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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791767/increased-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients-at-both-community-and-intraspecific-level-in-macro-moths
#1
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790233/factors-regulating-carbon-sinks-in-mangrove-ecosystems
#2
Shi-Bo Li, Po-Hung Chen, Jih-Sheng Huang, Mei-Li Hsueh, Li-Yung Hsieh, Chen-Lu Lee, Hsing-Juh Lin
Mangroves are recognized as one of the richest carbon storage systems. However, the factors regulating carbon sinks in mangrove ecosystems are still unclear, particularly in the subtropical mangroves. The biomass, production, litterfall, detrital export and decomposition of the dominant mangrove vegetation in subtropical (Kandelia obovata) and tropical (Avicennia marina) Taiwan were quantified from October 2011 to July 2014 to construct the carbon budgets. Despite the different tree species, a principal component analysis revealed the site or environmental conditions had a greater influence than the tree species on the carbon processes...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790239/ocean-warming-has-a-greater-effect-than-acidification-on-the-early-life-history-development-and-swimming-performance-of-a-large-circumglobal-pelagic-fish
#3
Sue-Ann Watson, Bridie J M Allan, David E McQueen, Simon Nicol, Darren M Parsons, Stephen M J Pether, Stephen Pope, Alvin N Setiawan, Neville Smith, Carly Wilson, Philip L Munday
Ocean warming and acidification are serious threats to marine life; however, their individual and combined effects on large pelagic and predatory fishes are poorly understood. We determined the effects of projected future temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels on survival, growth, morphological development and swimming performance on the early life stages of a large circumglobal pelagic fish, the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi. Eggs, larvae and juveniles were reared in cross-factored treatments of temperature (21 and 25°C) and pCO2 (500 and 985 μatm) from fertilisation to 25 days post hatching (dph)...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788551/defining-a-land-boundary-for-sustainable-livestock-consumption
#4
Hannah H E Van Zanten, Mario Herrero, Ollie Van Hal, Elin Röös, Adrian Muller, Tara Garnett, Pierre J Gerber, Christian Schader, Imke J M De Boer
The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal-source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal-source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under the circular economy concept could provide a significant, non-negligible part (9-23g/per capita) of our daily protein needs (~50-60 g/per capita). This livestock then would not consume human-edible biomass, such as grains, but mainly convert leftovers from arable land and grass resources into valuable food, implying that production of livestock feed is largely decoupled from arable land...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788536/community-disassembly-under-global-change-evidence-in-favor-of-the-stress-dominance-hypothesis
#5
Lucie Kuczynski, Gaël Grenouillet
Ecological theory suggests that communities are not random combinations of species but rather the results of community assembly processes filtering and sorting species that are able to coexist together. To date, such processes (i.e. assembly rules) have been inferred from observed spatial patterns of biodiversity combined with null model approaches, but relatively few attempts have been made to assess how these processes may be changing through time. Specifically in the context of the on-going biodiversity crisis and global change, understanding how processes shaping communities may be changing and identifying the potential drivers underlying these changes become increasingly critical...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782687/production-via-n-fertilization-and-correction-by-liming-of-acidity-in-soils-contribute-a-huge-efflux-of-co-2-to-atmosphere-real-or-arbitrary
#6
Ashim Datta, Biswapati Mandal
In a recent article, Zamanian et al. (2018) made an interesting assessment for CO2 efflux to atmosphere from inorganic carbon in soils on N-fertilization induced acidity (7.48 × 1012 g CO2 C/year) and also from liming of acid soils (273 × 1012 g CO2 C/year) using global database of soil CaCO3 stock, acid soil coverage, N-fertilizer use and associated quantity of protons produced etc. We have the following few non-convergent points of views on the issues.Firstly, stoichiometry of protonation (H+ ) in soils out of N-fertilization through urea, and other sources is known and the resultant annual changes in soil pH are also reported by many, including those who used long-term experiments (Stewart et al...
May 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781219/disentangling-the-effects-of-acidic-air-pollution-atmospheric-co-2-and-climate-change-on-recent-growth-of-red-spruce-trees-in-the-central-appalachian-mountains
#7
Justin M Mathias, Richard B Thomas
In the 45 years after legislation of the Clean Air Act, there has been tremendous progress in reducing acidic air pollutants in the eastern United States, yet limited evidence exists that cleaner air has improved forest health. Here, we investigate the influence of recent environmental changes on the growth and physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees, a key indicator species of forest health, spanning three locations along a 100 km transect in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We incorporated a multiproxy approach using 75-year tree ring chronologies of basal tree growth, carbon isotope discrimination (∆13 C, a proxy for leaf gas exchange), and δ15 N (a proxy for ecosystem N status) to examine tree and ecosystem level responses to environmental change...
