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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805965/the-interplay-of-climate-and-land-use-change-affects-the-distribution-of-eu-bumblebees
#1
Leon Marshall, Jacobus C Biesmeijer, Pierre Rasmont, Nicolas J Vereecken, Libor Dvorak, Una Fitzpatrick, Frédéric Francis, Johann Neumayer, Frode Ødegaard, Juho P T Paukkunen, Tadeusz Pawlikowski, Menno Reemer, Stuart P M Roberts, Jakub Straka, Sarah Vray, Nicolas Dendoncker
Bumblebees in Europe have been in steady decline since the 1900s. This decline is expected to continue with climate change as the main driver. However, at the local scale, land use and land cover (LULC) change strongly affects the occurrence of bumblebees. At present, LULC change is rarely included in models of future distributions of species. This study's objective is to compare the roles of dynamic LULC change and climate change on the projected distribution patterns of 48 European bumblebee species for three change scenarios until 2100 at the scales of Europe, and Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg (BENELUX)...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805338/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-episodic-frost-on-plant-growth-and-reproduction-in-subalpine-wildflowers
#2
Gabriella L Pardee, David W Inouye, Rebecca E Irwin
Frost is an important episodic event that damages plant tissues through the formation of ice crystals at or below freezing temperatures. In montane regions, where climate change is expected to cause earlier snowmelt but may not change the last frost-free day of the year, plants that bud earlier might be directly impacted by frost through damage to flower buds and reproductive structures. However, the indirect effects of frost mediated through changes in plant-pollinator interactions have rarely been explored...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805279/extreme-weather-year-sequences-have-non-additive-effects-on-environmental-nitrogen-losses
#3
Javed Iqbal, Magdalena Necpalova, Sotirios V Archontoulis, Robert P Anex, Marie Bourguignon, Daryl Herzmann, David C Mitchell, John E Sawyer, Qing Zhu, Michael J Castellano
The frequency and intensity of extreme weather years, characterized by abnormal precipitation and temperature, are increasing. In isolation, these years have disproportionately large effects on environmental N losses. However, the sequence of extreme weather years (e.g., wet-dry vs. dry-wet) may affect cumulative N losses. We calibrated and validated the DAYCENT ecosystem process model with a comprehensive set of biogeophysical measurements from a corn-soybean rotation managed at three N fertilizer inputs with and without a winter cover crop in Iowa, USA...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804989/improving-predictions-of-tropical-forest-response-to-climate-change-through-integration-of-field-studies-and-ecosystem-modeling
#4
Xiaohui Feng, María Uriarte, Grizelle González, Sasha Reed, J Thompson, Jess K Zimmerman, Lora Murphy
Tropical forests play a critical role in carbon and water cycles at a global scale. Rapid climate change is anticipated in tropical regions over the coming decades and, under a warmer and drier climate, tropical forests are likely to be net sources of carbon rather than sinks. However, our understanding of tropical forest response and feedback to climate change is very limited. Efforts to model climate change impacts on carbon fluxes in tropical forests have not reached a consensus. Here we use the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) to predict carbon fluxes of a Puerto Rican tropical forest under realistic climate change scenarios...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801968/warming-of-subarctic-waters-accelerates-development-of-a-key-marine-zooplankton-calanus-finmarchicus
#5
Agata Weydmann, Waldemar Walczowski, Jacob Carstensen, Slawomir Kwasniewski
Recent observations confirm the rising temperatures of Atlantic waters transported into the Arctic Ocean via the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). We studied the overall abundance and population structure of the North Atlantic keystone zooplankton copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which is the main prey for pelagic fish and some seabirds, in relation to selected environmental variables in this area between 2001 and 2011, when warming in the Arctic and Subarctic was particularly pronounced. Sampling within a three-week time window each summer demonstrated that trends in the overall abundance of C...
August 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799245/when-and-where-to-move-dynamic-occupancy-models-explain-the-range-dynamics-of-a-food-nomadic-bird-under-climate-and-land-cover-change
#6
Riddhika Kalle, Tharmalingam Ramesh, Colleen T Downs
Globally, long-term research is critical to monitor the responses of tropical species to climate and land cover change at the range scale. Citizen science surveys can reveal the long-term persistence of poorly known nomadic tropical birds occupying fragmented forest patches. We applied dynamic occupancy models to 13 years (2002-2014) of citizen science driven presence/absence data on Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus), a food nomadic bird endemic to South Africa. We modelled its underlying range dynamics as a function of resource distribution, and change in climate and land cover through the estimation of colonization and extinction patterns...
