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Global Change Biology

Pablo García-Palacios, Cristina Escolar, Marina Dacal, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Beatriz Gozalo, Victoria Ochoa, Fernando T Maestre
A positive soil carbon (C)-climate feedback is embedded into the climatic models of the IPCC. However, recent global syntheses indicate that the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (RS ) in drylands, the largest biome on Earth, is actually lower in warmed than in control plots. Consequently, soil C losses with future warming are expected to be low compared with other biomes. Nevertheless, the empirical basis for these global extrapolations is still poor in drylands, due to the low number of field experiments testing the pathways behind the long-term responses of soil respiration (RS ) to warming...
July 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
René Dommain, Steve Frolking, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Fortunat Joos, John Couwenberg, Paul Glaser
The tropical peat swamp forests of Southeast Asia are being rapidly converted to agricultural plantations of oil palm and Acacia creating a significant global "hot-spot" for CO2 emissions. However, the effect of this major perturbation has yet to be quantified in terms of global warming potential (GWP) and the Earth's radiative budget. We used a GWP analysis and an impulse-response model of radiative forcing to quantify the climate forcing of this shift from a long-term carbon sink to a net source of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 )...
July 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Rosa M Chefaoui, Carlos M Duarte, Ester A Serrão
Although climate warming is affecting most marine ecosystems, the Mediterranean is showing earlier impacts. Foundation seagrasses are already experiencing a well-documented regression in the Mediterranean which could be aggravated by climate change. Here, we forecast distributions of two seagrasses and contrast predicted loss with discrete regions identified on the basis of extant genetic diversity. Under the worst-case scenario, Posidonia oceanica might lose 75% of suitable habitat by 2050, and is at risk of functional extinction by 2100, whereas Cymodocea nodosa would lose only 46...
July 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jessica Richardson, Claire Miller, Stephen C Maberly, Philip Taylor, Lidija Globevnik, Peter Hunter, Erik Jeppesen, Ute Mischke, S Jannicke Moe, Agnieszka Pasztaleniec, Martin Søndergaard, Laurence Carvalho
Blooms of cyanobacteria are a current threat to global water security that is expected to increase in the future because of increasing nutrient enrichment, increasing temperature and extreme precipitation in combination with prolonged drought. However, the responses to multiple stressors, such as those above, are often complex and there is contradictory evidence as to how they may interact. Here we used broad scale data from 494 lakes in central and northern Europe, to assess how cyanobacteria respond to nutrients (phosphorus), temperature and water retention time in different types of lakes...
July 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Eric J Gustafson, Brian R Sturtevant, Arjan M G de Bruijn, Nathanael Lichti, Douglass F Jacobs, Daniel M Kashian, Brian R Miranda, Philip A Townsend
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once an important component forests in the central Appalachians (USA), but it was functionally extirpated nearly a century ago. Attempts are underway to reintroduce blight-resistant chestnut to its former range, but it is uncertain how current forest composition, climate and atmospheric changes and disturbance regimes will interact to determine future forest dynamics and ecosystem services. The combination of novel environmental conditions (e.g., climate change), a reintroduced tree species and new disturbance regimes (e...
July 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Curtis Champion, Alistair J Hobday, Sean R Tracey, Gretta T Pecl
The environmental effects of climate change are predicted to cause distribution shifts in many marine taxa, yet data are often difficult to collect. Quantifying and monitoring species' suitable environmental habitats is a pragmatic approach for assessing changes in species distributions but is underdeveloped for quantifying climate change induced range shifts in marine systems. Specifically, habitat predictions present opportunities for quantifying spatiotemporal distribution changes while accounting for sources of natural climate variation...
July 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Doreen Kohlbach, Martin Graeve, Benjamin A Lange, Carmen David, Fokje L Schaafsma, Jan Andries van Franeker, Martina Vortkamp, Angelika Brandt, Hauke Flores
How the abundant pelagic life of the Southern Ocean survives winter darkness, when the sea is covered by pack-ice and phytoplankton production is nearly zero, is poorly understood. Ice-associated ('sympagic') microalgae could serve as a high-quality carbon source during winter, but their significance in the food web is so far unquantified. To better understand the importance of ice algae-produced carbon for the overwintering of Antarctic organisms, we investigated fatty acid (FA) and stable isotope compositions of 10 zooplankton species, and their potential sympagic and pelagic carbon sources...
