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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514080/methane-emission-from-feather-moss-stands
#1
Dheeraj Kanaparthi, Andreas Reim, Guntars O Martinson, Bianca Pommerenke, Ralf Conrad
Data from remote sensing and Eddy towers indicate that forests are not always net sinks for atmospheric CH4 . However, studies describing specific sources within forests and functional analysis of microorganisms on sites with CH4 turnover are scarce. Feather moss stands were considered to be net sinks for carbon dioxide, but received little attention to their role in CH4 cycling. Therefore, we investigated methanogenic rates and pathways together with the methanogenic microbial community composition in feather moss stands from temperate and boreal forests...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514052/shift-in-community-structure-in-an-early-successional-mediterranean-shrubland-driven-by-long-term-experimental-warming-and-drought-and-natural-extreme-droughts
#2
Daijun Liu, Marc Estiarte, Romà Ogaya, Xiaohong Yang, Josep Peñuelas
Global warming and recurring drought are expected to accelerate water limitation for plant communities in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems and produce directional shifts in structure and composition that are not easily detected, and supporting evidence is scarce. We conducted a long-term (17 years) nocturnal-warming (+0.6 °C) and drought (-40% rainfall) experiment in an early-successional Mediterranean shrubland to study the changes in community structure and composition, contrasting functional groups and dominant species, and the superimposed effects of natural extreme drought...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513920/moisture-induced-greening-of-the-south-asia-over-the-past-three-decades
#3
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Dan Liu, Hui Guo, Huabing Huang, Yutong Zhao
South Asia experienced a weakening of summer monsoon circulation in the past several decades, resulting in rainfall decline in wet regions. In comparison to other tropical ecosystems, quantitative assessments of the extent and triggers of vegetation change are lacking in assessing climate-change impacts over South Asia dominated by crops. Here we use satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify spatial-temporal changes in vegetation greenness, and find a widespread annual greening trend that stands in contrast to the weakening of summer monsoon circulation particularly over the last decade...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513916/global-forest-carbon-uptake-due-to-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-from-1850-to-2100
#4
Rong Wang, Daniel Goll, Yves Balkanski, Didier Hauglustaine, Olivier Boucher, Philippe Ciais, Ivan Janssens, Josep Penuelas, Bertrand Guenet, Jordi Sardans, Laurent Bopp, Nicolas Vuichard, Feng Zhou, Bengang Li, Shilong Piao, Shushi Peng, Ye Huang, Shu Tao
Spatial patterns and temporal trend of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition are important for quantifying their impact on forest carbon (C) uptake. In a first step, we modeled historical and future change in the global distributions of the atmospheric deposition of N and P from the dry and wet deposition of aerosols and gases containing N and P. Future projections were compared between two scenarios with contrasting aerosol emissions. Modeled fields of N and P deposition and P concentration were evaluated using globally distributed in situ measurements...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500795/the-future-distribution-of-river-fish-the-complex-interplay-of-climate-and-land-use-changes-species-dispersal-and-movement-barriers
#5
Johannes Radinger, Franz Essl, Franz Hölker, Pavel Horký, Ondřej Slavík, Christian Wolter
The future distribution of river fishes will be jointly affected by climate and land use changes forcing species to move in space. However, little is known if fish species will be able to keep pace with predicted climate and land use-driven habitat shifts, in particular in fragmented river networks. In this study, we coupled species distribution models (step-wise boosted regression trees) of 17 fish species with species-specific models of their dispersal (fish dispersal model FIDIMO) in the European River Elbe catchment...
