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Global Change Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636146/recent-climatic-drying-leads-to-age-independent-growth-reductions-of-white-spruce-stands-in-western-canada
#1
Edward H Hogg, Michael Michaelian, Trisha I Hook, Michael E Undershultz
Since 2001, climatic conditions have been notably drier than normal across large areas of the western Canadian interior, leading to widespread impacts on the forests of this region. This poses a major concern for the future, given climate change projections for continued warming and drying. We conducted tree-ring analysis in 75 pure stands of white spruce (Picea glauca) across Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan to examine the effects of recent climatic drying on the growth of this important boreal tree species...
June 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621028/climate-change-and-temperature-linked-hatchling-mortality-at-a-globally-important-sea-turtle-nesting-site
#2
Jacques-Olivier Laloë, Jacquie Cozens, Berta Renom, Albert Taxonera, Graeme C Hays
The study of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in vertebrates has attracted major scientific interest. Recently, concerns for species with TSD in a warming world have increased because imbalanced sex ratios could potentially threaten population viability. In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to the direct effects of increased temperatures on successful embryonic development. Using 6603 days of sand temperature data recorded across 6 years at a globally important loggerhead sea turtle rookery-the Cape Verde Islands-we show the effects of warming incubation temperatures on the survival of hatchlings in nests...
June 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618203/modelling-the-dynamic-physical-protection-of-soil-organic-carbon-insights-into-carbon-predictions-and-explanation-of-the-priming-effect
#3
Zhongkui Luo, Jeff Baldock, Enli Wang
The role and significance of physically protected soil organic carbon (SOC) in regulating SOC dynamics is unclear. Here we developed a simple theoretical model (DP model) considering dynamic physical protection to simulate the dynamics of protected (Cp ) and unprotected SOC (Cu ), and compared the modelling results with a conventional two-pool (fast vs slow) model considering chemical recalcitrance. The two models were first constrained using extensive SOC data collected from soils with and without fresh carbon (C) inputs under incubation conditions, and then applied to project SOC dynamics and explore mechanisms underpinning the priming effect (PE)...
June 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618126/temporal-scale-dependent-interactions-between-multiple-environmental-disturbances-in-microcosm-ecosystems
#4
Aurélie Garnier, Frank Pennekamp, Mélissa Lemoine, Owen L Petchey
Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience and return time)...
June 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614633/differential-sensitivity-of-total-and-active-soil-microbial-communities-to-drought-and-forest-management
#5
F Bastida, I F Torres, M Andrés-Abellán, P Baldrian, R López-Mondéjar, T Větrovský, H H Richnow, R Starke, S Ondoño, C García, F R López-Serrano, N Jehmlich
Climate change will affect semiarid ecosystems through severe droughts that increase the competition for resources in plant and microbial communities. In these habitats, adaptations to climate change may consist of thinning - that reduces competition for resources through a decrease in tree density and the promotion of plant survival. We deciphered the functional and phylogenetic responses of the microbial community to six years of drought induced by rainfall exclusion and how forest management affects its resistance to drought, in a semiarid forest ecosystem dominated by Pinus halepensis Mill...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614629/land-use-strategies-to-balance-livestock-production-biodiversity-conservation-and-carbon-storage-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#6
David R Williams, Fredy Alvarado, Rhys E Green, Andrea Manica, Ben Phalan, Andrew Balmford
Balancing the production of food, particularly meat, with preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services is a major societal challenge. Research into the contrasting strategies of land sparing and land sharing has suggested that land sparing - combining high-yield agriculture with protection or restoration of natural habitats on non-farmed land - will have lower environmental impacts than other strategies. Ecosystems with long histories of habitat disturbance, however, could be resilient to low-yield agriculture and thus fare better under land sharing...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614614/clarifying-the-landscape-approach-a-letter-to-the-editor-on-integrated-landscape-approaches-to-managing-social-and-environmental-issues-in-the-tropics
#7
James Erbaugh, Arun Agrawal
The landscape approach (LA) to multi-functional land management has gained traction among international organizations working toward sustainable development. World leaders have pledged to restore 350 Mha by 2030 using the LA. Governments, multinational agencies, and NGOs are key stakeholders (Bonn 2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614605/symbiotic-soil-fungi-enhance-ecosystem-resilience-to-climate-change
#8
