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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323368/biotic-interactions-modify-multiple-stressor-effects-on-juvenile-brown-trout-in-an-experimental-stream-food-web
#1
Andreas Bruder, Romana K Salis, Peter E Jones, Christoph D Matthaei
Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e...
March 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319292/high-n-dry-experimental-nitrogen-deposition-exacerbates-native-shrub-loss-and-nonnative-plant-invasion-during-extreme-drought
#2
Justin M Valliere, Irina C Irvine, Louis Santiago, Edith B Allen
Hotter, longer, and more frequent global change-type drought events may profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystems by triggering widespread vegetation mortality. However, severe drought is only one component of global change, and ecological effects of drought may be compounded by other drivers, such as anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and nonnative plant invasion. Elevated N deposition, for example, may reduce drought tolerance through increased plant productivity, thereby contributing to drought-induced mortality...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318131/hydrologic-refugia-plants-and-climate-change
#3
REVIEW
Blair C McLaughlin, David D Ackerly, P Zion Klos, Jennifer Natali, Todd E Dawson, Sally E Thompson
Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317324/big-in-the-benthos-future-change-of-seafloor-community-biomass-in-a-global-body-size-resolved-model
#4
Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317232/soil-parent-material-a-major-driver-of-plant-nutrient-limitations-in-terrestrial-ecosystems
#5
Laurent Augusto, David L Achat, Mathieu Jonard, David Vidal, Bruno Ringeval
Because the capability of terrestrial ecosystems to fix carbon is constrained by nutrient availability, understanding how nutrients limit plant growth is a key contemporary question. However, what drives nutrient limitations at global scale remains to be clarified. Using global data on plant growth, plant nutritive status, and soil fertility, we investigated to which extent soil parent materials explain nutrient limitations. We found that N limitation was not linked to soil parent materials, but was best explained by climate: ecosystems under harsh (i...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317226/decreased-losses-of-woody-plant-foliage-to-insects-in-large-urban-areas-are-explained-by-bird-predation
#6
Mikhail V Kozlov, Vojtěch Lanta, Vitali Zverev, Kalle Rainio, Mikhail A Kunavin, Elena L Zvereva
Despite the increasing rate of urbanisation, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanisation impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanisation impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303652/photoperiod-cues-and-patterns-of-genetic-variation-limit-phenological-responses-to-climate-change-in-warm-parts-of-species-range-modeling-diameter-growth-cessation-in-coast-douglas-fir
#7
Kevin R Ford, Constance A Harrington, J Bradley St Clair
The phenology of diameter-growth cessation in trees will likely play a key role in mediating species and ecosystem responses to climate change. A common expectation is that warming will delay cessation, but the environmental and genetic influences on this process are poorly understood. We modeled the effects of temperature, photoperiod and seed-source climate on diameter-growth cessation timing in coast Douglas-fir (an ecologically and economically vital tree) using high-frequency growth measurements across broad environmental gradients for a range of genotypes from different seed sources...
March 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#8
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296022/large-but-uneven-reduction-in-fish-size-across-species-in-relation-to-changing-sea-temperatures
#9
Itai van Rijn, Yehezkel Buba, John DeLong, Moshe Kiflawi, Jonathan Belmaker
Ectotherms often attain smaller body sizes when they develop at higher temperatures. This phenomenon, known as the temperature size rule, has important consequences for global fisheries, whereby ocean warming is predicted to result in smaller fish and reduced biomass. However, the generality of this phenomenon and the mechanisms that drive it in natural populations remain unresolved. In this study we document the maximal size of 74 fish species along a steep temperature gradient in the Mediterranean Sea and find strong support for the temperature size rule...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295947/effects-of-increased-flooding-on-riparian-vegetation-field-experiments-simulating-climate-change-along-five-european-lowland-streams
#10
Annemarie G Garssen, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Tenna Riis, Bart M Raven, Carl Christian Hoffman, Jos T A Verhoeven, Merel B Soons
In many parts of the world, the magnitude and frequency of cold-season precipitation are expected to increase in the near future. This will result in an increased magnitude and duration of winter and spring flooding by rain-fed streams and rivers. Such climate-driven increases in flooding are likely to affect riparian plant communities, but future vegetation changes are hard to predict due to current lack of data. To fill this knowledge gap, we experimentally modified the hydrology of five streams across three countries in North-Western Europe during late winter/early spring over a period of three years...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295932/potential-for-an-arctic-breeding-migratory-bird-to-adjust-spring-migration-phenology-to-arctic-amplification
#11
Thomas K Lameris, Ilse Scholten, Silke Bauer, Marleen M P Cobben, Bruno J Ens, Bart A Nolet
Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295911/co2-exchange-and-evapotranspiration-across-dryland-ecosystems-of-southwestern-north-america
#12
Joel A Biederman, Russell L Scott, Tom W Bell, David R Bowling, Sabina Dore, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Thomas E Kolb, Praveena Krishnan, Dan J Krofcheck, Marcy E Litvak, Gregory E Maurer, Tilden P Meyers, Walter C Oechel, Shirley A Papuga, Guillermo E Ponce-Campos, Julio C Rodriguez, William K Smith, Rodrigo Vargas, Christopher J Watts, Enrico A Yepez, Michael L Goulden
Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in drylands. Here we address this observation gap with eddy covariance data from 25 sites in the water-limited Southwest region of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years (150 site-years in total)...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295840/climatic-changes-can-drive-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna-tree-species
#13
Jacqueline S Lima, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Rosane G Collevatti
The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295885/multi-directional-abundance-shifts-among-north-american-birds-and-the-relative-influence-of-multi-faceted-climate-factors
#14
Qiongyu Huang, John R Sauer, Ralph O Dubayah
Shifts in species distributions are major fingerprint of climate change. Examining changes in species abundance structures at a continental scale enables robust evaluation of climate change influences, but few studies have conducted these evaluations due to limited data and methodological constraints. In this study, we estimate temporal changes in abundance from North American Breeding Bird Survey data at the scale of physiographic strata to examine the relative influence of different components of climatic factors and evaluate the hypothesis that shifting species distributions are multi-directional in resident bird species in North America...
