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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143490/rock-glaciers-in-crystalline-catchments-hidden-permafrost-related-threats-to-alpine-headwater-lakes
#1
Boris P Ilyashuk, Elena A Ilyashuk, Roland Psenner, Richard Tessadri, Karin A Koinig
A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143417/can-antarctic-lichens-acclimatise-to-changes-in-temperature
#2
Claudia Colesie, Burkhard Büdel, Vaughan Hurry, T G Allan Green
The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species in order for them to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesise that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140600/vegetation-cover-another-dominant-factor-in-determining-global-water-resources-in-forested-regions
#3
Xiaohua Wei, Qiang Li, Mingfang Zhang, Krysta Giles-Hansen, Wenfei Liu, Houbao Fan, Yi Wang, Guoyi Zhou, Shilong Piao, Shirong Liu
Forested catchments provide critically important water resources. Due to dramatic global forest change over the past decades, the importance of including forest or vegetation change in the assessment of water resources under climate change has been highly recognized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, this importance has not yet been examined quantitatively across the globe. Here, we used four remote sensing-based indices to represent changes in vegetation cover in forest dominated regions, and then applied them to widely-used models: the Fuh model and the Choudhury-Yang model to assess relative contributions of vegetation and climate changes to annual runoff variations from 2000 to 2011 in forested landscape (forest coverage > 30%) across the globe...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140586/annual-global-mean-temperature-explains-reproductive-success-in-a-marine-vertebrate-from-1955-2010
#4
Robert A Mauck, Donald C Dearborn, Charles E Huntington
The salient feature of anthropogenic climate change over the last century has been the rise in global mean temperature. However, global mean temperature is not used as an explanatory variable in studies of population-level response to climate change, perhaps because the signal to noise ratio of this gross measure makes its effect difficult to detect in any but the longest of datasets. Using a population of Leach's storm-petrels breeding in the Bay of Fundy, we tested whether local, regional, or global temperature measures are the best index of reproductive success in the face of climate change in species that travel widely between and within seasons...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#5
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#6
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135067/selection-for-life-history-traits-to-maximize-population-growth-in-an-invasive-marine-species
#7
Cornelia Jaspers, Lise Marty, Thomas Kiørboe
Species establishing outside their natural range, negatively impacting local ecosystems, are of increasing global concern. They often display life-history features characteristic for r-selected populations with fast growth and high reproduction rates to achieve positive population growth rates (r) in invaded habitats. Here, we demonstrate substantially earlier maturation at a 2 orders of magnitude lower body mass at first reproduction in invasive compared to native populations of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#8
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124824/why-artificial-light-at-night-should-be-a-focus-for-global-change-research-in-the-21st-century
#9
Thomas W Davies, Tim Smyth
The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century...
November 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121419/nitrogen-limitation-of-decomposition-and-decay-how-can-it-occur
#10
Colin Averill, Bonnie Waring
The availability of nitrogen (N) is a critical control on the cycling and storage of soil carbon (C). Yet there are conflicting conceptual models to explain how N availability influences decomposition of organic matter by soil microbial communities. Several lines of evidence suggest that N availability limits decomposition: the earliest stages of leaf litter decay are associated with a net import of N from the soil environment, and both observations and models show that high-N organic matter decomposes more rapidly...
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120516/carbon-cycle-confidence-and-uncertainty-exploring-variation-among-soil-biogeochemical-models
#11
William R Wieder, Melannie D Hartman, Benjamin Sulman, Ying-Ping Wang, Charles D Koven, Gordon B Bonan
Emerging insights into factors responsible for soil organic matter stabilization and decomposition are being applied in a variety of contexts, but new tools are needed to facilitate the understanding, evaluation and improvement of soil biogeochemical theory and models at regional to global scales. To isolate the effects of model structural uncertainty on the global distribution of soil carbon stocks and turnover times we developed a soil biogeochemical testbed that forces three different soil models with consistent climate and plant productivity inputs...
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120513/in-modelling-effects-of-global-warming-invalid-assumptions-lead-to-unrealistic-projections
#12
Sjannie Lefevre, David J McKenzie, Göran E Nilsson
In a recent Opinion paper, Pauly and Cheung (2017) argue against the criticisms we raised (Lefevre et al., 2017) about the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) and its application in modelling. Rather than providing point-by-point responses to their arguments we highlight some key issues that, in our opinion, disqualify GOLT as a mechanistic basis for model projections about the future size of fishes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112791/outcomes-from-10-years-of-biodiversity-offsetting
#13
Philip Gibbons, Andrew Macintosh, Amy Louise Constable, Kiichiro Hayashi
We quantified net changes to the area and quality of native vegetation after the introduction of biodiversity offsetting in New South Wales, Australia-a policy intended to "prevent broad-scale clearing of native vegetation unless it improves or maintains environmental values." Over 10 years, a total of 21,928ha of native vegetation was approved for clearing under this policy and 83,459ha was established as biodiversity offsets. We estimated that no net loss in the area of native vegetation under this policy will not occur for 146 years...