August 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796923/global-scale-patterns-of-nutrient-density-and-partitioning-in-forests-in-relation-to-climate
#7
Kerong Zhang, Conghe Song, Yulong Zhang, Haishan Dang, Xiaoli Cheng, Quanfa Zhang
Knowledge of nutrient storage and partitioning in forests is imperative for ecosystem models and ecological theory. Whether the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) stored in forest biomass and their partitioning patterns vary systematically across climatic gradients remains unknown. Here, we explored the global-scale patterns of nutrient density and partitioning using a newly compiled dataset including 372 forest stands. We found that temperature and precipitation were key factors driving the nutrients stored in living biomass of forests at global-scale...
August 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787760/student-s-tutorial-on-bloom-hypotheses-in-the-context-of-phytoplankton-annual-cycles
#8
Michael J Behrenfeld, Emmanuel S Boss
Phytoplankton blooms are elements in repeating annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass and they have significant ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Temporal changes in phytoplankton biomass are governed by complex predator-prey interactions and physically-driven variations in upper water-column the growth conditions (light, nutrient, temperature). Understanding these dependencies is fundamental to assessing future change in bloom frequency, duration, and magnitude and thus represents a quintessential challenge in global change biology...
August 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787756/pelagic-marine-refugia-and-climatically-sensitive-areas-in-an-eastern-boundary-current-upwelling-system
#9
Caren Barceló, Lorenzo Ciannelli, Richard D Brodeur
Refugia are areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change that enable the persistence of valued physical, ecological or socio-cultural resources. Spatially identifying refugia is important for conservation and applied management. Yet the concept of refugia has not been broadly extended to marine ecosystems. Here, we analyze data from a unique and long-term (1999-2015) standardized survey of pelagic marine and anadromous species off Oregon and Washington in the northern California Current to identify such refugia...
August 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787754/history-matters-heterotrophic-microbial-community-structure-and-function-adapt-to-multiple-stressors
#10
Alexander Feckler, Willem Goedkoop, Marco Konschak, Rebecca Bundschuh, Kilian G J Kenngott, Ralf Schulz, Jochen P Zubrod, Mirco Bundschuh
Ecosystem functions in streams (e.g., microbially mediated leaf litter breakdown) are threatened globally by the predicted agricultural intensification and its expansion into pristine areas, which is associated with increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides. However, the ecological consequences may depend on the disturbance history of microbial communities. To test this, we assessed the effects of fungicides and nutrients (four levels each) on the structural and functional resilience of leaf-associated microbial communities with differing disturbance histories (pristine vs...
August 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776870/marine-terminating-glaciers-sustain-high-productivity-in-greenland-fjords
#11
Lorenz Meire, John Mortensen, Patrick Meire, Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Mikael K Sejr, Søren Rysgaard, Rasmus Nygaard, Philippe Huybrechts, Filip J R Meysman
Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers...
August 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762601/natural-acidification-changes-the-timing-and-rate-of-succession-alters-community-structure-and-increases-homogeneity-in-marine-biofouling-communities
#12
Norah E M Brown, Marco Milazzo, Sam P S Rastrick, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Thomas W Therriault, Christopher G D Harley
Ocean acidification may have far-reaching consequences for marine community and ecosystem dynamics, but its full impacts remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of manipulating pCO2 at the ecosystem level to mimic realistic fluctuations that occur on a number of different timescales. It is especially unclear how quickly communities at various stages of development respond to intermediate-scale pCO2 change and, if high pCO2 is relieved mid-succession, whether past acidification effects persist, are reversed by alleviation of pCO2 stress, or are worsened by departures from prior high pCO2 conditions to which organisms had acclimatized...
August 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762590/contributions-of-insects-and-droughts-to-growth-decline-of-trembling-aspen-mixed-boreal-forest-of-western-canada
#13
Lei Chen, Jian-Guo Huang, Andria Dawson, Lihong Zhai, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau, Caroline Whitehouse
Insects, diseases, fire and drought and other disturbances associated with global climate change contribute to forest decline and mortality in many parts of the world. Forest decline and mortality related to drought or insect outbreaks have been observed in North American aspen forests. However, little research has been done to partition and estimate their relative contributions to growth declines. In this study, we combined tree-ring width and basal area increment series from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
August 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758293/protected-areas-offer-refuge-from-invasive-species-spreading-under-climate-change
#14
Belinda Gallardo, David C Aldridge, Pablo González-Moreno, Jan Pergl, Manuel Pizarro, Petr Pyšek, Wilfried Thuiller, Christopher Yesson, Montserrat Vilà
Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter...
