work in the history of science has questioned the Eurocentric nature of the field and sought to include a more global approach that would serve to displace center-periphery models in favor of approaches that take seriously local knowledge production. Historians of Iberian colonial science have taken up this approach, which involves reliance on indigenous knowledge traditions of the Americas. These traditions present a number of challenges to modern researchers, including availability and reliability of source material, issues of translation and identification, and lack of systematization...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673189/and-yet-we-were-modern-the-paradoxes-of-iberian-science-after-the-grand-narratives
#9
Juan Pimentel, José Pardo-Tomás
In this article, we try to explain the origin of a disagreement; the sort that often arises when the subject is the history of early modern Spanish science. In the decades between 1970 and 1990, while some historians were trying to include Spain in the grand narrative of the rise of modern science, the very historical category of the Scientific Revolution was beginning to be dismantled. It could be said that Spaniards were boarding the flagship of modern science right before it sank. To understand this décalage it would be helpful to recall the role of the history of science during the years after the Franco dictatorship and Spain's transition to democracy...
June 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673188/being-beyond-the-black-legend-and-how-we-got-over-it
#10
John Slater, Maríaluz López-Terrada
We used to think it was the job of a historian of Spanish science to combat the negative evaluations of Hispanic cultures that came to be known as the Black Legend. Paradoxically, attempts to amend dominant narratives of the history of science (such as the Scientific Revolution) so that they might accommodate Spain bolstered the very stories we meant to dismantle. Caring about the Black Legend deformed the history we were trying to write and never convinced the people we hoped to sway. In this article, we provide an overview of the historiographic tendencies that most shaped our careers - responses to the Black Legend, such as contributionist history and bibliometrics - and explain why we have chosen to move on...
June 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673187/iberian-science-reflections-and-studies
#11
María M Portuondo
Over the last two decades early modern historical studies of science, medicine, and technology in the Iberian world have developed into a broad-ranging field with contributions from scholars coming from different historiographical traditions and building upon the solid scholarship of earlier generations. This special issue is an opportunity to explore the field, its recent trends, acknowledge new perspectives that have contributed to the field's growth, and gauge future directions for the field. The six articles offer both reflections on the field's historiography and serve as examples of work currently under way...
June 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673186/too-much-to-tell-narrative-styles-of-the-first-descriptions-of-the-natural-world-of-the-indies
#12
Henrique Leitão, Antonio Sánchez
Describing a Mundus Novus was a very singular task in the sixteenth century. It was an effort shaped by a permanent inherent tension between novelty and normality, between the immense variety of new facts (some extraordinary) and the demand of credibility. How did these inner strains affect the narrative style of the first descriptions of the natural world of 'the Indies'? How were the first European observers of the nature of America able to simultaneously transmit the idea of immensity and regularity ( mundus), and that of novelty ( novus)? How did they attempt to describe new worlds knowing that there was a lot - perhaps too much - to tell? This paper focuses not on the much-discussed epistemological issues related to those questions, but on their narrative and stylistic consequences...
June 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497705/circulating-biomedical-images-bodies-and-chromosomes-in-the-post-eugenic-era
#13
María Jesús Santesmases
This essay presents the early days of human cytogenetics, from the late 1950s until the mid 1970s, as a historical series of images. I propose a chronology moving from photographs of bodies to chromosome sets, to be joined by ultrasound images, which provided a return to bodies, by then focused on the unborn. Images carried ontological significance and, as I will argue, are principal characters in the history of human cytogenetics. Inspired by the historiography of heredity and genetics, studies on visual cultures, the conceptualization of circulation, and the sociology of pregnancy, I suggest that cytogenetics, through its focus on pregnancy, pregnant women, and their offspring, found strategic living materials that stabilized human chromosome studies as a biomedical, post-eugenics practice...
May 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486822/reframing-knowledge-in-colonization-plebeians-and-municipalities-in-the-environmental-expertise-of-the-spanish-atlantic
#14
Vera S Candiani
Promoting a better understanding of the phenomenon of colonization and its connection with environmental knowledge and technology, this article proposes a reframing of research agendas to take into account the municipal character of colonization in the Hispanic realm and to ask new questions. Questions should address what human-ecosystem relations, and the ways of knowing and techniques for transforming the physical realm, can tell us about colonization itself; who the historical agents involved were, and what these actors knew, learned, and did in their environments...
May 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397550/the-pillar-of-metropolitan-greatness-the-long-making-of-archeological-objects-in-paris-1711-2001
#15
Stéphane Van Damme
Over three centuries after the 1711 discovery in the choir of Notre-Dame in Paris of a square-section stone bas-relief (the Pillar of the Boatmen) with depictions of several deities, both Gaulish and Roman, the blocks comprising it were analyzed as a symbol of Parisian power, if not autonomy, vis-à-vis the Roman Empire. Variously considered as local, national, or imperial representations, the blocks were a constant object of admiration, interrogation, and speculation among antiquarians of the Republic of Letters...
April 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111981/-clean-out-of-the-map-knowing-and-doubting-space-at-india-s-high-imperial-frontiers
#16
Thomas Simpson
During the second half of the nineteenth century, land frontiers became areas of unique significance for surveyors in colonial India. These regions were understood to provide the most stringent tests for the men, instruments, and techniques that collectively constituted spatial data and representations. In many instances, however, the severity of the challenges that India's frontiers afforded stretched practices in the field and in the survey office beyond breaking point. Far from producing supposedly unequivocal maps, many involved in frontier surveying acknowledged that their work was problematic, partial, and prone to contrary readings...
March 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090782/emil-fischer-and-the-art-of-chemical-experimentation
#17
Catherine M Jackson
What did nineteenth-century chemists know? This essay uses Emil Fischer's classic study of the sugars in 1880s and 90s Germany to argue that chemists' knowledge was not primarily vested in the theories of valence, structure, and stereochemistry that have been the subject of so much historical and philosophical analysis of chemistry in this period. Nor can chemistry be reduced to a merely manipulative exercise requiring little or no intellectual input. Examining what chemists themselves termed the "art of chemical experimentation" reveals chemical practice as inseparable from its cognitive component, and it explains how chemists integrated theory with experiment through reason...
March 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025901/the-bottom-of-the-universe-flat-earth-science-in-the-age-of-encounter
#18
James J Allegro
This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth...
March 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025894/imagining-uses-for-things-teaching-useful-knowledge-in-the-early-eighteenth-century
#19
Kelly J Whitmer
There has been an explosion of interest in "innovation-oriented knowledge" and utility in early modern knowledge economies. Despite this, a healthy skepticism surrounding the category of "useful knowledge" persists, at least in part because of its association with intentional concealment. Helpful in many ways, this skepticism has fostered a tendency to overlook a variety of efforts to teach "useful knowledge" in the period: efforts that were anchored in engagement with the real and involved the cultivation of an ability to direct the powers of the imagination...
March 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145782/shouldering-the-past-photography-archaeology-and-collective-effort-at-the-tomb-of-tutankhamun
#20
Christina Riggs
Photographing archaeological labor was routine on Egyptian and other Middle Eastern sites during the colonial period and interwar years. Yet why and how such photographs were taken is rarely discussed in literature concerned with the history of archaeology, which tends to take photography as given if it considers it at all. This paper uses photographs from the first two seasons of work at the tomb of Tutankhamun (1922-4) to show that photography contributed to discursive strategies that positioned archaeology as a scientific practice - both in the public presentation of well-known sites and in the self-presentation of archaeologists to themselves and each other...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
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