Read by QxMD icon Read

Global Change Biology

Alana Grech, Emmanuel Hanert, Len McKenzie, Michael Rasheed, Christopher Thomas, Samantha Tol, Mingzhu Wang, Michelle Waycott, Jolan Wolter, Rob Coles
The rate of exchange, or connectivity, among populations effects their ability to recover after disturbance events. However, there is limited information on the extent to which populations are connected or how multiple disturbances affect connectivity, especially in coastal and marine ecosystems. We used network analysis and the outputs of a biophysical model to measure potential functional connectivity and predict the impact of multiple disturbances on seagrasses in the central Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), Australia...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Irena F Creed, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Charles G Trick, Nancy B Grimm, Dag O Hessen, Jan Karlsson, Karen A Kidd, Emma Kritzberg, Diane M McKnight, Erika C Freeman, Oscar E Senar, Agneta Andersson, Jenny Ask, Martin Berggren, Mehdi Cherif, Reiner Giesler, Erin R Hotchkiss, Pirkko Kortelainen, Monica M Palta, Tobias Vrede, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) - the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems - with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Eric W Malone, Joshuah S Perkin, Brian M Leckie, Matthew A Kulp, Carla R Hurt, Donald M Walker
Extirpated organisms are reintroduced into their former ranges worldwide to combat species declines and biodiversity losses. The growing field of reintroduction biology provides guiding principles for reestablishing populations, though criticisms remain regarding limited integration of initial planning, modeling frameworks, interdisciplinary collaborations, and multi-species approaches. We used an interdisciplinary, multi-species, quantitative framework to plan reintroductions of three fish species into Abrams Creek, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Emma L Cross, Elizabeth M Harper, Lloyd S Peck
The inability of organisms to cope in changing environments poses a major threat to their survival. Rising carbon dioxide concentrations, recently exceeding 400 μatm, are rapidly warming and acidifying our oceans. Current understanding of organism responses to this environmental phenomenon is based mainly on relatively short- to medium-term laboratory and field experiments, which cannot evaluate the potential for long-term acclimation and adaptation, the processes identified as most important to confer resistance...
March 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Maik Rehnus, Kurt Bollmann, Dirk R Schmatz, Klaus Hackländer, Veronika Braunisch
Alpine and Arctic species are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, which is expected to cause habitat loss, fragmentation and-ultimately-extinction of cold-adapted species. However, the impact of climate change on glacial relict populations is not well understood, and specific recommendations for adaptive conservation management are lacking. We focused on the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) as a model species and modelled species distribution in combination with patch and landscape-based connectivity metrics...
March 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Vincent Boulanger, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Frédéric Archaux, Vincent Badeau, Christophe Baltzinger, Richard Chevalier, Emmanuel Corcket, Yann Dumas, Françoise Forgeard, Anders Mårell, Pierre Montpied, Yoan Paillet, Sonia Saïd, Erwin Ulrich
In Boulanger et al. (2018), we assessed the role of ungulates' presence on short-term understory plant dynamics, using a nationwide network composed of paired exclosure-control plots. We demonstrated that ungulates are key drivers of understory vegetation in managed forests since they alter the richness and abundance of the shrub layer, increase the richness of the herb layer and favour open habitat plant species. Our results show that local scale mechanisms, here involving indirect facilitation, lead to global dynamics in forest-ungulate systems...
March 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Valentin H Klaus, Till Kleinebecker, Verena Busch, Markus Fischer, Norbert Hölzel, Sascha Nowak, Daniel Prati, Deborah Schäfer, Ingo Schöning, Marion Schrumpf, Ute Hamer
The intensification of land use constitutes one of the main drivers of global change and alters nutrient fluxes on all spatial scales, causing landscape-level eutrophication and contamination of natural resources. Changes in soil nutrient concentrations are thus indicative for crucial environmental issues associated with intensive land use. We measured concentrations of NO3 -N, NH4 -N, P, K, Mg and Ca by using 1326 ion-exchange resin bags buried in 20 cm depth beneath the main root zone in 150 temperate grasslands...
March 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Aaron Teets, Shawn Fraver, Aaron R Weiskittel, David Y Hollinger
A range of environmental factors regulate tree growth; however, climate is generally thought to most strongly influence year-to-year variability in growth. Numerous dendrochronological (tree-ring) studies have identified climate factors that influence year-to-year variability in growth for given tree species and location. However, traditional dendrochronology methods have limitations that prevent them from adequately assessing stand-level (as opposed to species-level) growth. We argue that stand-level growth analyses provide a more meaningful assessment of forest response to climate fluctuations, as well as the management options that may be employed to sustain forest productivity...
March 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Monica Leitner, Andrew B Davies, Catherine L Parr, Paul Eggleton, Mark P Robertson
Woody encroachment can lead to a complete switch from open habitats to dense thickets, and has the potential to greatly alter the biodiversity and ecological functioning of grassy ecosystems across the globe. Plant litter decomposition is a critical ecosystem process fundamental to nutrient cycling and global carbon dynamics, yet little is known about how woody encroachment might alter this process. We compared grass decay rates of heavily encroached areas with adjacent non-encroached open areas in a semi-arid South African savanna using litterbags that allowed or excluded invertebrates...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Maria Myrstener, Gerard Rocher-Ros, Ryan M Burrows, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Reiner Giesler, Ryan A Sponseller
Climate change is rapidly reshaping arctic landscapes through shifts in vegetation cover and productivity, soil resource mobilization, and hydrological regimes. The implications of these changes for stream ecosystems and food webs is unclear and will depend largely on microbial biofilm responses to concurrent shifts in temperature, light, and resource supply from land. To study those responses, we used nutrient diffusing substrates to manipulate resource supply to biofilm communities along regional gradients in stream temperature, riparian shading, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading in arctic Sweden...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Nicholas L Payne, Carl G Meyer, James A Smith, Jonathan D R Houghton, Adam Barnett, Bonnie J Holmes, Itsumi Nakamura, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Mark A Royer, Daniel M Coffey, James M Anderson, Melanie R Hutchinson, Katsufumi Sato, Lewis G Halsey
The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Holly Bennett, James J Bell, Simon K Davy, Nicole S Webster, David S Francis
Ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) are threatening coral reef ecosystems, with a bleak future forecast for reef-building corals, which are already experiencing global declines in abundance. In contrast, many coral reef sponge species are able to tolerate climate change conditions projected for 2100. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this tolerance, we explored the lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition of four sponge species with differing sensitivities to climate change, experimentally exposed to OW and OA levels predicted for 2100, under two CO2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)...
