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Global Change Biology

Sarah M Ludwig, Heather D Alexander, Knut Kielland, Paul J Mann, Susan M Natali, Roger W Ruess
Fire frequency and severity are increasing in tundra and boreal regions as climate warms, which can directly affect climate feedbacks by increasing carbon (C) emissions from combustion of the large soil C pool and indirectly via changes in vegetation, permafrost thaw, hydrology, and nutrient availability. To better understand the direct and indirect effects of changing fire regimes in northern ecosystems, we examined how differences in soil burn severity (i.e., extent of soil organic matter combustion) affect soil C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability and microbial processes over time...
September 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
Swastika Raut, H Wayne Polley, Philip A Fay, Sanghoon Kang
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration directly stimulates plant productivity and affects nutrient dynamics in the soil. However, the influence of CO2 enrichment on soil bacterial communities remains elusive, likely due to their complex interactions with a wide range of plant and soil properties. Here, we investigated the bacterial community response to a decade long preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250-500 ppm) among three contrasting soil types using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. In addition, we examined the effect of seasonal variation and plant species composition on bacterial communities...
September 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sarah C Fell, Jonathan L Carrivick, Martyn G Kelly, Leopold Füreder, Lee E Brown
Climate change poses a considerable threat to the biodiversity of high altitude ecosystems worldwide, including cold-water river systems that are responding rapidly to a shrinking cryosphere. Most recent research has demonstrated the severe vulnerability of river invertebrates to glacier retreat but effects upon other aquatic groups remain poorly quantified. Using new datasets from the European Alps, we show significant responses to declining glacier cover for diatoms, which play a critical functional role as freshwater primary producers...
September 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kelly A Nugent, Ian B Strachan, Maria Strack, Nigel T Roulet, Line Rochefort
Peatlands after drainage and extraction are large sources of carbon (C) to the atmosphere. Restoration, through re-wetting and revegetation, aims to return the C sink function by re-establishing conditions similar to that of an undrained peatland. However, the time needed to re-establish C sequestration is not well constrained due to the lack of multi-year measurements. We measured over three years the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), methane (FCH 4 ) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at a restored post-extraction peatland (RES) in southeast Canada (restored 14 years prior to the start of the study) and compared our observations to the C balance of an intact reference peatland (REF) that has a long-term continuous flux record and is in the same climate zone...
September 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Isaac W Park, Susan J Mazer
Determining the manner in which plant species shift their flowering times in response to climatic conditions is essential to understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change on the world's flora. The limited taxonomic diversity and duration of most phenological datasets, however, have impeded a comprehensive, systematic determination of the best predictors of flowering phenology. Additionally, many studies of the relationship between climate conditions and plant phenology have included only a limited set of climate parameters that are often chosen a priori and may therefore overlook those parameters to which plants are most phenologically sensitive...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Yumiko Miyamoto, Yoshie Terashima, Kazuhide Nara
Species with narrow niche breadths are assumed to be more susceptible to environmental changes than those with wide niche breadths. Although information on niche properties is necessary for predicting biological responses to environmental changes, such information is largely missing for soil microbes. In this study, we present the temperature niche positions and breadths of a functionally important group of eukaryotic soil microbes, ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. We compiled high quality EM fungal sequence data from 26 forested sites in Japan (with mean annual temperatures ranging from 1...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Michael R Kendrick, Alexander D Huryn, William B Bowden, Linda A Deegan, Robert H Findlay, Anne E Hershey, Bruce J Peterson, Josh Benes, Elissa Schuett