November 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112781/lags-in-the-response-of-mountain-plant-communities-to-climate-change
#14
Jake M Alexander, Loïc Chalmandrier, Jonathan Lenoir, Treena I Burgess, Franz Essl, Sylvia Haider, Christoph Kueffer, Keith McDougall, Ann Milbau, Martin A Nuñez, Aníbal Pauchard, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Lisa J Rew, Nathan J Sanders, Loïc Pellissier
Rapid climatic changes and increasing human influence at high elevations around the world will have profound impacts on mountain biodiversity. However, forecasts from statistical models (e.g. species distribution models) rarely consider that plant community changes could substantially lag behind climatic changes, hindering our ability to make temporally realistic projections for the coming century. Indeed, the magnitudes of lags, and the relative importance of the different factors giving rise to them, remain poorly understood...
November 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110424/increasing-drought-and-diminishing-benefits-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-for-soybean-yields-across-the-us-midwest
#15
Zhenong Jin, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Andrew D B Leakey, David B Lobell
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) are expected to increase C3 crop yield through the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) by stimulating photosynthesis and by reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration. The latter effect is widely believed to lead to greater benefits in dry rather than wet conditions, although some recent experimental evidence challenges this view. Here we used a process-based crop model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), to quantify the contemporary and future CFE on soybean in one of its primary production area of the US Midwest...
November 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105912/how-much-do-direct-livestock-emissions-actually-contribute-to-global-warming
#16
Andy Reisinger, Harry Clark
Agriculture directly contributes about 10-12% of current global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mostly from livestock. However, such percentage estimates are based on Global Warming Potentials (GWPs), which do not measure the actual warming caused by emissions and ignore the fact that methane does not accumulate in the atmosphere in the same way as CO2 . Here we employ a simple carbon cycle-climate model, historical estimates and future projections of livestock emissions to infer the fraction of actual warming that is attributable to direct livestock non-CO2 emissions now and in future, and to CO2 from pasture conversions, without relying on GWPs...
November 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105233/simulating-the-recent-impacts-of-multiple-biotic-disturbances-on-forest-carbon-cycling-across-the-united-states
#17
M Kautz, P Anthoni, A J H Meddens, T A M Pugh, A Arneth
Biotic disturbances (BDs, e.g., insects, pathogens and wildlife herbivory) substantially affect boreal and temperate forest ecosystems globally. However, accurate impact assessments comprising larger spatial scales are lacking to date, although these are critically needed given the expected disturbance intensification under a warming climate. Hence, our quantitative knowledge on current and future BD impacts, e.g., on forest carbon (C) cycling, is strongly limited. We extended a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to simulate ecosystem response to prescribed tree mortality and defoliation due to multiple biotic agents across United States forests during the period 1997-2015, and quantified the BD-induced vegetation C loss, i...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105230/vapor-pressure-deficit-and-extreme-climatic-variables-limit-tree-growth
#18
P Sanginés de Cárcer, Y Vitasse, J Peñuelas, V E J Jassey, A Buttler, C Signarbieux
Assessing the effect of global warming on forest growth requires a better understanding of species-specific responses to climate change conditions. Norway spruce and European beech are among the dominant tree species in Europe and are largely used by the timber industry. Their sensitivity to changes in climate and extreme climatic events, however, endangers their future sustainability. Identifying the key climatic factors limiting their growth and survival is therefore crucial for assessing the responses of these two species to ongoing climate change...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105229/elevated-carbon-dioxide-and-warming-impact-silicon-and-phenolic-based-defences-differently-in-native-and-exotic-grasses
#19
Scott N Johnson, Susan E Hartley
Global climate change may increase invasions of exotic plant species by directly promoting the success of invasive/exotic species or by reducing the competitive abilities of native species. Changes in plant chemistry, leading to altered susceptibility to stress, could mediate these effects. Grasses are hyper-accumulators of silicon, which plays a crucial function in the alleviation of diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. It is unknown how predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and air temperature affect silicon accumulation in grasses, especially in relation to primary and secondary metabolites...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095549/landscape-level-effects-on-aboveground-biomass-of-tropical-forests-a-conceptual-framework
#20
Melina Melito, Jean Paul Metzger, Alexandre Adalardo De Oliveira
Despite the general recognition that fragmentation can reduce forest biomass through edge effects, a systematic review of the literature does not reveal a clear role of edges in modulating biomass loss. Additionally, the edge effects appear to be constrained by matrix type, suggesting that landscape composition has an influence on biomass stocks. The lack of empirical evidence of pervasive edge-related biomass losses across tropical forests highlights the necessity for a general framework linking landscape structure with aboveground biomass...
November 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
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