March 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Scott L Collins, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Kelly Hamonts, William T Pockman, Robert L Sinsabaugh, Melinda D Smith, Alan K Knapp, Sally A Power
The effects of short-term drought on soil microbial communities remain largely unexplored, particularly at large scales and under field conditions. We used seven experimental sites from two continents (North America and Australia) to evaluate the impacts of imposed extreme drought on the abundance, community composition, richness and function of soil bacterial and fungal communities. The sites encompassed different grassland ecosystems spanning a wide range of climatic and soil properties. Drought significantly altered the community composition of soil bacteria and, to a lesser extent, fungi in grasslands from two continents...
March 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
B Riegl, M Johnston, S Purkis, E Howells, J Burt, S C C Steiner, C R C Sheppard, A Bauman
As in the tropical Atlantic, Acropora populations in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf plummeted within two decades after having been ecosystem engineers on most wave-exposed reefs since the Pleistocene. Since 1996/8 live coral cover in the Gulf declined by over 90% in many areas, primarily due to bleaching and diseases caused by rising temperatures. In the formerly dominant table-coral species A. downingi, population dynamics corresponding to disturbance regimes was quantified in three transition matrices (lower disturbance pre-1996; moderate disturbance from 1998-2010 and 2013-17, disturbed in 1996/8, 2010/11/12, 2017)...
March 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
Andreas Hemp, Claudia Hemp
Biodiversity studies of global change mainly focus on direct impacts such as losses in species numbers or ecosystem functions. In this study, we focus on the long-term effects of recent land-cover conversion and subsequent ecological isolation of Kilimanjaro on biodiversity in a paleobiogeographical context, linking our findings with the long-standing question whether colonization of African mountains mainly depended on long-distance dispersal, or whether gradual migration has been possible through habitat bridges under colder climates...
March 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
Frederico Valtuille Faleiro, André Nemésio, Rafael Loyola
Studies have tested whether model predictions based on species' occurrence can predict the spatial pattern of population abundance. The relationship between predicted environmental suitability and population abundance varies in shape, strength and predictive power. However, little attention has been paid to the congruence in predictions of different models fed with occurrence or abundance data, in particular when comparing metrics of climate change impact. Here, we used the ecological niche modeling fit with presence-absence and abundance data of orchid bees to predict the effect of climate change on species and assembly level distribution patterns...
March 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Caitlin E Moore, Jason Beringer, Randall J Donohue, Bradley Evans, Jean-François Exbrayat, Lindsay B Hutley, Nigel J Tapper
Tree-grass savannas are a widespread biome and are highly valued for their ecosystem services. There is a need to understand the long-term dynamics and meteorological drivers of both tree and grass productivity separately in order to successfully manage savannas in the future. This study investigated the interannual variability (IAV) of tree and grass gross primary productivity (GPP) by combining a long-term (15 year) eddy covariance flux record and model estimates of tree and grass GPP inferred from satellite remote sensing...
February 28, 2018: Global Change Biology
Antonio Gazol, Jesus Julio Camarero, Sergio M Vicente-Serrano, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, Emilia Gutiérrez, Martin de Luis, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Klemen Novak, Vicente Rozas, Pedro A Tíscar, Juan C Linares, Natalia Martín-Hernández, Edurne Martínez Del Castillo, Montse Ribas, Ignacio García-González, Fernando Silla, Alvaro Camisón, Mar Génova, José M Olano, Luis A Longares, Andrea Hevia, Miquel Tomás-Burguera, J Diego Galván
Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes...
February 28, 2018: Global Change Biology
Joseph E Carrara, Christopher A Walter, Jennifer S Hawkins, William T Peterjohn, Colin Averill, Edward R Brzostek
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has enhanced soil carbon (C) stocks in temperate forests. Most research has posited that these soil C gains are driven primarily by shifts in fungal community composition with elevated N leading to declines in lignin degrading Basidiomycetes. Recent research, however, suggests that plants and soil microbes are dynamically intertwined, whereby plants send C subsidies to rhizosphere microbes to enhance enzyme production and the mobilization of N. Thus, under elevated N, trees may reduce belowground C allocation leading to cascading impacts on the ability of microbes to degrade soil organic matter through a shift in microbial species and/or a change in plant-microbe interactions...
February 28, 2018: Global Change Biology
Peter Alexander, Sam Rabin, Peter Anthoni, Roslyn Henry, Thomas A M Pugh, Mark D A Rounsevell, Almut Arneth
Land use contributes to environmental change, but is also influenced by such changes. Climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels changes alter agricultural crop productivity, plant water requirements and irrigation water availability. The global food system needs to respond and adapt to these changes, for example by altering agricultural practices, including the crop types or intensity of management, or shifting cultivated areas within and between countries. As impacts and associated adaptation responses are spatially specific, understanding the land use adaptation to environmental changes requires crop productivity representations that captures spatial variations...
February 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"