July 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755499/forecasting-future-recruitment-success-for-atlantic-cod-in-the-warming-and-acidifying-barents-sea
#15
Stefan Koenigstein, Flemming T Dahlke, Martina H Stiasny, Daniela Storch, Catriona Clemmesen, Hans-Otto Pörtner
Productivity of marine fish stocks is known to be affected by environmental and ecological drivers, and global climate change is anticipated to alter recruitment success of many stocks. While the direct effects of environmental drivers on fish early life stage survival can be quantified experimentally, indirect effects in marine ecosystems and the role of adaptation are still highly uncertain. We developed an integrative model for the effects of ocean warming and acidification on the early life stages of Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea, termed SCREI (Simulator of Cod Recruitment under Environmental Influences)...
July 29, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755429/identifying-keystone-habitats-with-a-mosaic-approach-can-improve-biodiversity-conservation-in-disturbed-ecosystems
#16
Sean M Hitchman, Martha E Mather, Joseph M Smith, Jane S Fencl
Conserving native biodiversity in the face of human- and climate-related impacts is a challenging and globally important ecological problem that requires an understanding of spatially-connected, organismal-habitat relationships. Globally, a suite of disturbances (e.g., agriculture, urbanization, climate change) degrades habitats and threatens biodiversity. A mosaic approach (in which connected, interacting collections of juxtaposed habitat patches are examined) provides a scientific foundation for addressing many disturbance-related, ecologically-based conservation problems...
July 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755391/impact-of-winter-roads-on-boreal-peatland-carbon-exchange
#17
Maria Strack, Divya Softa, Melanie Bird, Bin Xu
Across Canada's boreal forest, linear disturbances, including cutlines such as seismic lines and roads, crisscross the landscape to facilitate resource exploration and extraction; many of these linear disturbances cross peatland ecosystems. Changes in tree canopy cover and the compression of the peat by heavy equipment alters local thermal, hydrological and ecological conditions, likely changing carbon exchange on the disturbance, and possibly in the adjacent peatland. We measured bulk density, water table, soil temperature, plant cover, and CO2 and CH4 flux along triplicate transects crossing a winter road through a wooded fen near Peace River, Alberta, Canada...
July 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755386/variable-silicon-accumulation-in-plants-affects-terrestrial-carbon-cycling-by-controlling-lignin-synthesis
#18
T Klotzbücher, A Klotzbücher, K Kaiser, D Vetterlein, R Jahn, R Mikutta
Current climate and land-use changes affect regional and global cycles of silicon (Si), with yet uncertain consequences for ecosystems. The key role of Si in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, grasses and various other plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural plant component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin...
July 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752626/stand-dynamics-modulate-water-cycling-and-mortality-risk-in-droughted-tropical-forest
#19
Antonio C L da Costa, Lucy Rowland, Rafael S Oliveira, Alex A R Oliveira, Oliver J Binks, Yann Salmon, Steel S Vasconcelos, João A S Junior, Leandro V Ferreira, Rafael Poyatos, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick Meir
Transpiration from the Amazon rainforest generates an essential water source at a global and local scale. However, changes in rainforest function with climate change can disrupt this process, causing significant reductions in precipitation across Amazonia, and potentially at a global scale. We report the only study of forest transpiration following a long-term (>10 year) experimental drought treatment in Amazonian forest. After 15 years of receiving half the normal rainfall, drought-related tree mortality caused total forest transpiration to decrease by 30%...
July 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752605/peaks-of-in-situ-n2-o-emissions-are-influenced-by-n2-o-producing-and-reducing-microbial-communities-across-arable-soils
#20
L A Domeignoz-Horta, L Philippot, C Peyrard, D Bru, M C Breuil, F Bizouard, E Justes, B Mary, J Léonard, A Spor
Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial N2 O emissions, a potent greenhouse gas and the main cause of ozone depletion. The reduction of N2 O into N2 by microorganisms carrying the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) is the only known biological process eliminating this greenhouse gas. Recent studies showed that a previously unknown clade of N2 O-reducers (nosZII) was related to the potential capacity of the soil to act as a N2 O sink. However little is known about how this group responds to different agricultural practices...
July 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
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