Laura B Martinez-Garcia, Gerlinde B De Deyn, Francisco I Pugnaire, David Kothamasi, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils through leaching. These losses can be environmentally damaging, causing groundwater eutrophication and also comprise an economic burden in terms of lost agricultural production. More intense precipitation events caused by climate change will likely aggravate this problem. So far it is unresolved to which extent soil biota can make ecosystems more resilient to climate change and reduce nutrient leaching losses when rainfall intensity increases. In this study, we focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, common soil fungi that form symbiotic associations with most land plants and which increase plant nutrient uptake...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614594/linkages-of-plant-stoichiometry-to-ecosystem-production-and-carbon-fluxes-with-increasing-nitrogen-inputs-in-an-alpine-steppe
#9
Yunfeng Peng, Fei Li, Guoying Zhou, Kai Fang, Dianye Zhang, Changbin Li, Guibiao Yang, Guanqin Wang, Jun Wang, Yuanhe Yang
Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614593/inconsistencies-of-interannual-variability-and-trends-in-long-term-satellite-leaf-area-index-products
#10
Chongya Jiang, Youngryel Ryu, Hongliang Fang, Ranga Myneni, Martin Claverie, Zaichun Zhu
Understanding the long-term performance of global satellite leaf area index (LAI) products is important for global change research. However, few effort has been devoted to evaluating the long-term time series consistencies of LAI products. This study compared four long-term LAI products (GLASS, GLOBMAP, LAI3g, and TCDR) in terms of trends, interannual variabilities and uncertainty variations from 1982 through 2011. This study also used four ancillary LAI products (GEOV1, MERIS, MODIS C5, and MODIS C6) from 2003 through 2011 to help clarify the performances of the four long-term LAI products...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614592/the-heat-is-on-genetic-adaptation-to-urbanization-mediated-by-thermal-tolerance-and-body-size
#11
Kristien I Brans, Mieke Jansen, Joost Vanoverbeke, Nedim Tüzün, Robby Stoks, Luc De Meester
Worldwide, urbanization leads to tremendous anthropogenic environmental alterations, causing strong selection pressures on populations of animals and plants. Although a key feature of urban areas is their higher temperature ("urban heat islands"), adaptive thermal evolution in organisms inhabiting urban areas has rarely been studied. We tested for evolution of a higher heat tolerance (CTMAX ) in urban populations of the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone grazer in freshwater ecosystems, by carrying out a common garden experiment at two temperatures (20 °C and 24 °C) with genotypes of 13 natural populations ordered along a well-defined urbanization gradient...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597589/enhanced-decomposition-of-stable-soil-organic-carbon-and-microbial-catabolic-potentials-by-long-term-field-warming
#12
Wenting Feng, Junyi Liang, Lauren E Hale, Chang Gyo Jung, Ji Chen, Jizhong Zhou, Minggang Xu, Mengting Yuan, Liyou Wu, Rosvel Bracho, Elaine Pegoraro, Edward A G Schuur, Yiqi Luo
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition under warming is critical to predict carbon-climate feedbacks. According to the substrate regulating principle, SOC decomposition would decrease as labile SOC declines under field warming, but observations of SOC decomposition under warming do not always support this prediction. This discrepancy could result from varying changes in SOC components and soil microbial communities under warming. This study aimed to determine the decomposition of SOC components with different turnover times after subjected to long-term field warming and/or root exclusion to limit C input, and to test whether SOC decomposition is driven by substrate lability under warming...
June 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597541/restless-roosts-light-pollution-affects-behavior-sleep-and-physiology-in-a-free-living-songbird
#13
Jenny Q Ouyang, Maaike de Jong, Roy H A van Grunsven, Kevin D Matson, Mark F Haussmann, Peter Meerlo, Marcel E Visser, Kamiel Spoelstra
The natural nighttime environment is increasingly polluted by artificial light. Several studies have linked artificial light at night to negative impacts on human health. In free-living animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian, reproductive, and social behavior, but whether these animals also suffer from physiologic costs remains unknown. To fill this gap, we made use of a unique network of field sites which are either completely unlit (control), or are artificially illuminated with white, green, or red light...
June 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593715/can-animal-habitat-use-patterns-influence-their-vulnerability-to-extreme-climate-events-an-estuarine-sportfish-case-study
#14
Ross E Boucek, Michael R Heithaus, Rolando Santos, Philip Stevens, Jennifer S Rehage
Global climate forecasts predict changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events (ECEs). The capacity for specific habitat patches within a landscape to modulate stressors from extreme climate events, and animal distribution throughout habitat matrices during events, could influence the degree of population level effects following the passage of ECEs. Here, we ask (i) does the intensity of stressors of an ECE vary across a landscape? And (ii) Do habitat use patterns of a mobile species influence their vulnerability to ECEs? Specifically, we measured how extreme cold spells might interact with temporal variability in habitat use to affect populations of a tropical, estuarine-dependent large-bodied fish Common Snook, within Everglades National Park estuaries (FL US)...
