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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231634/from-endogenous-to-exogenous-pattern-formation-invasive-plant-species-changes-the-spatial-distribution-of-a-native-ant
#1
Kevin Li, Yifan He, Susanna K Campbell, A Shawn Colborn, Eliot L Jackson, Austin Martin, Ivan V Monagan, Theresa Wei Ying Ong, Ivette Perfecto
Invasive species are a significant threat to global biodiversity, but our understanding of how invasive species impact native communities across space and time remains limited. Based on observations in an old field in Southeast Michigan spanning 35 years, our study documents significant impacts of habitat change, likely driven by the invasion of the shrub, Elaeagnus umbellata, on the nest distribution patterns and population demographics of a native ant species, Formica obscuripes. Landcover change in aerial photos indicates that E...
February 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231421/varying-demographic-impacts-of-different-fisheries-on-three-mediterranean-seabird-species
#2
M Genovart, D Doak, J M Igual, S Sponza, J Kralj, D Oro
Fisheries have an enormous economic importance but reconciling their socio-economic features with the conservation and sustainability of marine ecosystems presents major challenges. Bycatch mortality from fisheries is clearly among the most serious global threats for marine ecosystems, affecting a wide range of top predators. Recent estimates report ca. 200,000 seabirds killed annually by bycatch in European waters. However there is an urgent need to rigorously estimate actual mortality rates and quantify effects of bycatch on populations...
February 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222248/long-term-effects-of-climate-change-on-carbon-storage-and-tree-species-composition-in-a-dry-deciduous-forest
#3
István Fekete, Kate Lajtha, Zsolt Kotroczó, Gábor Várbíró, Csaba Varga, János Attila Tóth, Ibolya Demeter, Gábor Veperdi, Imre Berki
Forest vegetation and soils have been suggested as potentially important sinks for carbon (C) with appropriate management, and thus are implicated as effective tools in stabilizing climate even with increasing anthropogenic release of CO2 . Drought, however, which is often predicted to increase in models of future climate change, may limit NPP of dry forests types, with unknown effects on soil C storage. We studied C dynamics of a deciduous temperate forest of Hungary that has been subject to significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature in recent decades...
February 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217892/animal-pee-in-the-sea-consumer-mediated-nutrient-dynamics-in-the-world-s-changing-oceans
#4
REVIEW
Jacob E Allgeier, Deron E Burkepile, Craig A Layman
Humans have drastically altered the abundance of animals in marine ecosystems via exploitation. Reduced abundance can destabilize food webs, leading to cascading indirect effects that dramatically reorganize community structure and shift ecosystem function. However, the additional implications of these top-down changes for biogeochemical cycles via consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics (CND) are often overlooked in marine systems, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we review research that underscores the importance of this bottom-up control at local, regional, and global scales in coastal marine ecosystems, and the potential implications of anthropogenic change to fundamentally alter these processes...
February 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#5
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212460/do-low-oxygen-environments-facilitate-marine-invasions-relative-tolerance-of-native-and-invasive-species-to-low-oxygen-conditions
#6
Marcelo E Lagos, Diego R Barneche, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall
Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211249/improving-the-interpretability-of-climate-landscape-metrics-an-ecological-risk-analysis-of-japan-s-marine-protected-areas
#7
Jorge García Molinos, Shintaro Takao, Naoki H Kumagai, Elvira S Poloczanska, Michael T Burrows, Masahiko Fujii, Hiroya Yamano
Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211151/phenotypic-distribution-models-corroborate-species-distribution-models-a-shift-in-the-role-and-prevalence-of-a-dominant-prairie-grass-in-response-to-climate-change
#8
Adam B Smith, Jacob Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Sara G Baer, Loretta C Johnson
Phenotypic variation within species can vary widely across environmental gradients but forecasts of species' responses to environmental change often assume species respond homogenously across their ranges. We compared predictions from species and phenotype distribution models under future climate scenarios for Andropogon gerardii, a widely distributed, dominant grass found throughout the central United States. Phenotype data on aboveground biomass, height, leaf width, and chlorophyll content were obtained from 33 populations spanning a ~1000-km gradient that encompassed the majority of the species' environmental range...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211141/potential-relocation-of-climatic-environments-suggests-high-rates-of-climate-displacement-within-the-north-american-protection-network
#9
Enric Batllori, Marc-André Parisien, Sean A Parks, Max A Moritz, Carol Miller
Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, USA, México - NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100)...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208238/effects-of-extreme-drought-on-specific-leaf-area-of-grassland-species-a-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies-in-temperate-and-sub-mediterranean-systems
#10
C Wellstein, P Poschlod, A Gohlke, S Chelli, G Campetella, S Rosbakh, R Canullo, J Kreyling, A Jentsch, C Beierkuhnlein
Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of experimental drought manipulation studies using rain-out shelters in five sites of natural grassland ecosystems of Europe. The single studies assess the effects of extreme drought on the intraspecific variation of the specific leaf area (SLA), a proxy of plant growth. We evaluate and compare the effect size of the SLA response for the functional groups of forbs and grasses in temperate and sub-Mediterranean systems. We hypothesized that the functional groups of grasses and forbs from temperate grassland systems have different strategies in short-term drought response, measured as adjustment of SLA, with SLA-reduction in grasses and SLA-maintenance in forbs...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208235/warmer-night-time-temperature-promotes-microbial-heterotrophic-activity-and-modifies-stream-sediment-community
#11
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Maria Casellas, Stoyana Pecheva, Anna M Romaní
Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208232/non-linear-co2-flux-response-to-seven-years-of-experimentally-induced-permafrost-thaw
#12
