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Journal of IMA

Soumen Das, Retina Paul, Utpal De, Mrityunjay Mukherjee
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy (75-80%) among women. Options for management of BC are multivariate. Available modalities include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Despite availability of improved therapeutic adjuncts, mortality from BC is 40%. Vaccination strategies against BC are emerging as a viable alternative. This review highlights the available results of this emerging therapeutic strategy.
2012: Journal of IMA
Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani, Mohammad Zulkifle, Rehmatulla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the greatest challenges of health care systems at the dawn of the 21st century is tuberculosis (TB). Drug resistant strains of TB are becoming a global public health risk. These strains commonly appear due to faulty therapies. Patients frequently stop treatment due to the toxicity of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) drugs. Amla (Emblica officinalis) is a well-known Unani single drug. Jawarish amla is a Unani compound formulation which is commonly used to administer amla...
2012: Journal of IMA
Souvik Chatterjee, Vishal Gajbhiye, Avidip De, Sasanka Nath, Dipak Ghosh, Sukanta Kumar Das
Achalasia cardia is a neuromuscular disorder of unknown etiology involving the body of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It is characterized by aperistalsis of the body of the esophagus and failure of relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter. It usually affects patients between the ages of 30 and 60 years. It is unusual in childhood and extremely rare in infants. We report two cases of achalasia cardia in infants. Both cases were treated with open Heller's esophagocardiomyotomy with anti-reflux procedure...
2012: Journal of IMA
Sharmin Islam, Rusli Bin Nordin, Ab Rani Bin Shamsuddin, Hanapi Bin Mohd Nor, Abu Kholdun Al-Mahmood
The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach...
2012: Journal of IMA
Gh Mohiuddin Wani, Sheikh Manzoor Ahmad, Seema Qayoom, Bilquees Khursheed
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. The most significant risk factor is ultraviolet radiation and the most frequent site of BCC is head and neck, with around 75-80% occurring on face. BCC occurs infrequently in non-sun-exposed skin. The axilla is one of the least sun-exposed areas of our body, and as such BCC at this site is very rare. We present a case of large neglected axillary BCC in a 35- year-old male.
2012: Journal of IMA
Arthur Saniotis
The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine...
2012: Journal of IMA
Samira Alaani, Mohannad A R Al-Fallouji, Christopher Busby, Malak Hamdan
OBJECTIVES: To examine numbers of congenital anomaly (CA) at birth overall and by class in one clinic in Fallujah General Hospital, Fallujah, Iraq. STUDY DESIGN: All congenital anomaly birth referrals to one pediatric clinician at Fallujah General Hospital for an eleven month period beginning November 1, 2009 were recorded. This clinic was one of three clinics to which cases would be referred. RESULTS: There were 291 CA cases registered at birth in the period at the study's clinic...
2012: Journal of IMA
Samira Alaani
Abdominal wall defects occur when the normal sequence of the gastro intestinal tract development is interrupted. Gastroschisis represents a herniation of abdominal contents through a paramedian full-thickness abdominal wall fusion defect without involving the umbilical cord. Evisceration usually only contains intestinal loops and has no surrounding membrane unlike omphalocoele. It is unusual for a newborn with gastroschisis to have other serious birth defects. Neonates with gastroschisis have better prognosis than those with omphalocele...
2012: Journal of IMA
Gh Mohiuddin Wani, Sheikh Manzoor Ahmad, Seema Qayoom, Bilquees Khursheed, A R Khan
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was first described in 1872 by Moritz Kaposi. In 1994, Chang et al. first identified DNA sequences corresponding to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma biopsies. It is now believed that presence of HHV-8 is necessary but not sufficient to cause KS. Other factors like immunosuppressive therapy also play a role. We describe an HIV-negative elderly patient who developed KS of skin and mucous membrane after prolonged use of corticosteroids for knee pain. The patient was positive for HHV-8...