June 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593723/imbalanced-nutrient-recycling-in-a-warmer-ocean-driven-by-differential-response-of-extracellular-enzymatic-activities
#15
Begoña Ayo, Naiara Abad, Itxaso Artolozaga, Iñigo Azua, Zuriñe Baña, Marian Unanue, Josep M Gasol, Carlos M Duarte, Juan Iriberri
Ocean oligotrophication concurrent with warming weakens the capacity of marine primary producers to support marine food webs and act as a CO2 sink, and is believed to result from reduced nutrient inputs associated to the stabilization of the thermocline. However, nutrient supply in the oligotrophic ocean is largely dependent on the recycling of organic matter. This involves hydrolytic processes catalyzed by extracellular enzymes released by bacteria, which temperature-dependence has not yet been evaluated. Here we report a global assessment of the temperature-sensitivity, as represented by the activation energies (Ea ), of extracellular β-glucosidase (βG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzymatic activities, which enable the uptake by bacteria of substrates rich in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590592/decadal-changes-in-habitat-characteristics-influence-population-trajectories-of-southern-elephant-seals
#16
Mark A Hindell, Michael Sumner, Sophie Bestley, Simon Wotherspoon, Robert G Harcourt, Mary-Anne Lea, Rachael Alderman, Clive R McMahon
Understanding divergent biological responses to climate change is important for predicting ecosystem level consequences. We use species habitat models to predict the winter foraging habitats of female southern elephant seals and investigate how changes in environmental variables within these habitats may be related to observed decreases in the Macquarie Island population. There were three main groups of seals that specialised in different ocean realms (the sub-Antarctic, the Ross Sea and the Victoria Land Coast)...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589633/does-climate-variability-influence-the-demography-of-wild-primates-evidence-from-long-term-life-history-data-in-seven-species
#17
Fernando A Campos, William F Morris, Susan C Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K Brockman, Marina Cords, Anne Pusey, Tara S Stoinski, Karen B Strier, Linda M Fedigan
Earth's rapidly changing climate creates a growing need to understand how demographic processes in natural populations are affected by climate variability, particularly among organisms threatened by extinction. Long-term, large-scale, and cross-taxon studies of vital rate variation in relation to climate variability can be particularly valuable because they can reveal environmental drivers that affect multiple species over extensive regions. Few such data exist for animals with slow life histories, particularly in the tropics, where climate variation over large-scale space is asynchronous...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586523/increased-arctic-sea-ice-drift-alters-adult-female-polar-bear-movements-and-energetics
#18
George M Durner, David C Douglas, Shannon E Albeke, John P Whiteman, Steven C Amstrup, Evan Richardson, Ryan R Wilson, Merav Ben-David
Recent reductions in thickness and extent have increased drift rates of Arctic sea ice. Increased ice drift could significantly affect the movements and the energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which forage, nearly exclusively, on this substrate. We used radio-tracking and ice drift data to quantify the influence of increased drift on bear movements, and we modeled the consequences for energy demands of adult females in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas during two periods with different sea ice characteristics...
June 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586156/thermal-adaptation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-warming-world-insights-from-common-garden-experiments-on-alaskan-sockeye-salmon
#19
Morgan M Sparks, Peter A H Westley, Jeffrey A Falke, Thomas P Quinn
An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (O...
June 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586135/changes-in-temperature-sensitivity-of-spring-phenology-with-recent-climate-warming-in-switzerland-are-related-to-shifts-of-the-preseason
#20
Sabine Güsewell, Reinhard Furrer, Regula Gehrig, Barbara Pietragalla
The spring phenology of plants in temperate regions strongly responds to spring temperatures. Climate warming has caused substantial phenological advances in the past, but trends to be expected in the future are uncertain. A simple indicator is temperature sensitivity, the phenological advance statistically associated with a 1 °C warmer mean temperature during the 'preseason', defined as the most temperature-sensitive period preceding the phenological event. Recent analyses of phenological records have shown a decline in temperature sensitivity of leaf unfolding, but underlying mechanisms were not clear...
June 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
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