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Clinical and Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721720/comparison-of-paired-human-nasal-and-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cell-responses-to-rhinovirus-infection-and-il-13-treatment
#1
Nicole Roberts, Reem Al Mubarak, David Francisco, Monica Kraft, Hong Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Because of its advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, nasal brushings have been increasingly used and proposed as a valuable approach to study lower airway diseases in lieu of bronchial epithelial cells. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence pertaining to whether nasal samples can be surrogates to bronchial samples. The goal of the present study is to test whether nasal epithelial cells have similar antiviral and inflammatory responses to IL-13 treatment and rhinovirus infection, a condition mimicking virally induced asthma exacerbation...
May 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704148/clinical-lipidomics-a-new-way-to-diagnose-human-diseases
#2
Jiapei Lv, Linlin Zhang, Furong Yan, Xiangdong Wang
Lipidomics is a measurement of a large scale of lipid species to understand roles of their carbon atoms, dual bonds, or isomerism in the lipid molecule. Clinical lipidomics was recently defined "as a new integrative biomedicine to discover the correlation and regulation between a large scale of lipid elements measured and analyzed in liquid biopsies from patients with those patient phenomes and clinical phenotypes". The first step to translate lipidomics into clinical lipidomics is to settle a number of standard operation procedures and protocols of lipidomics performance and measurement...
April 27, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607446/the-irb-structure-and-medical-research-reform
#3
LETTER
Julie Babyar
Optimal Independent Review Board (IRB) structure encompasses ongoing process improvement, ethics policies and continuous relationship building, all sound in evidence. With optimal IRB structure, a global research infrastructure will flourish. Evidence for IRB structure must be detailed and expert operational recommendations should guide. Too, health service research oversight should assist in funding as well as collaboration. A national and international research agenda will only benefit from best operations, guided in evidence, supported in best regulatory and research leadership practice...
April 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582352/correlation-analysis-of-monocyte-subsets-and-insulin-resistance-considering-fetuin-a-involvement-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Saori Maruo, Katsuhito Mori, Koka Motoyama, Miyuki Nakamura, Reina Kawarabayashi, Yoshinori Kakutani, Yuko Yamazaki, Tomoaki Morioka, Tetsuo Shoji, Masaaki Inaba, Masanori Emoto
BACKGROUND: Fetuin-A is a multifunctional circulating glycoprotein that can induce insulin resistance. Lately, adipose tissue has gained prominence as an effector site of fetuin-A. Although fetuin-A-induced proinflammatory polarization and migration of macrophages plays a crucial role, it remains obscure whether monocyte subsets in circulation could simulate characteristics of macrophages in adipose tissues. This study aims to investigate the correlation between monocyte subsets with fetuin-A and its relevant insulin resistance...
March 27, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497871/correction-to-a-holistic-view-of-cancer-bioenergetics-mitochondrial-function-and-respiration-play-fundamental-roles-in-the-development-and-progression-of-diverse-tumors
#5
Md Maksudul Alam, Sneha Lal, Keely E FitzGerald, Li Zhang
In this Correction, the authors would like to acknowledge that the original publication of the article "A holistic view of cancer bioenergetics: mitochondrial function and respiration play fundamental roles in the development and progression of diverse tumors" [1] was supported by CPRIT (Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas) Grant RP160617.
March 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541939/analyses-of-repeated-failures-in-cancer-therapy-for-solid-tumors-poor-tumor-selective-drug-delivery-low-therapeutic-efficacy-and-unsustainable-costs
#6
Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468433/merging-perspectives-genotype-directed-molecular-therapy-for-hereditary-diffuse-gastric-cancer-hdgc-and-e-cadherin-egfr-crosstalk
#7
Dandan Li, Winifred Lo, Udo Rudloff
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1; NM_004360). Male CDH1 germline mutation carriers have by the age of 80 years an estimated 70% cumulative incidence of gastric cancer, females of 56% for gastric and of 42% for lobular breast cancer. Metastatic HDGC has a poor prognosis which is worse than for sporadic gastric cancer. To date, there have been no treatment options described tailored to this molecular subtype of gastric cancer...
February 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450666/recent-advances-in-hyaluronic-acid-based-therapy-for-osteoarthritis
#8
REVIEW
Steven Bowman, Mohamed E Awad, Mark W Hamrick, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele
Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that has increased in prevalence across the world due to the aging population. Currently, physicians use a plethora of treatment strategies to try and slow down the progression of the disease, but none have been shown to ubiquitously treat and cure the disease. One of the strategies uses the high molecular weight molecule hyaluronic acid as either an injectable or oral supplement for treatment. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a relatively new treatment that has shown varied results through several clinical trials...
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417261/the-ratio-of-adscs-to-hsc-progenitors-in-adipose-tissue-derived-svf-may-provide-the-key-to-predict-the-outcome-of-stem-cell-therapy
#9
Mehmet Okyay Kilinc, Antonio Santidrian, Ivelina Minev, Robert Toth, Dobrin Draganov, Duong Nguyen, Elliot Lander, Mark Berman, Boris Minev, Aladar A Szalay
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) represents an attractive source of adult stem cells and progenitors, holding great promise for numerous cell therapy approaches. In 2017, it was reported that 1524 patients received autologous SVF following the enzymatic digestion of liposuction fat. The treatment was safe and effective and patients showed significant clinical improvement. In a collaborative study, we analyzed SVF obtained from 58 patients having degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, and advanced stage cancer...