2012: Journal of IMA
Ghiath Alahmad, Wim Dekkers
The notion of bodily integrity forms an important part of the value-structure of many religions and cultures. In this paper, we explore the notion of bodily integrity in Islam using male circumcision as the focus of the discussion. Our aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the Muslim perspective and of the differences and similarities between Western and Islamic ethical structures, in particular, regarding the concept of bodily integrity.
2012: Journal of IMA
Faroque Ahmed Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Tanveer P Mir
The equivalence of brain death with death is largely, although not universally accepted. Patients may have suffered insults such as cardiac arrest, vascular catastrophe, poisoning, or head trauma. Early identification of patients at greatest risk of poor neurologic outcome and management in the appropriate critical care setting is the key to maximizing neurological recovery. Recent technological advances and neuroimaging have made it possible to predict neurological reversibility with great accuracy. Significant improvements in therapy such as hypothermia, will improve outcomes in neurological catastrophies, particularly in anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Samuel Packer
For at least 50 years informed consent in medicine has focused on the principle of autonomy. Recently, attention has been given to informed consent being a shared decision. A primary mandate to do what is in the best interest of the patient still remains. The shared view looks to expand beyond the dyadic image of doctor and patient, to acknowledge the essential contribution to be made to informed consent from the cultural, religious, and personal values. This paper explores some of the cultural aspects of Islam that should influence informed consent...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Cheryl Mwaria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Daniel Martin Varisco
All known human societies have a worldview that deserves to be called religion; all religions must explain death. Anthropologists study the diversity of religious systems, present and past, in order to understand what is common to humanity. Rather than starting from the view of a particular revelation or set of doctrines, the anthropologist tries to step outside his or her own subjective worldview and identify patterns in the evolution of human thinking about the reality of physical death. Are humans the only animals that are conscious of death, or do we share sentiments observable in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees? At what point in history did the concept of an afterlife, life in some spiritual sense after physical death, appear? Is the religious explanation of life and death a mere reflection of a communal social fact, as the sociologist Emil Durkheim suggested, or a shared psychological trait, as more recent scholars assert? Can and should the modern scientist make a definitive statement about the finality of death and human consciousness?...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Tanveer Mir, Hossam E Fadel, Ali M Nadroo, Malika Haque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Hossam E Fadel
Guillimeau was the first to use the term cesarean section (CS) in 1598, but this name became universal only in the 20th century. The many theories of the origin of this name will be discussed. This surgery has been reported to be performed in all cultures dating to ancient times. In the past, it was mainly done to deliver a live baby from a dead mother, hence the name postmortem CS (PMCS). Many heroes are reported to have been delivered this way. Old Jewish sacred books have made references to abdominal delivery...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Malika Haque
Dealing with end-of-life issues in pediatric patients is difficult due to their young age, the complexities of situations leading to illness, and the multiple decision makers that exist in addition to parents and guardians. Pediatric patients do not have living wills addressing specific instructions for how long to continue life support systems such as a ventilator or a G-tube (gastrostomy tube for feeding). The dying pediatric patient also has typically not consented to organ donation either. The burden of decision making lies with the parents, guardians, and health-care providers of the dying child...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Ali M Nadroo
The survival rate for extremely preterm infants has improved over the last two decades. Although the incidence of such births is about 2%, the impact of preterm birth on these infants, their families, health-care providers, and society is profound. The birth of an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and early gestational age infant poses complex medical, social, and ethical challenges to the family and health-care professionals. Survivors have an increased risk of chronic medical problems and disability. It is difficult to make decisions while trying to provide optimal medical care to the infant and supporting the family when delivery occurs at the threshold of viability because outcome at that time is highly unpredictable...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
Hossam E Fadel
Fetal malformations complicate approximately 3% of all pregnancies. Many of these are minor or can be corrected after birth, but there are certain malformations that are lethal and others that are severe and others, that, even if corrected lead to permanent disability. Advances in prenatal diagnosis made possible the diagnosis of many fetal malformations. This led to the concept of the fetus a patient, independent of the pregnant woman, even though the moral status of the fetus is in dispute. Many of the lethal malformations are untreatable...
December 2011: Journal of IMA
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