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Clinical and Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984391/the-role-of-cd133-in-cancer-a-concise-review
#1
REVIEW
Paige M Glumac, Aaron M LeBeau
Despite the abundant ongoing research efforts, cancer remains one of the most challenging diseases to treat globally. Due to the heterogenous nature of cancer, one of the major clinical challenges in therapeutic development is the cancer's ability to develop resistance. It has been hypothesized that cancer stem cells are the cause for this resistance, and targeting them will lead to tumor regression. A pentaspan transmembrane glycoprotein, CD133 has been suggested to mark cancer stem cells in various tumor types, however, the accuracy of CD133 as a cancer stem cell biomarker has been highly controversial...
July 9, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961900/cancer-an-induced-disease-of-twentieth-century-induction-of-tolerance-increased-entropy-and-dark-energy-loss-of-biorhythms-anabolism-v-catabolism
#2
Mahin Khatami
Maintenance of health involves a synchronized network of catabolic and anabolic signals among organs/tissues/cells that requires differential bioenergetics from mitochondria and glycolysis (biological laws or biorhythms). We defined biological circadian rhythms as Yin (tumoricidal) and Yang (tumorigenic) arms of acute inflammation (effective immunity) involving immune and non-immune systems. Role of pathogens in altering immunity and inducing diseases and cancer has been documented for over a century. However, in 1955s decision makers in cancer/medical establishment allowed public (current baby boomers) to consume million doses of virus-contaminated polio vaccines...
July 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931538/alk5-runx1-signaling-mediated-by-extracellular-vesicles-promotes-vascular-repair-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
Trushil Shah, Shanshan Qin, Mona Vashi, Dan N Predescu, Niranjan Jeganathan, Cristina Bardita, Balaji Ganesh, Salvatore diBartolo, Louis F Fogg, Robert A Balk, Sanda A Predescu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial cells' (ECs) injury and apoptotic death are necessary and sufficient for the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), regardless of epithelial damage. Interaction of dysfunctional ECs with circulatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) holds therapeutic promise in ARDS. However, the presence in the blood of long-term ARDS survivors of EVs with a distinct phenotype compared to the EVs of non-surviving patients is not reported. With a multidisciplinary translational approach, we studied EVs from the blood of 33 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916009/lack-of-durable-protection-against-cotton-smoke-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-sheep-by-nebulized-single-chain-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-or-tissue-plasminogen-activator
#4
Satoshi Fukuda, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Christina Nelson, Robert A Cox, Marla R Wolfson, Thomas H Shaffer, Robert O Williams, Soraya Hengsawas Surasarang, Sahakijpijarn Sawittree, Galina Florova, Andrey A Komissarov, Kathleen Koenig, Krishna Sarva, Harrison T Ndetan, Karan P Singh, Steven Idell
BACKGROUND: Airway fibrin casts are clinically important complications of severe inhalational smoke-induced acute lung injury (ISIALI) for which reliable evidence-based therapy is lacking. Nebulized anticoagulants or a tissue plasminogen activator; tPA, has been advocated, but airway bleeding is a known and lethal potential complication. We posited that nebulized delivery of single chain urokinase plasminogen activator, scuPA, is well-tolerated and improves physiologic outcomes in ISIALI...
June 18, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892964/potential-important-roles-and-signaling-mechanisms-of-ypel4-in-pulmonary-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Lillian Truong, Yun-Min Zheng, Tengyao Song, Yi Tang, Yong-Xiao Wang
BACKGROUND: Human Yippee-like-4 (YPEL4) is a member of the YPEL gene family. This family has been characterized as the first highly conserved family of genes coding for proteins that contain putative zinc-finger-like metal-binding domains, known as the Yippee domain. The YPEL family proteins are located at the centrosome adjacent to the nucleolus during interphase and mitotic apparatus during mitosis. Due to its subcellular localization, it is believed that YPEL4 may have an important role in the cell cycle and proliferation...
June 11, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892940/the-impact-of-modifiable-risk-factor-reduction-on-childhood-asthma-development
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Abreo, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Cosby A Stone, Tina V Hartert
Childhood asthma is responsible for significant morbidity and health care expenditures in the United States. The incidence of asthma is greatest in early childhood, and the prevalence is projected to continue rising in the absence of prevention and intervention measures. The prevention of asthma will likely require a multifaceted intervention strategy; however, few randomized controlled trials have assessed such approaches. The purpose of this review was to use previous meta-analyses to identify the most impactful risk factors for asthma development and evaluate the effect of risk factor reduction on future childhood asthma prevalence...