Rapidly increasing air temperatures across the Arctic are thawing permafrost and exposing vast quantities of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to microbial processing. Shifts in the absolute and relative supplies of these elements will likely alter patterns of ecosystem productivity and change the way carbon and nutrients are delivered from upland areas to surface waters such as rivers and lakes. The ultra-oligotrophic nature of surface waters across the Arctic renders these ecosystems particularly susceptible to changes in productivity and food web dynamics as permafrost thaw alters terrestrial-aquatic linkages...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Peter J Franks, Gordon B Bonan, Joseph A Berry, Danica L Lombardozzi, N Michele Holbrook, Nicholas Herold, Keith W Oleson
Earth system models (ESMs) rely on the calculation of canopy conductance in land surface models (LSMs) to quantify the partitioning of land surface energy, water and CO2 fluxes. This is achieved by scaling stomatal conductance, gw , determined from physiological models developed for leaves. Traditionally, models for gw have been semi-empirical, combining physiological functions with empirically-determined calibration constants. More recently, optimization theory has been applied to model gw in LSMs under the premise that it has a stronger grounding in physiological theory and might ultimately lead to improved predictive accuracy...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Gareth D Lennox, Toby A Gardner, James R Thomson, Joice Ferreira, Erika Berenguer, Alexander C Lees, Ralph Mac Nally, Luiz E O C Aragão, Silvio F B Ferraz, Julio Louzada, Nárgila G Moura, Victor H F Oliveira, Renata Pardini, Ricardo R C Solar, Fernando Z Vaz-de Mello, Ima C G Vieira, Jos Barlow
Secondary forests (SFs) regenerating on previously deforested land account for large, expanding areas of tropical forest cover. Given that tropical forests rank among Earth's most important reservoirs of carbon and biodiversity, SFs play an increasingly pivotal role in the carbon cycle and as potential habitat for forest biota. Nevertheless, their capacity to regain the biotic attributes of undisturbed primary forests (UPFs) remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of SF recovery, using extensive tropical biodiversity, biomass and environmental datasets...
September 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jie Wang, Xiangming Xiao, Yao Zhang, Yuanwei Qin, Russell B Doughty, Xiaocui Wu, Rajen Bajgain, Ling Du
Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into grasslands has been occurring globally and may be accelerated by climate change in the future. This land cover change is expected to alter the carbon and water cycles, but it remains uncertain how and to what extent the carbon and water cycles may change with WPE into grasslands under current climate. In this study, we examined the difference of vegetation indices (VIs), evapotranspiration (ET), gross primary production (GPP), and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) during 2000-2010 between grasslands and juniper encroached grasslands...
September 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
L van Delden, D W Rowlings, C Scheer, D De Rosa, P R Grace
Increasing population densities and urban sprawl are causing rapid land use change from natural and agricultural ecosystems into smaller, urban residential properties. However, there is still great uncertainty about the effect that urbanization will have on biogeochemical C and N cycles and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets. We aimed to evaluate how typical urbanization related land use change in sub-tropical Australia affects soil GHG exchange (N2 O and CH4 ) and the associated global warming potential (GWP)...
September 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Thomas A Day, Michael S Bliss, Alexander R Tomes, Christopher T Ruhland, René Guénon
The mechanisms of plant litter decay in drylands are poorly understood, limiting the accuracy of nutrient-cycling models for these systems. We monitored the decay of 12 leaf litter types on the soil surface of the Sonoran Desert for 34 months and assessed what traits predicted mass loss and how exposure to different wavebands of sunlight influenced mass loss. Mass loss varied considerably among litter types, ranging from 42-96% after 34 months in full sunlight. Traditional indices of litter quality (e.g. initial C:N or lignin:N ratios) failed to predict differences in mass loss among litter types...
September 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Monica Montefalcone, Carla Morri, Carlo Nike Bianchi
Global climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of extreme heat anomalies and consequent mass coral bleaching events. Long term dynamics of hard coral cover, bioconstruction potential, carbonate deposition, and reef accretion were monitored over a 20-year period on Maldivian coral reefs in order to investigate the effects of high-temperature anomalies on coral reef accretion and their recovery potential. Changes experienced by shallow reefs between 1997 and 2017 were evaluated by considering five different bioconstructional guilds and the BioConstruction Potential index (BCP), a proxy for the constructional capacity of reefs...