Marguerite Mauritz, Rosvel Bracho, Gerardo Celis, Jack Hutchings, Susan M Natali, Elaine Pegoraro, Verity G Salmon, Christina Schädel, Elizabeth E Webb, Edward A G Schuur
Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from seven years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE)...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192638/nitrate-decline-unlikely-to-have-triggered-release-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-phosphate-to-streams
#13
Karsten Kalbitz, Klaus Kaiser, William H McDowell
Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the last two or three decades (Monteith et al., 2007; Garmo et al., 2014). The increase has been attributed to increased DOC export from terrestrial ecosystems in response to decreasing acidic atmospheric deposition, increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations, and altered hydrology (summarized by Finstad et al., 2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192628/evaluation-of-climate-related-carbon-turnover-processes-in-global-vegetation-models-for-boreal-and-temperate-forests
#14
Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Philippe Ciais, Andrew D Friend, Akihiko Ito, Axel Kleidon, Mark R Lomas, Shaun Quegan, Tim T Rademacher, Sibyll Schaphoff, Markus Tum, Andy Wiltshire, Nuno Carvalhais
Turnover concepts in state-of-the-art global vegetation models (GVMs) account for various processes, but are often highly simplified and may not include an adequate representation of the dominant processes that shape vegetation carbon turnover rates in real forest ecosystems at a large spatial scale. Here we evaluate vegetation carbon turnover processes in GVMs participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT) using estimates of vegetation carbon turnover rate (k) derived from a combination of remote sensing based products of biomass and net primary production (NPP)...
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192618/intra-annual-plasticity-of-growth-mediates-drought-resilience-over-multiple-years-in-tropical-seedling-communities
#15
Michael J O'Brien, Robert Ong, Glen Reynolds
Precipitation patterns are changing across the globe causing more severe and frequent drought for many forest ecosystems. Although research has focused on the resistance of tree populations and communities to these novel precipitation regimes, resilience of forests is also contingent on recovery following drought, which remains poorly understood, especially in aseasonal tropical forests. We used rainfall exclusion shelters to manipulate the inter-annual frequency of drought for diverse seedling communities in a tropical forest and assessed resistance, recovery and resilience of seedling growth and mortality relative to everwet conditions...
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186382/vulnerability-of-european-freshwater-catchments-to-climate-change
#16
Danijela Markovic, Savrina F Carrizo, Oskar Kärcher, Ariane Walz, Jonathan N W David
Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study is to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are: 1) exposure to climate change; 2) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions; and 3) resilience potential...
February 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185374/estimating-the-ability-of-plants-to-plastically-track-temperature-mediated-shifts-in-the-spring-phenological-optimum
#17
Christine J Tansey, Jarrod D Hadfield, Albert B Phillimore
One consequence of rising spring temperatures is that the optimum timing of key life-history events may advance. Where this is the case, a population's fate may depend on the degree to which it is able to track a change in the optimum timing either via plasticity or via adaptation. Estimating the effect that temperature change will have on optimum timing using standard approaches is logistically challenging, with the result that very few estimates of this important parameter exist. Here we adopt an alternative statistical method that substitutes space for time to estimate the temperature sensitivity of the optimum timing of 22 plant species based on >200 000 spatiotemporal phenological observations from across the United Kingdom...
February 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181733/contrasting-responses-of-leaf-stomatal-characteristics-to-climate-change-a-considerable-challenge-to-predict-carbon-and-water-cycles
#18
Weiming Yan, Yangquanwei Zhong, Zhouping Shangguan
Stomata control the cycling of water and carbon between plants and the atmosphere; however, no consistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the response of stomatal frequency to climate change. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 1854 globally obtained data series to determine the response of stomatal frequency to climate change, which including four plant life forms (over 900 species), at altitudes ranging from 0 to 4500 meters and over a time span of more than one hundred thousand years. Stomatal frequency decreased with increasing CO2 concentration and increased with elevated temperature and drought stress; it was also dependent on the species and experimental conditions...
February 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181724/freshwater-ecosystems-could-become-the-biggest-losers-of-the-paris-agreement
#19
Virgilio Hermoso
Securing access to energy for a growing population under the international commitment of reduction of greenhouse emissions requires increasing the contribution of renewable sources to the global share. Hydropower energy, which accounts for > 80% of green energy, is experiencing a boom fostered by international investment mainly in developing countries. This boom could be further accelerated by the recent climate agreement reached in Paris. Despite its flexibility, hydropower production entails social, economic and ecological risks that need to be carefully considered before investing in the development of potentially thousands of planned hydropower projects worldwide...
February 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181716/legacy-effects-and-memory-loss-how-contingencies-moderate-the-response-of-rocky-intertidal-biofilms-to-present-and-past-extreme-events
#20
Martina Dal Bello, Luca Rindi, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Understanding how historical processes modulate the response of ecosystems to perturbations is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the growing interest in projecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under future climate scenarios, how legacy effects originating from historical conditions drive change in ecosystems remains largely unexplored. Using experiments in combination with Stochastic Antecedent Modelling, we evaluated how extreme warming, sediment deposition and grazing events modulated the ecological memory of rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (EMPB)...
February 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
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