June 11, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855735/extracellular-vesicles-as-circulating-cancer-biomarkers-opportunities-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
R E Lane, D Korbie, M M Hill, M Trau
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, lipid-bound particles containing nucleic acid and protein cargo which are excreted from cells under a variety of normal and pathological conditions. EVs have garnered substantial research interest in recent years, due to their potential utility as circulating biomarkers for a variety of diseases, including numerous types of cancer. The following review will discuss the current understanding of the form and function of EVs, their specific role in cancer pathogenesis and their potential for non-invasive disease diagnosis and/or monitoring...
May 31, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721720/comparison-of-paired-human-nasal-and-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cell-responses-to-rhinovirus-infection-and-il-13-treatment
#8
Nicole Roberts, Reem Al Mubarak, David Francisco, Monica Kraft, Hong Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Because of its advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, nasal brushings have been increasingly used and proposed as a valuable approach to study lower airway diseases in lieu of bronchial epithelial cells. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence pertaining to whether nasal samples can be surrogates to bronchial samples. The goal of the present study is to test whether nasal epithelial cells have similar antiviral and inflammatory responses to IL-13 treatment and rhinovirus infection, a condition mimicking virally induced asthma exacerbation...
May 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704148/clinical-lipidomics-a-new-way-to-diagnose-human-diseases
#9
Jiapei Lv, Linlin Zhang, Furong Yan, Xiangdong Wang
Lipidomics is a measurement of a large scale of lipid species to understand roles of their carbon atoms, dual bonds, or isomerism in the lipid molecule. Clinical lipidomics was recently defined "as a new integrative biomedicine to discover the correlation and regulation between a large scale of lipid elements measured and analyzed in liquid biopsies from patients with those patient phenomes and clinical phenotypes". The first step to translate lipidomics into clinical lipidomics is to settle a number of standard operation procedures and protocols of lipidomics performance and measurement...
April 27, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607446/the-irb-structure-and-medical-research-reform
#10
LETTER
Julie Babyar
Optimal Independent Review Board (IRB) structure encompasses ongoing process improvement, ethics policies and continuous relationship building, all sound in evidence. With optimal IRB structure, a global research infrastructure will flourish. Evidence for IRB structure must be detailed and expert operational recommendations should guide. Too, health service research oversight should assist in funding as well as collaboration. A national and international research agenda will only benefit from best operations, guided in evidence, supported in best regulatory and research leadership practice...
April 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582352/correlation-analysis-of-monocyte-subsets-and-insulin-resistance-considering-fetuin-a-involvement-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Saori Maruo, Katsuhito Mori, Koka Motoyama, Miyuki Nakamura, Reina Kawarabayashi, Yoshinori Kakutani, Yuko Yamazaki, Tomoaki Morioka, Tetsuo Shoji, Masaaki Inaba, Masanori Emoto
BACKGROUND: Fetuin-A is a multifunctional circulating glycoprotein that can induce insulin resistance. Lately, adipose tissue has gained prominence as an effector site of fetuin-A. Although fetuin-A-induced proinflammatory polarization and migration of macrophages plays a crucial role, it remains obscure whether monocyte subsets in circulation could simulate characteristics of macrophages in adipose tissues. This study aims to investigate the correlation between monocyte subsets with fetuin-A and its relevant insulin resistance...
March 27, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497871/correction-to-a-holistic-view-of-cancer-bioenergetics-mitochondrial-function-and-respiration-play-fundamental-roles-in-the-development-and-progression-of-diverse-tumors
#12
Md Maksudul Alam, Sneha Lal, Keely E FitzGerald, Li Zhang
In this Correction, the authors would like to acknowledge that the original publication of the article "A holistic view of cancer bioenergetics: mitochondrial function and respiration play fundamental roles in the development and progression of diverse tumors" [1] was supported by CPRIT (Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas) Grant RP160617.