March 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276177/circumpolar-arctic-tundra-biomass-and-productivity-dynamics-in-response-to-projected-climate-change-and-herbivory
#15
Qin Yu, Howard Epstein, Ryan Engstrom, Donald Walker
Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273392/surfing-parameter-hyperspaces-under-climate-change-scenarios-to-design-future-rice-ideotypes
#16
Livia Paleari, Ermes Movedi, Giovanni Cappelli, Lloyd T Wilson, Roberto Confalonieri
Growing food crops to meet global demand and the search for more sustainable cropping systems are increasing the need for new cultivars in key production areas. This study presents the identification of rice traits putatively producing the largest yield benefits in five areas that markedly differ in terms of environmental conditions in the Philippines, India, China, Japan and Italy. The ecophysiological model WARM and sensitivity analysis techniques were used to evaluate phenotypic traits involved with light interception, photosynthetic efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stressors, resistance to fungal pathogens and grain quality...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267246/leaf-and-canopy-scale-drivers-of-genotypic-variation-in-soybean-response-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-concentration
#17
Álvaro Sanz-Sáez, Robert P Koester, David M Rosenthal, Christopher M Montes, Donald R Ort, Elizabeth A Ainsworth
The atmospheric [CO2 ] in which crops grow today is greater than at any point in their domestication history, and represents an opportunity for positive effects on seed yield that can counteract the negative effects of greater heat and drought this century. In order to maximize yields under future atmospheric [CO2 ], we need to identify and study crop cultivars that respond most favorably to elevated [CO2 ] and understand the mechanisms contributing to their responsiveness. Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is a widely grown oilseed crop and shows genetic variation in response to elevated [CO2 ]...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267245/scale-dependent-complementarity-of-climatic-velocity-and-environmental-diversity-for-identifying-priority-areas-for-conservation-under-climate-change
#18
Carlos Carroll, David R Roberts, Julia L Michalak, Joshua J Lawler, Scott E Nielsen, Diana Stralberg, Andreas Hamann, Brad H Mcrae, Tongli Wang
As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different environmental diversity metrics differed substantially from each other and from priorities based on spatiotemporal metrics such as climatic velocity...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267242/arctic-shrub-growth-trajectories-differ-across-soil-moisture-levels
#19
Daniel Ackerman, Daniel Griffin, Sarah E Hobbie, Jacques C Finlay
The circumpolar expansion of woody deciduous shrubs in arctic tundra alters key ecosystem properties including carbon balance and hydrology. However, landscape-scale patterns and drivers of shrub expansion remain poorly understood, inhibiting accurate incorporation of shrub effects into climate models. Here, we use dendroecology to elucidate the role of soil moisture in modifying the relationship between climate and growth for a dominant deciduous shrub, Salix pulchra, on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. We improve upon previous modeling approaches by using ecological theory to guide model selection for the relationship between climate and shrub growth...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263014/human-disturbance-amplifies-amazonian-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-signal
#20
Mark B Bush, Alexander Correa-Metrio, Robert van Woesik, Courtney R Shadik, Crystal N H McMichael
The long-term interaction between human activity and climate is subject to increasing scrutiny. Humans homogenize landscapes through deforestation, agriculture, and burning and thereby might reduce the capacity of landscapes to provide archives of climate change. Alternatively, land-use change might overwhelm natural buffering and amplify latent climate signals, rendering them detectable. Here we examine a sub-annually resolved sedimentary record from Lake Sauce in the western Amazonian lowlands that spans 6900 years...
March 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
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