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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331066/strong-evidence-for-changing-fish-reproductive-phenology-under-climate-warming-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#1
Juan Tao, Dekui He, Mark J Kennard, Chengzhi Ding, Stuart E Bunn, Chunlong Liu, Yintao Jia, Rongxiao Che, Yifeng Chen
Phenological responses to climate change have been widely observed and have profound and lasting effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. However, compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the long-term effects of climate change on species' phenology are poorly understood in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the long-term changes in fish reproductive phenology is essential for predicting population dynamics and for informing management strategies, but is currently hampered by the requirement for intensive field observations and larval identification...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#2
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330969/is-salinity-an-obstacle-for-biological-invasions
#3
Filipa Paiva, Andrea Barco, Yiyong Chen, Alireza Mirzajani, Farrah T Chan, Velda Lauringson, Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Aibin Zhan, Sarah A Bailey, Jamileh Javidpour, Elizabeta Briski
Invasions of freshwater habitats by marine and brackish species have become more frequent in recent years with many of those species originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Populations of Ponto-Caspian species have successfully established in the North and Baltic Seas and their adjoining rivers, as well as in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region. To determine if Ponto-Caspian taxa more readily acclimatize to and colonize diverse salinity habitats than taxa from other regions, we conducted laboratory experiments on 22 populations of eight gammarid species native to the Ponto-Caspian, Northern European and Great Lakes-St...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323781/soil-phosphorus-does-not-keep-pace-with-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-accumulation-following-woody-encroachment
#4
Yong Zhou, Thomas W Boutton, X Ben Wu
Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles are strongly interlinked and controlled through biological processes, and the phosphorus cycle is further controlled through geochemical processes. In dryland ecosystems, woody encroachment often modifies soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stores, although it remains unknown if these three elements change proportionally in response to this vegetation change. We evaluated proportional changes and spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations following woody encroachment by taking spatially-explicit soil cores to a depth of 1...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323767/high-land-use-intensity-exacerbates-shifts-in-grassland-vegetation-composition-after-severe-experimental-drought
#5
Andreas Stampfli, Juliette M G Bloor, Markus Fischer, Michaela Zeiter
Climate change projections anticipate increased frequency and intensity of drought stress but grassland responses to severe droughts and their potential to recover are poorly understood. In many grasslands, high land-use intensity has enhanced productivity and promoted resource-acquisitive species at the expense of resource-conservative ones. Such changes in plant functional composition could affect the resistance to drought and the recovery after drought of grassland ecosystems with consequences for feed productivity resilience and environmental stewardship...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322639/prokaryotes-in-the-wais-divide-ice-core-reflect-source-and-transport-changes-between-last-glacial-maximum-and-the-early-holocene
#6
Pamela A Santibáñez, Olivia J Maselli, Mark C Greenwood, Mackenzie M Grieman, Eric S Saltzman, Joseph R McConnell, John C Priscu
We present the first long-term, highly resolved prokaryotic cell concentration record obtained from a polar ice core. This record, obtained from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide (WD) ice core, spanned from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene (EH) and showed distinct fluctuations in prokaryotic cell concentration coincident with major climatic states. The time series also revealed a ~1,500-year periodicity with greater amplitude during the Last Deglaciation (LDG). Higher prokaryotic cell concentration and lower variability occurred during the LGM and EH than during the LDG...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322601/temperature-sensitivities-of-extracellular-enzyme-vmax-and-km-across-thermal-environments
#7
Steven D Allison, Adriana L Romero-Olivares, Ying Lu, John W Taylor, Kathleen K Treseder
The magnitude and direction of carbon cycle feedbacks under climate warming remain uncertain due to insufficient knowledge about the temperature sensitivities of soil microbial processes. Enzymatic rates could increase at higher temperatures, but this response could change over time if soil microbes adapt to warming. We used the Arrhenius relationship, biochemical transition state theory, and thermal physiology theory to predict the responses of extracellular enzyme Vmax and Km to temperature. Based on these concepts, we hypothesized that Vmax and Km would correlate positively with each other and show positive temperature sensitivities...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322590/cocoa-agroforestry-is-less-resilient-to-sub-optimal-and-extreme-climate-than-cocoa-in-full-sun-reply-to-norgrove-2017
#8
Issaka Abdulai, Philippe Vaast, Munir P Hoffmann, Richard Asare, Laurence Jassogne, Piet Van Asten, Reimund P Rötter, Sophie Graefe