May 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781155/human-impacts-decouple-a-fundamental-ecological-relationship-the-positive-association-between-host-diversity-and-parasite-diversity
#8
Chelsea L Wood, Brian J Zgliczynski, Alison J Haupt, Ana Sofía Guerra, Fiorenza Micheli, Stuart A Sandin
Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free-living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity for parasites of coral reef fishes on three fished and three unfished islands in the central equatorial Pacific. Fishing was associated with a shallowing of the positive host-diversity-parasite-diversity relationship...
May 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777620/vegetation-growth-enhancement-in-urban-environments-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#9
Wenxiao Jia, Shuqing Zhao, Shuguang Liu
Cities are natural laboratories for studying vegetation responses to global environmental changes because of their climate, atmospheric, and biogeochemical conditions. However, few holistic studies have been conducted on the impact of urbanization on vegetation growth. We decomposed the overall impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth into direct (replacement of original land surfaces by impervious built-up) and indirect (urban environments) components, using a conceptual framework and remotely-sensed data for 377 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in 2001, 2006, and 2011...
May 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774975/signals-of-large-scale-climate-drivers-hatchery-enhancement-and-marine-factors-in-yukon-river-chinook-salmon-survival-revealed-with-a-bayesian-life-history-model
#10
Curry J Cunningham, Peter A H Westley, Milo D Adkison
Understanding how species might respond to climate change involves disentangling the influence of co-occurring environmental factors on population dynamics, and is especially problematic for migratory species like Pacific salmon that move between ecosystems. To date, debate surrounding the causes of recent declines in Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance has centered on whether factors in freshwater or marine environments control variation in survival, and how these populations at the northern extremity of the species range will respond to climate change...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774972/temperature-response-of-permafrost-soil-carbon-is-attenuated-by-mineral-protection
#11
Norman Gentsch, Birgit Wild, Robert Mikutta, Petr Čapek, Katka Diáková, Marion Schrumpf, Stephanie Turner, Cynthia Minnich, Frank Schaarschmidt, Olga Shibistova, Jörg Schnecker, Tim Urich, Antje Gittel, Hana Šantrůčková, Jiři Bárta, Nikolay Lashchinskiy, Roland Fuß, Andreas Richter, Georg Guggenberger
Climate change in Arctic ecosystems fosters permafrost thaw and makes massive amounts of ancient soil organic carbon (OC) available to microbial breakdown. However, fractions of the organic matter (OM) may be protected from rapid decomposition by their association with minerals. Little is known about the effects of mineral-organic associations (MOA) on the microbial accessibility of OM in permafrost soils and it is not clear which factors control its temperature sensitivity. In order to investigate if and how permafrost soil OC turnover is affected by mineral controls, the heavy fraction (HF) representing mostly MOA was obtained by density fractionation from 27 permafrost soil profiles of the Siberian Arctic...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772099/where-is-the-residual-terrestrial-carbon-sink
#12
R A Houghton, A Baccini, W S Walker
The apparent accumulation of carbon on land necessary to balance the global carbon budget (previously referred to as the missing carbon sink and more recently labeled the residual terrestrial sink) has perplexed scientists since the first carbon budgets were constructed (Keeling 1973). The magnitude of the sink over the decade 2006-2015 averaged 3.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1 , larger than either the net emissions of carbon from land-use change or the net uptake by the world's oceans (Le Quéré et al., 2016). This article is protected by copyright...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772087/environmental-change-and-predator-diversity-drive-alpha-and-beta-diversity-in-freshwater-macro-and-microorganisms
#13
Pablo Augusto P Antiqueira, Owen L Petchey, Viviane Piccin Dos Santos, Valéria Maia de Oliveira, Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global biodiversity is eroding due to anthropogenic causes such as climate change, habitat loss, and trophic simplification of biological communities. Most studies address only isolated causes within a single group of organisms; however, biological groups of different trophic levels may respond in particular ways to different environmental impacts. Our study used natural microcosms to investigate the predicted individual and interactive effects of warming, changes in top predator diversity, and habitat size on the alpha and beta diversity of macrofauna, microfauna and bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768697/large-scale-pre-rain-vegetation-green-up-across-africa
#14
Tracy Adole, Jadunandan Dash, Peter M Atkinson