February 7, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374337/lipidomics-unveils-the-complexity-of-the-lipidome-in-metabolic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Todd A Lydic, Young-Hwa Goo
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is responsible for pathologies of human diseases including metabolic diseases. Recent advances in lipidomics analysis allow for the targeted and untargeted identification of lipid species and for their quantification in normal and diseased conditions. Herein, this review provides a brief introduction to lipidomics, highlights its application to characterize the lipidome at the cellular and physiological levels under different biological conditions, and discusses the potential for the use of lipidomics in the discovery of biomarkers...
January 26, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340951/a-perspective-on-multi-target-drug-discovery-and-design-for-complex-diseases
#11
Rona R Ramsay, Marija R Popovic-Nikolic, Katarina Nikolic, Elisa Uliassi, Maria Laura Bolognesi
Diseases of infection, of neurodegeneration (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), and of malignancy (cancers) have complex and varied causative factors. Modern drug discovery has the power to identify potential modulators for multiple targets from millions of compounds. Computational approaches allow the determination of the association of each compound with its target before chemical synthesis and biological testing is done. These approaches depend on the prior identification of clinically and biologically validated targets...
January 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335786/anti-inflammatory-and-antiplatelet-effects-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#12
Taizen Nakase, Junta Moroi, Tatsuya Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Recently, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants such as direct thrombin and direct factor Xa inhibitors have been prescribed for prevention of embolic stroke. While in Japan, argatroban, also a direct thrombin inhibitor, is available for the treatment of atherothrombotic stroke patients. This study aimed to explore whether there is any differences between direct thrombin and direct factor Xa inhibitors regarding the inhibiting effect against thrombogenesis in the clinical setting of acute ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318404/does-alk-rearrangement-predict-favorable-response-to-the-therapy-of-bevacizumab-plus-pemetrexed-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Zhichao Liu, Youting Bao, Butuo Li, Xindong Sun, Linlin Wang
BACKGROUND: Advanced ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients will develop acquired resistance after anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) production and tumor vessel formation were found to be more significantly enriched in ALK-rearrangement NSCLC than that in epidermal growth factor receptor or Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene mutated NSCLC. However, the correlation between ALK rearrangement and the efficacy of bevacizumab (a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF-A) was still elusive...
January 9, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285690/using-single-cell-multiple-omics-approaches-to-resolve-tumor-heterogeneity
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Ortega, Olivier Poirion, Xun Zhu, Sijia Huang, Thomas K Wolfgruber, Robert Sebra, Lana X Garmire
It has become increasingly clear that both normal and cancer tissues are composed of heterogeneous populations. Genetic variation can be attributed to the downstream effects of inherited mutations, environmental factors, or inaccurately resolved errors in transcription and replication. When lesions occur in regions that confer a proliferative advantage, it can support clonal expansion, subclonal variation, and neoplastic progression. In this manner, the complex heterogeneous microenvironment of a tumour promotes the likelihood of angiogenesis and metastasis...
December 28, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238879/the-small-vesicular-culprits-the-investigation-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-new-targets-for-cancer-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Fumihiko Urabe, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Yusuke Yoshioka, Shin Egawa, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles released from almost all type of cells including cancer cells. EVs transfer their components, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), messenger RNAs, lipids and proteins, from one cell to another, affecting the target cells. Emerging evidence suggests that reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the cells in their microenvironment via EVs drive disease progression and therapy resistance. Therefore, understanding the roles of EVs in cancer biology will provide us with new opportunities to treat patients...
December 13, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230567/cancer-nanomedicine-a-review-of-recent-success-in-drug-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Stephanie Tran, Peter-Joseph DeGiovanni, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai
Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity...
December 11, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782090/purified-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-treatment-in-a-case-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Christopher D Phillips, Pornpatcharin Wongsaisri, Thein Htut, Terry Grossman
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiple organ system autoimmune disorder for which there is no known cure. METHODS: We report a case of a young adult lady with SLE and Sjogren's with diagnostic and clinical resolution following purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and globulin component protein macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) therapy in a combined multidisciplinary integrative medicine protocol. RESULTS: Our patient had complete reversal of all clinical and laboratory markers...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782089/the-role-of-lipids-in-corneal-diseases-and-dystrophies-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Tyler G Rowsey, Dimitrios Karamichos
Corneal diseases are an extensive cause of blindness worldwide and continue to persist as a challenging public health concern. Recently, various lipid-based therapies have been advocated for the modulation of corneal diseases; however, the number of studies is still very limited. Here we focus on developments and challenges on lipid-based therapies for dry eye disease, diabetic neuropathy, and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. All three diseases are highly prevalent conditions and involve corneal stress and inflammation...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776171/the-role-of-heterogeneity-in-asthma-a-structure-to-function-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Justin K Lui, Kenneth R Lutchen
A number of methods have evolved through the years in probing the dysfunction that impacts mechanics and ventilation in asthma. What has been consistently found is the notion of heterogeneity that is not only captured in the frequency dependence of lung mechanics measurements but also rendered on imaging as patchy diffuse areas of ventilation defects. The degree of heterogeneity has been linked to airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark feature of asthma. How these heterogeneous constriction patterns lead to functional impairment in asthma have only been recently explored using computational airway tree models...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770521/styrene-maleic-acid-encapsulated-raloxifene-micelles-for-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Khaled Greish, Safa Taha, Anfal Jasim, Sara Abd Elghany, Ameera Sultan, Ali AlKhateeb, Manal Othman, Fang Jun, Sebastien Taurin, Moiz Bakhiet
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises a group of disorders that manifest through chronic inflammation of the colon and small intestine. Although the exact cause of IBD is still unclear, dysfunctional immunoregulation involving overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, and IL-6 have been implicated in pathogenesis. Current therapy relies on immunosuppression, cytotoxic drugs, and monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α. These classes of drugs have severe side-effects, especially when used for long duration...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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