The critique of Norgrove, (2017) addresses two main points, which are discussed below (i) Resilience of cocoa agroforestry versus full sun under extreme climatic conditions In our study we covered extreme climatic events, a heat-wave combined with a severe dry season lasting longer than usual and killing cocoa trees under shade. These climatic conditions were not only observed at our study plots, but also in the larger cocoa cultivation region (Fig 1). In line with our observations, "certain cocoa cooperatives in Ivory Coast reported that shade trees in their cocoa fields accentuated the drought stress during the 2015 drought event" (1 Andrew Broosk, pers comm)...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322582/large-scale-disturbance-legacies-and-the-climate-sensitivity-of-primary-picea-abies-forests
#9
Jonathan S Schurman, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Radek Bače, Vojtěch Čada, Shawn Fraver, Pavel Janda, Dominik Kulakowski, Jana Labusova, Martin Mikoláš, Thomas A Nagel, Rupert Seidl, Michal Synek, Kristýna Svobodová, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Marius Teodosiu, Miroslav Svoboda
Determining the drivers of shifting forest disturbance rates remains a pressing global change issue. Large-scale forest dynamics are commonly assumed to be climate driven, but appropriately scaled disturbance histories are rarely available to assess how disturbance legacies alter subsequent disturbance rates and the climate sensitivity of disturbance. We compiled multiple tree-ring based disturbance histories from primary Picea abies forest fragments distributed throughout five European landscapes spanning the Bohemian Forest and the Carpathian Mountains...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316093/trees-tolerate-an-extreme-heatwave-via-sustained-transpirational-cooling-and-increased-leaf-thermal-tolerance
#10
John E Drake, Mark G Tjoelker, Angelica Vårhammar, Belinda E Medlyn, Peter B Reich, Andrea Leigh, Sebastian Pfautsch, Chris J Blackman, Rosana López, Michael J Aspinwall, Kristine Y Crous, Remko A Duursma, Dushan Kumarathunge, Martin G De Kauwe, Mingkai Jiang, Adrienne B Nicotra, David T Tissue, Brendan Choat, Owen K Atkin, Craig V M Barton
Heatwaves are likely to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which may impair tree function and forest C uptake. However, we have little information regarding the impact of extreme heatwaves on the physiological performance of large trees in the field. Here, we grew Eucalyptus parramattensis trees for one year with experimental warming (+3 °C) in a field setting, until they were greater than 6-m-tall. We withheld irrigation for one month to dry the surface soils and then implemented an extreme heatwave treatment of four consecutive days with air temperatures exceeding 43 °C, while monitoring whole-canopy exchange of CO2 and H2 O, leaf temperatures, leaf thermal tolerance, and leaf and branch hydraulic status...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316074/understorey-productivity-in-temperate-grassy-woodland-responds-to-soil-water-availability-but-not-to-elevated-co2
#11
L Collins, R A Bradstock, V Resco de Dios, R A Duursma, S Velasco, M M Boer
Rising atmospheric [CO2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, though rising [CO2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO2 interactions...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316042/historical-and-event-based-bioclimatic-suitability-predict-regional-forest-vulnerability-to-compound-effects-of-severe-drought-and-bark-beetle-infestation
#12
F Lloret, T Kitzberger
Vulnerability to climate change, and particularly to climate extreme events, is expected to vary across species ranges. Thus, we need tools to standardize the variability of regional climatic legacy and extreme climate across populations and species. Extreme climate events (e.g. droughts) can erode populations close to the limits of species' climatic tolerance. Populations in climatic-core locations may also become vulnerable because they have developed a greater demand for resources (i.e. water) that cannot be enough satisfied during periods of scarcity...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314468/a-mineralogical-record-of-ocean-change-decadal-and-centennial-patterns-in-the-california-mussel
#13
Sophie J McCoy, Nicholas A Kamenos, Peter Chung, Timothy J Wootton, Catherine A Pfister
Ocean acidification, a product of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, may already have affected calcified organisms in the coastal zone, such as bivalves and other shellfish. Understanding species' responses to climate change requires the context of long-term dynamics. This can be particularly difficult given the longevity of many important species in contrast with the relatively rapid onset of environmental changes. Here, we present a unique archival dataset of mussel shells from a locale with recent environmental monitoring and historical climate reconstructions...
January 4, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314486/temperature-sensitivity-of-soil-organic-carbon-decomposition-increased-with-mean-carbon-residence-time-field-incubation-and-data-assimilation
#14
Xuhui Zhou, Xia Xu, Guiyao Zhou, Yiqi Luo
Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting climate-carbon (C) cycle feedback. Results from previous studies are highly contradictory with old soil C decomposition being more, similarly, or less sensitive to temperature than decomposition of young fractions. The contradictory results are partly from difficulties in distinguishing old from young SOC and their changes over time in the experiments with or without isotopic techniques. In this study, we have conducted a long-term field incubation experiment with deep soil collars (0-70 cm in depth, 10 cm in diameter of PVC tubes) for excluding root C input to examine apparent temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition under ambient and warming treatments from 2002 to 2008...