July 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ji Chen, Yiqi Luo, Pablo García-Palacios, Junji Cao, Marina Dacal, Xuhui Zhou, Jianwei Li, Jianyang Xia, Shuli Niu, Huiyi Yang, Shelby Shelton, Wei Guo, Kees Jan van Groenigen
Extracellular enzymes catalyze rate-limiting steps in soil organic matter decomposition, and their activities (EEAs) play a key role in determining soil respiration (SR). Both EEAs and SR are highly sensitive to temperature, but their responses to climate warming remain poorly understood. Here, we present a meta-analysis on the response of soil cellulase and ligninase activities and SR to warming, synthesizing data from 56 studies. We found that warming significantly enhanced ligninase activity by 21.4% but had no effect on cellulase activity...
July 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Paul Szejner, William E Wright, Soumaya Belmecheri, David Meko, Steven W Leavitt, James R Ehleringer, Russell K Monson
Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios have been used to understand past dynamics in forest carbon and water cycling. Recently, this has been possible for different parts of single growing seasons by isolating anatomical sections within individual annual rings. Uncertainties in this approach are associated with correlated climate legacies that can occur at a higher frequency, such as across successive seasons, or a lower frequency, such as across years. The objective of this study was to gain insight into how legacies affect cross-correlation in the δ13 C and δ18 O isotope ratios in the earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) fractions of Pinus ponderosa trees at thirteen sites across a latitudinal gradient influenced by the North American Monsoon (NAM) climate system...
July 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Amelia Fitch, Chloe Orland, David Willer, Erik J S Emilson, Andrew J Tanentzap
Boreal lakes are major components of the global carbon cycle, partly because of sediment-bound heterotrophic microorganisms that decompose within-lake and terrestrially derived organic matter (t-OM). The ability for sediment bacteria to break down and alter t-OM may depend on environmental characteristics and community composition. However, the connection between these two potential drivers of decomposition is poorly understood. We tested how bacterial activity changed along experimental gradients in the quality and quantity of t-OM inputs into littoral sediments of two small boreal lakes, a dark and a clear lake, and measured the abundance of operational taxonomic units and functional genes to identify mechanisms underlying bacterial responses...
July 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
M Dannenmann, E Díaz-Pinés, B Kitzler, K Karhu, J Tejedor, P Ambus, A Parra, L Sánchez-Martin, V Resco, D A Ramírez, L Povoas-Guimaraes, G Willibald, R Gasche, S Zechmeister-Boltenstern, D Kraus, S Castaldi, A Vallejo, A Rubio, J M Moreno, K Butterbach-Bahl
Fire is a major factor controlling global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. While direct C and N losses caused by combustion have been comparably well established, important knowledge gaps remain on post-fire N losses. Here we quantified both direct C and N combustion losses as well as post-fire gaseous losses (N2 O, NO and N2 ) and N leaching after a high intensity experimental fire in an old shrubland in central Spain. Combustion losses of C and N were 9.4 Mg C ha-1 and 129 kg N ha-1 , respectively, representing 66 and 58% of initial aboveground vegetation and litter stocks...
July 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Timothy M Healy, Reid S Brennan, Andrew Whitehead, Patricia M Schulte
The resilience of organisms to climate change through adaptive evolution is dependent on the extent of genetically based variation in key phenotypic traits and the nature of genetic associations between them. For aquatic animals, upper thermal tolerance and hypoxia tolerance are likely to be important determinants of sensitivity to climate change. To determine the genetic basis of these traits and to detect associations between them, we compared naturally occurring populations of two subspecies of Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, that differ in both thermal and hypoxia tolerance...
July 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Christoph Müller, Gerald Moser
The adoption of the Paris climate change agreement by the majority of the countries on this Earth shows that most world leaders are taking human-induced climate change seriously and acknowledge that countermeasures are urgently needed to restrict global warming below a threshold of 2°C if we are to avoid damaging consequences for biodiversity, ecosystems function and food production. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and rising temperature, alone and in combination, affect ecosystem processes, plant growth and physiology, and abiotic systems such as the water cycle...