May 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494127/does-iron-reduction-control-the-release-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-phosphate-at-catchment-scales-need-for-a-joint-research-effort
#6
A Musolff, B Selle, O Büttner, M Opitz, K H Knorr, J H Fleckenstein, T Reemtsma, J Tittel
We welcome the comment by Kalbitz et al. (2017) on our recent paper in which we examined long-term time series of concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phosphate from 110 streams in Germany. We concluded that increasing concentrations of both DOC and phosphate were governed by the reduction of iron(III)-minerals in riparian soils and the associated release of the adsorbed compounds. We explained the decreasing stability of the iron minerals by declining nitrogen depositions and thus decreasing nitrate redox buffers in riparian wetland soils (Musolff et al...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494115/disentangling-species-and-functional-group-richness-effects-on-soil-n-cycling-in-a-grassland-ecosystem
#7
Xiaorong Wei, Peter B Reich, Sarah E Hobbie, Clare E Kazanski
Species richness (SR) and functional group richness (FGR) are often confounded in both observational and experimental field studies of biodiversity and ecosystem function. This precludes discernment of their separate influences on ecosystem processes, including nitrogen (N) cycling, and how those influences might be moderated by global change factors. In a 17-year field study of grassland species, we used two full factorial experiments to independently vary SR (1 or 4 species, with FGR=1) and FGR (1-4 groups, with SR=4) to assess SR and FGR effects on ecosystem N cycling and its response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and N addition...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488295/a-global-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-diversified-farming-systems-on-arthropod-diversity-within-fields-and-across-agricultural-landscapes
#8
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Christina M Kennedy, Claire Kremen, Péter Batáry, Frank Berendse, Riccardo Bommarco, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Luísa G Carvalheiro, William E Snyder, Neal M Williams, Rachael Winfree, Björn K Klatt, Sandra Åström, Faye Benjamin, Claire Brittain, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Yann Clough, Bryan Danforth, Tim Diekötter, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Johan Ekroos, Elizabeth Elle, Breno M Freitas, Yuki Fukuda, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Andrea Holzschuh, Rufus Isaacs, Marco Isaia, Shalene Jha, Dennis Jonason, Vincent P Jones, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Deborah K Letourneau, Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel E Mallinger, Emily A Martin, Eliana Martinez, Jane Memmott, Lora Morandin, Lisa Neame, Mark Otieno, Mia G Park, Lukas Pfiffner, Michael J O Pocock, Carlos Ponce, Simon G Potts, Katja Poveda, Mariangie Ramos, Jay A Rosenheim, Maj Rundlöf, Hillary Sardiñas, Manu E Saunders, Nicole L Schon, Amber R Sciligo, C Sheena Sidhu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Teja Tscharntke, Milan Veselý, Wolfgang W Weisser, Julianna K Wilson, David W Crowder
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488280/open-tundra-persist-but-arctic-features-decline-vegetation-changes-in-the-warming-fennoscandian-tundra
#9
Katariina E M Vuorinen, Lauri Oksanen, Tarja Oksanen, Anni Pyykönen, Johan Olofsson, Risto Virtanen
In the forest-tundra ecotone of the North Fennoscandian inland, summer and winter temperatures have increased by two to three centigrades since 1965, which is expected to result in major vegetation changes. To document the expected expansion of woodlands and scrublands and its impact on the arctic vegetation, we repeated a vegetation transect study conducted in 1976 in the Darju, spanning from woodland to a summit, 200 m above the tree line. Contrary to our expectations, tree line movement was not detected, and there was no increase in willows or shrubby mountain birches, either...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485822/delayed-coral-recovery-in-a-warming-ocean
#10
Kate Osborne, Angus A Thompson, Alistair J Cheal, Michael J Emslie, Kerryn A Johns, Michelle J Jonker, Murray Logan, Ian R Miller, Hugh P A Sweatman
Climate change threatens coral reefs across the world. Intense bleaching has caused dramatic coral mortality in many tropical regions in recent decades, but less obvious chronic effects of temperature and other stressors can be equally threatening to the long-term persistence of diverse coral-dominated reef systems. Coral reefs persist if coral recovery rates equal or exceed average rates of mortality. While mortality from acute destructive events is often obvious and easy to measure, estimating recovery rates and investigating the factors that influence them requires long-term commitment...
May 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480591/faster-turnover-of-new-soil-carbon-inputs-under-increased-atmospheric-co2
#11
Kees Jan van Groenigen, Craig W Osenberg, César Terrer, Yolima Carrillo, Feike Dijkstra, James Heath, Ming Nie, Elise Pendall, Richard P Phillips, Bruce A Hungate
Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 frequently stimulate plant inputs to soil, but the consequences of these changes for soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. Plant-derived inputs can accumulate in the soil and become part of the soil C pool ("new soil C"), or accelerate losses of pre-existing ("old") soil C. The dynamics of the new and old pools will likely differ and alter the long-term fate of soil C, but these separate pools, which can be distinguished through isotopic labeling, have not been considered in past syntheses...
May 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480539/plant-litter-chemistry-alters-the-content-and-composition-of-organic-carbon-associated-with-soil-mineral-and-aggregate-fractions-in-invaded-ecosystems
#12
Mioko Tamura, Vidya Suseela, Myrna Simpson, Brian Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Though context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM)...
May 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470864/higher-climate-warming-sensitivity-of-sibirian-larch-in-small-than-large-forest-islands-in-the-fragmented-mongolian-forest-steppe
#13
Elmira Khansaritoreh, Choimaa Dulamsuren, Michael Klinge, Tumurbaatar Ariunbaatar, Banzragch Bat-Enerel, Ganbaatar Batsaikhan, Kherlenchimeg Ganbaatar, Davaadorj Saindovdon, Yolk Yeruult, Jamsran Tsogtbaatar, Daramragchaa Tuya, Christoph Leuschner, Markus Hauck
Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest-steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affect by warming, drought and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area...