January 3, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284201/australian-wheat-production-expected-to-decrease-by-the-late-21st-century
#15
Bin Wang, De Li Liu, Garry J O'Leary, Senthold Asseng, Ian Macadam, Rebecca Lines-Kelly, Xihua Yang, Anthony Clark, Jason Crean, Timothy Sides, Hongtao Xing, Chunrong Mi, Qiang Yu
Climate change threatens global wheat production and food security, including the wheat industry in Australia. Many studies have examined the impacts of changes in local climate on wheat yield per hectare, but there has been no assessment of changes in land area available for production due to changing climate. It is also unclear how total wheat production would change under future climate when autonomous adaptation options are adopted. We applied species distribution models to investigate future changes in areas climatically suitable for growing wheat in Australia...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284198/signals-from-the-south-humpback-whales-carry-messages-of-antarctic-sea-ice-ecosystem-variability
#16
Susan M Bengtson Nash, Juliana Castrillon, Pascale Eisenmann, Brian Fry, Jon D Shuker, Roger A Cropp, Amanda Dawson, Anders Bignert, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Courtney A Waugh, Bradley J Polkinghorne, Greta Dalle Luche, David McLagan
Southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) rely on summer prey abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) to fuel one of the longest-known mammalian migration on the planet. It is hypothesised that this species, already adapted to endure metabolic extremes, will be one of the first Antarctic consumers to show measurable physiological change in response to fluctuating prey availability in a changing climate; and as such, a powerful sentinel candidate for the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284191/chronosequence-predictions-are-robust-in-a-neotropical-secondary-forest-but-plots-miss-the-mark
#17
Justin M Becknell, Stephen Porder, Steven Hancock, Robin Chazdon, Michelle Hofton, James B Blair, James R Kellner
Tropical secondary forests (TSF) are a global carbon sink of 1.6 Pg C ∙ year-1 . However, TSF carbon uptake is estimated using chronosequence studies that assume differently aged forests can be used to predict change in aboveground biomass density (AGBD) over time. We tested this assumption using two airborne lidar datasets separated by 11.5 years over a Neotropical landscape. Using data from 1998 we predicted canopy height and AGBD within 1.1 and 10.3% of observations in 2009, with higher accuracy for forest height than AGBD and for older TSFs in comparison to younger ones...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282824/flowering-in-grassland-predicted-by-co2-and-resource-effects-on-species-aboveground-biomass
#18
Philip A Fay, Michael J Aspinwall, Harold P Collins, Anne E Gibson, Richard H Gill, Robert B Jackson, Virginia L Jin, Albina R Khasanova, Lara G Reichmann, H Wayne Polley
Continuing enrichment of atmospheric CO2 may change plant community composition, in part by altering the availability of other limiting resources including soil water, nutrients, or light. The combined effects of CO2 enrichment and altered resource availability on species flowering remain poorly understood. We quantified flowering culm and ramet production and biomass allocation to flowering culms/ramets for ten years in C4 dominated grassland communities on contrasting soils along a CO2 concentration gradient spanning pre-industrial to expected mid-21st century levels (250 - 500 μL L-1 )...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282822/climate-warming-and-land-use-changes-drive-broad-scale-floristic-changes-in-southern-sweden
#19
Torbjörn Tyler, Lina Herbertsson, Pål Axel Olsson, Lars Fröberg, Kjell-Arne Olsson, Åke Svensson, Ola Olsson
Land-use changes, pollution and climate warming during the 20th century have caused changes in biodiversity across the world. However, in many cases the environmental drivers are poorly understood. To identify and rank the drivers currently causing broad-scale floristic changes in N Europe, we analyzed data from two vascular plant surveys of 200 randomly selected 2.5×2.5 km grid squares in Scania, southernmost Sweden, conducted 1989-2006 and 2008-2015, respectively, and related the change in frequency (performance) of the species to a wide range of species-specific plant traits...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281766/temperature-driven-selection-on-metabolic-traits-increases-the-strength-of-an-algal-grazer-interaction-in-naturally-warmed-streams
#20
C-Elisa Schaum, Richard Ffrench-Constant, Chris Lowe, Jón S Ólafsson, Daniel Padfield, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
Trophic interactions are important determinants of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. As the metabolism and consumption rates of ectotherms increase sharply with temperature, there are major concerns that global warming will increase the strength of trophic interactions, destabilizing food webs, and altering ecosystem structure and function. We used geothermally warmed streams that span an 11°C temperature gradient to investigate the interplay between temperature-driven selection on traits related to metabolism and resource acquisition, and the interaction strength between the keystone gastropod grazer, Radix balthica, and a common algal resource...
December 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
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