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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940907/complex-effect-of-projected-sea-temperature-and-wind-change-on-flatfish-dispersal
#1
Geneviève Lacroix, Léo Barbut, Filip A M Volckaert
Climate change not only alters ocean physics and chemistry but also affects the biota. Larval dispersal patterns from spawning to nursery grounds and larval survival are driven by hydrodynamic processes and shaped by (a)biotic environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to understand the impacts of increased temperature rise and changes in wind speed and direction on larval drift and survival. We apply a particle-tracking model coupled to a 3D-hydrodynamic model of the English Channel and the North Sea to study the dispersal dynamics of the exploited flatfish (common) sole (Solea solea)...
September 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940527/prioritizing-forest-fuels-treatments-based-on-the-probability-of-high-severity-fire-restores-adaptive-capacity-in-sierran-forests
#2
Daniel J Krofcheck, Matthew D Hurteau, Robert M Scheller, E Louise Loudermilk
In frequent fire forests of the western US a legacy of fire suppression coupled with increases in fire weather severity have altered fire regimes and vegetation dynamics. When coupled with projected climate change, these conditions have the potential to lead to vegetation type change and altered carbon (C) dynamics. In the Sierra Nevada, fuels reduction approaches that include mechanical thinning followed by regular prescribed fire are one approach to restore the ability of the ecosystem to tolerate episodic fire and still sequester C...
September 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940511/climate-mitigation-by-dairy-intensification-depends-on-intensive-use-of-spared-grassland
#3
David Styles, Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, Jon Moorby, Andreas Foskolos, James Gibbons
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets...
September 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925537/continental-extent-patterns-in-amphibian-malformations-linked-to-parasites-chemical-contaminants-and-their-interactions
#4
Sarah E Haas, Mari K Reeves, Alfred E Pinkney, Pieter T J Johnson
Widespread observations of malformed amphibians across North America have generated both concern and controversy. Debates over the causes of such malformations-which can affect >50% of animals in a population-have continued, likely due to involvement of multiple causal factors. Here, we used a 13-year dataset encompassing 53,880 frogs and toads from 422 wetlands and 42 states in the conterminous USA to test hypotheses relating abnormalities and four categories of potential drivers: (1) chemical contaminants, (2) land use practices, (3) parasite infection, and (4) targeted interactions between parasites and pesticides...
September 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922515/increased-resource-use-efficiency-amplifies-positive-response-of-aquatic-primary-production-to-experimental-warming
#5
James M Hood, Jonathan P Benstead, Wyatt F Cross, Alexander D Huryn, Philip W Johnson, Gísli M Gíslason, James R Junker, Daniel Nelson, Jón S Ólafsson, Chau Tran
Climate warming is affecting the structure and function of river ecosystems, including their role in transforming and transporting carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Predicting how river ecosystems respond to warming has been hindered by a dearth of information about how otherwise well-studied physiological responses to temperature scale from organismal to ecosystem levels. We conducted an ecosystem-level temperature manipulation to quantify how coupling of stream ecosystem metabolism and nutrient uptake responded to a realistic warming scenario...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#6
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921829/vegetation-demographics-in-earth-system-models-a-review-of-progress-and-priorities
#7
Rosie A Fisher, Charles D Koven, William R L Anderegg, Bradley O Christoffersen, Michael C Dietze, Caroline Farrior, Jennifer A Holm, George Hurtt, Ryan G Knox, Peter J Lawrence, Jeremy W Lichststein, Marcos Longo, Ashley M Matheny, David Medvigy, Helene C Muller-Landau, Thomas L Powell, Shawn P Serbin, Hisashi Sato, Jacquelyn Shuman, Benjamin Smith, Anna T Trugman, Toni Viskari, Hans Verbeeck, Ensheng Weng, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu, Tao Zhang, Paul Moorcroft
Numerous current efforts seek to improve the representation of ecosystem ecology and vegetation demographic processes within Earth System Models (ESMs). These developments are widely viewed as an important step in developing greater realism in predictions of future ecosystem states and fluxes. Increased realism, however, leads to increased model complexity, with new features raising a suite of ecological questions that require empirical constraints. Here, we review the developments that permit the representation of plant demographics in ESMs, and identify issues raised by these developments that highlight important gaps in ecological understanding...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921806/a-large-area-spatially-continuous-assessment-of-land-cover-map-error-and-its-impact-on-downstream-analyses
#8
Lyndon Estes, Peng Chen, Stephanie Debats, Tom Evans, Stefanus Ferreira, Tobias Kuemmerle, Gabrielle Ragazzo, Justin Sheffield, Adam Wolf, Eric Wood, Kelly Caylor
Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess 1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and 2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security...