July 6, 2018: Global Change Biology
Marie-Elodie Perga, Rosalie Bruel, Laura Rodriguez, Yann Guénand, Damien Bouffard
Extreme weather events may be just as important as gradual trends for the long-term trajectories of ecosystems. For alpine lakes, which are exposed to both exacerbated atmospheric warming and intense episodic weather events, future conditions might not be appropriately forecast by only climate change trends, i.e., warming, if extreme events have the potential to deflect their thermal and metabolic states from their seasonal ranges. We used high-frequency monitoring data over three open-water seasons with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the high-altitude Lake Muzelle (France) to show that rainstorms or windstorms, notwithstanding their intensity, did not trigger long-lasting consequences to the lake characteristics when light penetration into the lake was not modified...
July 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
Daniel Pauly, William W L Cheung
Given ocean warming, the GOLT predicts a reduction of the size of fish due to their inability to compensate, via their gill surface, for the increased metabolic rate that results from higher temperatures (Cheung et al., 2013). Lefevre et al. (2017, 2018) objected to this because they believe that fish can grow gills as needed, such that oxygen supply cannot be limiting their metabolism. Pauly & Cheung (2017) responded to this claim, refuted its various elements, and reiterated the basic dimensional argument that is at the basis of the GOLT...
July 4, 2018: Global Change Biology
Robert K Shriver, Caitlin M Andrews, David S Pilliod, Robert S Arkle, Justin L Welty, Matthew J Germino, Michael C Duniway, David A Pyke, John B Bradford
Restoration and rehabilitation of native vegetation in dryland ecosystems, which encompass over 40% of terrestrial ecosystems, is a common challenge that continues to grow as wildfire and biological invasions transform dryland plant communities. The difficulty in part stems from low and variable precipitation, combined with limited understanding about how weather conditions influence restoration outcomes, and increasing recognition that one-time seeding approaches can fail if they do not occur during appropriate plant establishment conditions...
July 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Lanhui Wang, Feng Tian, Yuhang Wang, Zhendong Wu, Guy Schurgers, Rasmus Fensholt
Global warming and human land management have greatly influenced vegetation growth through both changes in spring phenology and photosynthetic primary production. This will presumably impact the velocity of vegetation greenup (Vgreenup, the daily rate of changes in vegetation productivity during greenup period), yet little is currently known about the spatio-temporal patterns of Vgreenup of global vegetation. Here, we define Vgreenup as the ratio of the amplitude of greenup (Agreenup) to the duration of greenup (Dgreenup) and derive global Vgreenup from 34-year satellite leaf area index (LAI) observations to study spatio-temporal dynamics of Vgreenup at the global, hemispheric and ecosystem scales...
July 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Carlos Carroll, Sean A Parks, Solomon Z Dobrowski, David R Roberts
As climatic conditions shift in coming decades, persistence of many populations will depend on their ability to colonize habitat newly suitable for their climatic requirements. Opportunities for such range shifts may be limited unless areas that facilitate dispersal under climate change are identified and protected from land uses that impede movement. While many climate adaptation strategies focus on identifying refugia, this study is the first to characterize areas which merit protection for their role in promoting climate connectivity at a continental extent...
July 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shan Gao, Ruishun Liu, Tao Zhou, Wei Fang, Chuixiang Yi, Ruijie Lu, Xiang Zhao, Hui Luo
Droughts, which are characterized by multiple dimensions including frequency, duration, severity and onset timing, can impact tree stem radial growth profoundly. Different dimensions of drought influence tree stem radial growth independently or jointly, which makes the development of accurate predictions a formidable challenge. Measurement-based tree-ring data have obvious advantages for studying the drought responses of trees. Here, we explored the use of abundant tree-ring records for quantifying regional response patterns to key dimensions of drought...
July 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Huan Zhang, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Liang He, Hong Geng, Fernando Chaguaceda, Jun Xu, Lars-Anders Hansson
In addition to an increase in mean temperature extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which are likely to affect organism interactions, seasonal succession and resting stage recruitment patterns in terrestrial as well as in aquatic ecosystems. For example, freshwater zooplankton with different life history strategies, such as sexual or parthenogenetic reproduction, may respond differently to increased mean temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations...
July 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
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