May 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470761/phenological-responses-of-icelandic-subarctic-grasslands-to-short-term-and-long-term-natural-soil-warming
#14
N I W Leblans, B D Sigurdsson, S Vicca, Y Fu, J Penuelas, I A Janssens
The phenology of vegetation, particularly the length of the growing season (LOS; i.e. the period from greenup to senescence), is highly sensitive to climate change, which could imply potent feedbacks to the climate system, e.g. by altering the ecosystem carbon (C) balance. In recent decades, the largest extensions of LOS have been reported at high northern latitudes, but further warming-induced LOS extensions may be constrained by too short photoperiod or unfulfilled chilling requirements. Here, we studied subarctic grasslands, which cover a vast area and contain large C stocks, but for which LOS changes under further warming are highly uncertain...
May 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464547/conventional-tillage-decreases-the-abundance-and-biomass-of-earthworms-and-alters-their-community-structure-in-a-global-meta-analysis
#15
Maria J I Briones, Olaf Schmidt
The adoption of less intensive soil cultivation practices is expected to increase earthworm populations and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. However, conflicting results have been reported on the effects of tillage intensity on earthworm populations, attributed in narrative reviews to site-dependent differences in soil properties, climatic conditions, and agronomic operations (e.g., fertilization, residue management and chemical crop protection). We present a quantitative review based on a global meta-analysis, using paired observations from 215 studies performed over 65 years (1950-2016) across 40 countries on five continents, to elucidate this long-standing unresolved issue...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464494/high-arctic-summer-warming-tracked-by-increased-cassiope-tetragona-growth-in-the-world-s-northernmost-polar-desert
#16
Stef Weijers, Agata Buchwal, Daan Blok, Jörg Löffler, Bo Elberling
Rapid climate warming has resulted in shrub expansion, mainly of erect deciduous shrubs in the Low Arctic, but the more extreme, sparsely vegetated, cold and dry High Arctic, is generally considered to remain resistant to such shrub expansion in the next decades. Dwarf shrub dendrochronology may reveal climatological causes of past changes in growth, but is hindered at many High Arctic sites by short and fragmented instrumental climate records. Moreover, only few High Arctic shrub chronologies cover the recent decade of substantial warming...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464493/climate-driven-geographic-distribution-of-the-desert-locust-during-recession-periods-subspecies-niche-differentiation-and-relative-risks-under-scenarios-of-climate-change
#17
Christine N Meynard, Pierre-Emmanuel Gay, Michel Lecoq, Antoine Foucart, Cyril Piou, Marie-Pierre Chapuis
The desert locust is an agricultural pest that is able to switch from a harmless solitarious stage during recession periods, to swarms of gregarious individuals that disperse long distances and affect areas from western Africa to India during outbreak periods. Large outbreaks have been recorded through centuries, and the Food and Agriculture Organization keeps a long-term, large-scale monitoring survey database in the area. However, there is also a much less known subspecies that occupies a limited area in southern Africa...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464444/shifting-pacific-storm-tracks-as-stressors-to-ecosystems-of-western-north-america
#18
Matthew P Dannenberg, Erika K Wise
Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464416/trade-offs-for-food-production-nature-conservation-and-climate-limit-the-terrestrial-carbon-dioxide-removal-potential
#19
Lena R Boysen, Wolfgang Lucht, Dieter Gerten
Large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) are a common factor in climate mitigation scenarios as they promise double benefits: extracting carbon from the atmosphere and providing a renewable energy source. However, their terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) potentials depend on important factors such as land availability, efficiency of capturing biomass-derived carbon and the timing of operation. Land availability is restricted by the demands of future food production depending on yield increases and population growth, by requirements for nature conservation and, with respect to climate mitigation, avoiding unfavourable albedo changes...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464396/asymmetric-effects-of-cooler-and-warmer-winters-on-beech-phenology-last-beyond-spring
#20
Constant Signarbieux, Ester Toledano, Paula Sanginés de Carcer, Yongshuo H Fu, Rodolphe Schlaepfer, Alexandre Buttler, Yann Vitasse
In temperate trees, the timings of plant growth onset and cessation affect biogeochemical cycles, water and energy balance. Currently, phenological studies largely focus on specific phenophases and on their responses to warming. How differently spring phenology responds to the warming and cooling, and affects the subsequent phases, has not been yet investigated in trees. Here, we exposed saplings of Fagus sylvatica L. to warmer and cooler climate during the winter 2013-2014 by conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment between two elevations (1340 vs...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
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