September 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Justin Martin, Nathaniel Looker, Zachary Hoylman, Kelsey Jencso, Jia Hu
In temperate regions such as the American west, forest trees often exhibit growth sensitivity to climatic conditions of a particular season. For example, annual tree ring growth increments may correlate well with winter precipitation, but not with summer rainfall, suggesting that trees rely more on winter snow than summer rain. Because both the timing and character of seasonal western climate patterns are expected to change considerably over coming decades, variation in the importance of different seasonal moisture sources for trees can be expected to influence how different forest trees respond to climate change as a whole, with shifts in seasonality potentially benefitting some trees while challenging others...
September 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ayaka Sakabe, Masayuki Itoh, Takashi Hirano, Kitso Kusin
Data on ecosystem-scale methane (CH4 ) fluxes in tropical peatlands are currently lacking in the global CH4 budget. Although the waterlogged Indonesian peatlands contain the largest share of peat carbon in South-East Asia, ecosystem-scale CH4 budgets have not yet been reported, although these peatlands have the potential to emit CH4 . We observed 1-year variations in the ecosystem-scale CH4 flux in an undrained secondary peat swamp forest in central Kalimantan, Indonesia, using the eddy covariance method. We found that the peat swamp forest switched from being a CH4 sink during the dry season (as low as -8...
September 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shuai An, Xiaolin Zhu, Miaogen Shen, Yafeng Wang, Ruyin Cao, Xuehong Chen, Wei Yang, Jin Chen, Yanhong Tang
Climate warming on the Tibetan Plateau tends to induce an uphill shift of temperature isolines. Observations and process-based models have both shown that climate warming has resulted in an increase in vegetation greenness on the Tibetan Plateau in recent decades. However, it is unclear whether the uphill shift of temperature isolines has caused greenness isolines to shift upward and whether the two shifts match each other. Our analysis of satellite observed vegetation greenness during the growing season (May-Sep) and gridded climate data for 2000-2016 documented a substantial mismatch between the elevational shifts of greenness and temperature isolines...
August 29, 2018: Global Change Biology
Servane Bigot, Julie Buges, Lauriane Gilly, Cécile Jacques, Pauline Le Boulch, Marie Berger, Pauline Delcros, Jean-Baptiste Domergue, Astrid Koehl, Béra Ley-Ngardigal, Loup Tran Van Canh, Ivan Couée
Climate change reshapes the physiology and development of organisms through phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic modifications and genetic adaptation. Under evolutionary pressures of the sessile lifestyle, plants possess efficient systems of phenotypic plasticity and acclimation to environmental conditions. Molecular analysis, especially through omics approaches, of these primary lines of environmental adjustment in the context of climate change has revealed the underlying biochemical and physiological mechanisms, thus characterising the links between phenotypic plasticity and climate change responses...
August 29, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shalik Ram Sigdel, Yafeng Wang, J Julio Camarero, Haifeng Zhu, Eryuan Liang, Josep Peñuelas
Among forest ecosystems, the alpine treeline ecotone can be considered to be a simplified model to study global ecology and climate change. Alpine treelines are expected to shift upwards in response to global warming given that tree recruitment and growth are assumed to be mainly limited by low temperatures. However, little is known whether precipitation and temperature interact to drive long-term Himalayan treeline dynamics. Tree growth is affected by spring rainfall in the central Himalayan treelines, being good locations for testing if, in addition to temperature, precipitation mediates treeline dynamics...
August 28, 2018: Global Change Biology
N A Kornder, B M Riegl, J Figueiredo
Increased temperature and CO2 -levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress-effect relationships in ecological meta-analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer-reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification...
August 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
Heida L Diefenderfer, Valerie I Cullinan, Amy B Borde, Cailene M Gunn, Ronald M Thom
The physical controlling factors on coastal plant communities are among the most dynamic of known ecosystems, but climate change alters coastal surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes, which makes rapid measurement of greenhouse gas fluxes critical. Greenhouse gas exchange rates in these terrestrial-aquatic ecosystems are highly variable worldwide with climate, soil type, plant community, and weather. Therefore, increasing data collection and availability should be a priority. Here, we demonstrate and validate physical and analytical modifications to automated soil-flux chamber measurement methods for unattended use in tidally driven wetlands, allowing the high-frequency capture of storm surge and day/night dynamics...
August 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
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