Information on the response of vegetation to different environmental drivers, including rainfall, forms a critical input to ecosystem models. Currently, such models are run based on parameters that, in some cases, are either assumed or lack supporting evidence (e.g., that vegetation growth across Africa is rainfall-driven). A limited number of studies have reported that the onset of rain across Africa does not fully explain the onset of vegetation growth, for example, drawing on the observation of pre-rain flush effects in some parts of Africa...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768696/the-isohydric-trap-a-proposed-feedback-between-water-shortage-stomatal-regulation-and-nutrient-acquisition-drives-differential-growth-and-survival-of-european-pines-under-climatic-dryness
#15
D Salazar-Tortosa, J Castro, P Villar-Salvador, B Viñegla, L Matías, A Michelsen, R Rubio de Casas, J I Querejeta
Climatic dryness imposes limitations on vascular plant growth by reducing stomatal conductance, thereby decreasing CO2 uptake and transpiration. Given that transpiration-driven water flow is required for nutrient uptake, climatic stress-induced nutrient deficit could be a key mechanism for decreased plant performance under prolonged drought. We propose the existence of an "isohydric trap", a dryness-induced detrimental feedback leading to nutrient deficit and stoichiometry imbalance in strict isohydric species...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768693/coastal-ecosystems-on-a-tipping-point-global-warming-and-parasitism-combine-to-alter-community-structure-and-function
#16
Kim N Mouritsen, Mikkel M Sørensen, Robert Poulin, Brian L Fredensborg
Mounting evidence suggests that the transmission of certain parasites is facilitated by increasing temperatures, causing their host population to decline. However, no study has yet addressed how temperature and parasitism may combine to shape the functional structure of a whole host community in the face of global warming. Here, we apply an outdoor mesocosm approach supported by field surveys to elucidate this question in a diverse intertidal community of amphipods infected by the pathogenic microphallid trematode, Maritrema novaezealandensis...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758588/importance-of-disturbance-history-on-net-primary-productivity-in-the-world-s-most-productive-forests-and-implications-for-the-global-carbon-cycle
#17
Liubov Volkova, Stephen H Roxburgh, Christopher J Weston, Richard G Benyon, Andrew L Sullivan, Philip J Polglase
Analysis of growth and biomass turnover in natural forests of Eucalyptus regnans, the world's tallest angiosperm, reveals it is also the world's most productive forest type, with fire disturbance an important mediator of net primary productivity (NPP). A comprehensive empirical database was used to calculate the averaged temporal pattern of NPP from regeneration to 250 years age. NPP peaks at 23.1±3.8 (95% inter-quantile range) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at age 14 years, and declines gradually to about 9.2±0.8 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 130 years, with an average NPP over 250 years of 11...
May 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750385/effects-of-climate-legacies-on-above-and-below-ground-community-assembly
#18
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J Eldridge, Samantha K Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Andrew Bissett
The role of climatic legacies in regulating community assembly of above- and below-ground species in terrestrial ecosystems remains largely unexplored and poorly understood. Here, we report on two separate regional and continental empirical studies, including >500 locations, aiming to identify the relative importance of climatic legacies (climatic anomaly over the last 20k years) compared to current climates in predicting the relative abundance of ecological clusters formed by species strongly co-occurring within two independent above- and below-ground networks...
May 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749125/a-spatially-explicit-representation-of-conservation-agriculture-for-application-in-global-change-studies
#19
Reinhard Prestele, Annette L Hirsch, Edouard L Davin, Sonia I Seneviratne, Peter H Verburg
Conservation agriculture (CA) is widely promoted as a sustainable agricultural management strategy with the potential to alleviate some of the adverse effects of modern, industrial agriculture such as large-scale soil erosion, nutrient leaching and overexploitation of water resources. Moreover, agricultural land managed under CA is proposed to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation through reduced emission of greenhouse gases, increased solar radiation reflection, and the sustainable use of soil and water resources...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749095/constraining-estimates-of-global-soil-respiration-by-quantifying-sources-of-variability
#20
Jinshi Jian, Meredith K Steele, R Quinn Thomas, Susan D Day, Steven C Hodges
Quantifying global soil respiration (RSG ) and its response to temperature change are critical for predicting the turnover of terrestrial carbon stocks and their feedbacks to climate change. Currently, estimates of RSG range from 68 to 98 Pg C yr-1 , causing considerable uncertainty in the global carbon budget. We argue the source of this variability lies in the upscaling assumptions regarding the model format, data timescales, and precipitation component. To quantify the variability and constrain RSG , we developed RSG models using Random Forest and exponential models, and used different timescales (daily, monthly, and annual) of soil respiration (RS ) and climate data to predict RSG ...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
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