March 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541939/analyses-of-repeated-failures-in-cancer-therapy-for-solid-tumors-poor-tumor-selective-drug-delivery-low-therapeutic-efficacy-and-unsustainable-costs
#13
Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468433/merging-perspectives-genotype-directed-molecular-therapy-for-hereditary-diffuse-gastric-cancer-hdgc-and-e-cadherin-egfr-crosstalk
#14
Dandan Li, Winifred Lo, Udo Rudloff
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1; NM_004360). Male CDH1 germline mutation carriers have by the age of 80 years an estimated 70% cumulative incidence of gastric cancer, females of 56% for gastric and of 42% for lobular breast cancer. Metastatic HDGC has a poor prognosis which is worse than for sporadic gastric cancer. To date, there have been no treatment options described tailored to this molecular subtype of gastric cancer...
February 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450666/recent-advances-in-hyaluronic-acid-based-therapy-for-osteoarthritis
#15
REVIEW
Steven Bowman, Mohamed E Awad, Mark W Hamrick, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele
Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that has increased in prevalence across the world due to the aging population. Currently, physicians use a plethora of treatment strategies to try and slow down the progression of the disease, but none have been shown to ubiquitously treat and cure the disease. One of the strategies uses the high molecular weight molecule hyaluronic acid as either an injectable or oral supplement for treatment. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a relatively new treatment that has shown varied results through several clinical trials...
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417261/the-ratio-of-adscs-to-hsc-progenitors-in-adipose-tissue-derived-svf-may-provide-the-key-to-predict-the-outcome-of-stem-cell-therapy
#16
Mehmet Okyay Kilinc, Antonio Santidrian, Ivelina Minev, Robert Toth, Dobrin Draganov, Duong Nguyen, Elliot Lander, Mark Berman, Boris Minev, Aladar A Szalay
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) represents an attractive source of adult stem cells and progenitors, holding great promise for numerous cell therapy approaches. In 2017, it was reported that 1524 patients received autologous SVF following the enzymatic digestion of liposuction fat. The treatment was safe and effective and patients showed significant clinical improvement. In a collaborative study, we analyzed SVF obtained from 58 patients having degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, and advanced stage cancer...
February 7, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374337/lipidomics-unveils-the-complexity-of-the-lipidome-in-metabolic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Todd A Lydic, Young-Hwa Goo
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is responsible for pathologies of human diseases including metabolic diseases. Recent advances in lipidomics analysis allow for the targeted and untargeted identification of lipid species and for their quantification in normal and diseased conditions. Herein, this review provides a brief introduction to lipidomics, highlights its application to characterize the lipidome at the cellular and physiological levels under different biological conditions, and discusses the potential for the use of lipidomics in the discovery of biomarkers...
January 26, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340951/a-perspective-on-multi-target-drug-discovery-and-design-for-complex-diseases
#18
Rona R Ramsay, Marija R Popovic-Nikolic, Katarina Nikolic, Elisa Uliassi, Maria Laura Bolognesi
Diseases of infection, of neurodegeneration (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), and of malignancy (cancers) have complex and varied causative factors. Modern drug discovery has the power to identify potential modulators for multiple targets from millions of compounds. Computational approaches allow the determination of the association of each compound with its target before chemical synthesis and biological testing is done. These approaches depend on the prior identification of clinically and biologically validated targets...
January 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335786/anti-inflammatory-and-antiplatelet-effects-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#19
Taizen Nakase, Junta Moroi, Tatsuya Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Recently, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants such as direct thrombin and direct factor Xa inhibitors have been prescribed for prevention of embolic stroke. While in Japan, argatroban, also a direct thrombin inhibitor, is available for the treatment of atherothrombotic stroke patients. This study aimed to explore whether there is any differences between direct thrombin and direct factor Xa inhibitors regarding the inhibiting effect against thrombogenesis in the clinical setting of acute ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318404/does-alk-rearrangement-predict-favorable-response-to-the-therapy-of-bevacizumab-plus-pemetrexed-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Zhichao Liu, Youting Bao, Butuo Li, Xindong Sun, Linlin Wang
BACKGROUND: Advanced ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients will develop acquired resistance after anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) production and tumor vessel formation were found to be more significantly enriched in ALK-rearrangement NSCLC than that in epidermal growth factor receptor or Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene mutated NSCLC. However, the correlation between ALK rearrangement and the efficacy of bevacizumab (a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF-A) was still elusive...
January 9, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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