September 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915315/on-the-causes-of-trends-in-the-seasonal-amplitude-of-atmospheric-co2
#9
Shilong Piao, Zhuo Liu, Yilong Wang, Philippe Ciais, Yitong Yao, Shushi Peng, Frédéric Chevallier, Pierre Friedlingstein, Ivan A Janssens, Josep Peñuelas, Stephen Sitch, Tao Wang
No consensus has yet been reached on the major factors driving the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 in the northern latitudes. In this study, we used atmospheric CO2 records from 26 northern hemisphere stations with a temporal coverage longer than 15 years, and an atmospheric transport model prescribed with net biome productivity (NBP) from an ensemble of nine terrestrial ecosystem models, to attribute change in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 . We found significant (P<0...
September 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906052/forest-biomass-productivity-and-carbon-cycling-along-a-rainfall-gradient-in-west-africa
#10
Sam Moore, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Akwasi Duah-Gyamfi, Shalom D Addo-Danso, Forzia Ibrahim, Armel T Mbou, Agnès de Grandcourt, Riccardo Valentini, Giacomo Nicolini, Gloria Djagbletey, Kennedy Owusu-Afriyie, Agne Gvozdevaite, Imma Oliveras, Maria C Ruiz-Jaen, Yadvinder Malhi
Net primary productivity (NPP) is one of the most important parameters in describing the functioning of any ecosystem and yet it arguably remains a poorly quantified and understood component of carbon cycling in tropical forests, especially outside of the Americas. We provide the first comprehensive analysis of NPP and its carbon allocation to woody, canopy and root growth components at contrasting lowland West African forests spanning a rainfall gradient. Using a standardised methodology to study evergreen (EF), semi-deciduous (SDF), dry forests (DF) and woody savanna (WS), we find that (i) climate is more closely related with above and belowground C stocks than with NPP (ii) total NPP is highest in the SDF site, then the EF followed by the DF and WS and that (iii) different forest types have distinct carbon allocation patterns whereby SDF allocate in excess of 50% to canopy production and the DF and WS sites allocate 40-50% to woody production...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905461/assessment-of-ecosystem-resilience-to-hydroclimatic-disturbances-in-india
#11
Ashutosh Sharma, Manish Kumar Goyal
Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in hydroclimatic disturbances like droughts, which are anticipated to become more frequent and intense under global warming and climate change. Droughts adversely affect the vegetation growth and crop yield, which enhances the risks to food security for a country like India with over 1.2 billion people to feed. Here, we compared the response of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) to hydroclimatic disturbances in India at different scales (i.e., at river basins, land covers, and climate types) to examine the ecosystems' resilience to such adverse conditions...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902445/nutrients-and-temperature-additively-increase-stream-microbial-respiration
#12
David W P Manning, Amy D Rosemond, Vladislav Gulis, Jonathan P Benstead, John S Kominoski
Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co-occurring global-change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon (C), but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across seasonal temperature gradients before (PRE) and after (ENR1, ENR2) experimental nutrient (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) additions to five forest streams...
September 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895271/multi-model-comparison-highlights-consistency-in-predicted-effect-of-warming-on-a-semi-arid-shrub
#13
Katherine M Renwick, Caroline Curtis, Andrew R Kleinhesselink, Daniel Schlaepfer, Bethany A Bradley, Cameron L Aldridge, Benjamin Poulter, Peter B Adler
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species...
September 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892592/analysis-of-climate-signals-in-the-crop-yield-record-of-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Alexis L Hoffman, Armen R Kemanian, Chris E Forest
Food security and agriculture productivity assessments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) require a better understanding of how climate and other drivers influence regional crop yields. In this paper, our objective was to identify the climate signal in the realized yields of maize, sorghum, and groundnut in SSA. We explored the relation between crop yields and scale-compatible climate data for the 1962-2014 period using Random Forest, a diagnostic machine learning technique. We found that improved agricultural technology and country fixed effects are three times more important than climate variables for explaining changes in crop yields in SSA...
September 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892578/co2-evasion-from-boreal-lakes-revised-estimate-drivers-of-spatial-variability-and-future-projections
#15
Adam Hastie, Ronny Lauerwald, Gesa Weyhenmeyer, Sebastian Sobek, Charles Verpoorter, Pierre Regnier
Lakes (including reservoirs) are an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, as acknowledged by the 5(th) assessment report of the IPCC. In the context of lakes, the boreal region is disproportionately important contributing to 27% of the worldwide lake area, despite representing just 14% of global land surface area. In this study, we used a statistical approach to derive a prediction equation for the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in lakes as a function of lake area, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) and precipitation (r(2) = 0...
September 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892277/ungulates-increase-forest-plant-species-richness-to-the-benefit-of-non-forest-specialists
#16
Vincent Boulanger, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Frédéric Archaux, Vincent Badeau, Christophe Baltzinger, Richard Chevalier, Emmanuel Corcket, Yann Dumas, Françoise Forgeard, Anders Mårell, Pierre Montpied, Yoan Paillet, Jean-François Picard, Sonia Saïd, Erwin Ulrich
Large wild ungulates are a major biotic factor shaping plant communities. They influence species abundance and occurrence directly by herbivory and plant dispersal, or indirectly by modifying plant-plant interactions and through soil disturbance. In forest ecosystems, researchers' attention has been mainly focused on deer overabundance. Far less is known about the effects on understory plant dynamics and diversity of wild ungulates where their abundance is maintained at lower levels to mitigate impacts on tree regeneration...
September 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886232/what-type-of-rigorous-experiments-are-needed-to-investigate-the-impact-of-artificial-light-at-night-on-individuals-and-populations
#17
Jenny Qianni Ouyang, Maaike de Jong, Roy Ha van Grunsven, Kevin D Matson, Mark F Haussmann, Peter Meerlo, Marcel Visser, Kamiel Spoelstra
In our recent paper on how artificial light at night (ALAN) affects within-individual changes in physiology, we used a unique experimental setup of colored LED lights to show effects on nighttime activity levels and physiology in free-living great tits, Parus major (Ouyang et al., 2017). Raap et al's response, entitled: "Rigorous field experiments are essential to understand the genuine severity of light pollution and to identify possible solutions" lists issues with our analyses (Raap et al., 2017). Rather than go into a detailed response, we use this forum to address the major critiques by answering the bigger question of what types of rigorous field experiments are needed to evaluate ALAN's impact...
September 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881439/natural-disturbances-are-spatially-diverse-but-temporally-synchronized-across-temperate-forest-landscapes-in-europe
#18
Cornelius Senf, Rupert Seidl
Natural disturbance regimes are changing substantially in forests around the globe. However, large-scale disturbance change is modulated by a considerable spatiotemporal variation within biomes. This variation remains incompletely understood particularly in the temperate forests of Europe, for which consistent large-scale disturbance information is lacking. Here our aim was to quantify the spatiotemporal patterns of forest disturbances across temperate forest landscapes in Europe using remote sensing data, and determine their underlying drivers...
September 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875526/towards-physiologically-meaningful-water-use-efficiency-estimates-from-eddy-covariance-data
#19
Jürgen Knauer, Sönke Zaehle, Belinda E Medlyn, Markus Reichstein, Christopher A Williams, Mirco Migliavacca, Martin G De Kauwe, Christiane Werner, Claudia Keitel, Pasi Kolari, Jean-Marc Limousin, Maj-Lena Linderson
Intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) characterizes the physiological control on the simultaneous exchange of water and carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge of iWUE is commonly gained from leaf-level gas exchange measurements, which are inevitably restricted in their spatial and temporal coverage. Flux measurements based on the eddy covariance (EC) technique can overcome these limitations, as they provide continuous and long-term records of carbon and water fluxes at the ecosystem scale. However, vegetation gas exchange parameters derived from EC data are subject to scale-dependent and method-specific uncertainties that compromise their ecophysiological interpretation as well as their comparability among ecosystems and across spatial scales...
September 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871613/quality-assured-long-term-satellite-based-leaf-area-index-product
#20
Jian Peng, Simon Blessing, Ralf Giering, Benjamin Müller, Nadine Gobron, Joanne Nightingale, Folkert Boersma, Jan-Peter Muller
Global long-term Satellite-based leaf area index (LAI) products have been generated and applied widely for understanding the feedbacks between climate and terrestrial vegetation. However, these long-term LAI products are not internally consistent over time and also not consistent with each other, which means they might be not suitable for serving as reference datasets in long-term global change research. Therefore, there is a strong need for a quality-assured long-term LAI product with reliable, traceable and understandable quality information...
September 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
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