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Clinical and Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332147/lessons-from-the-swamp-developing-small-molecules-that-confer-salamander-muscle-cellularization-in-mammals
#1
LETTER
JungIn Um, Da-Woon Jung, Darren Reece Williams
The ability of salamanders, such as newts, to regenerate damaged tissues has been studied for centuries. A prominent example of this regenerative power is the ability to re-grow entire amputated limbs. One important step in this regeneration process is skeletal muscle cellularization, in which the muscle fibers break down into dedifferentiated, mononuclear cells that proliferate and form new muscle in the replacement limb. In contrast, mammalian skeletal muscle does not undergo cellularization after injury...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251572/translational-research-in-pediatric-pulmonary-disease-2017
#2
Bruce K Rubin
As readers of this journal know, translational research is the application of basic science findings to improve clinical care; a process that was once called "bench-to-bedside" research. In my field of pediatric pulmonary disease, the rapid advancement of basic science understanding into improved clinical care has been, to use an appropriate term, breathtaking. In this perspective article, I will describe a few of these advances, as they relate to specific pulmonary diseases.
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251571/survivin-a-radiogenetic-promoter-for-glioblastoma-viral-gene-therapy-independently-from-carg-motifs
#3
George E Naoum, Zeng B Zhu, Donald J Buchsbaum, David T Curiel, Waleed O Arafat
BACKGROUND: Radiogenetic therapy is a novel approach in the treatment of cancer, which employs genetic modification to alter the sensitivity of tumor cells to the effect of applied radiation. AIM: To select a potent radiation inducible promoter in the context of brain tumors and to investigate if CArG radio responsive motifs or other elements in the promoter nucleotide sequences can correlate to its response to radiation. METHODS: To select initial candidates for promoter inducible elements, the levels of mRNA expression of six different promoters were assessed using Quantitative RTPCR in D54 MG cells before and after radiation exposure...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220395/single-cell-sequencing-a-distinct-new-field
#4
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yuanlin Song
Single cell sequencing (SCS) has become a new approach to study biological heterogeneity. The advancement in technologies for single cell isolation, amplification of genome/transcriptome and next-generation sequencing enables SCS to reveal the inherent properties of a single cell from the large scale of the genome, transcriptome or epigenome at high resolution. Recently, SCS has been widely applied in various clinical and research fields, such as cancer biology and oncology, immunology, microbiology, neurobiology and prenatal diagnosis...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197968/integrating-phosphoproteomics-into-the-clinical-management-of-prostate-cancer
#5
LETTER
Larry C Cheng, Victor M Tan, Shridar Ganesan, Justin M Drake
Phosphoproteomic analysis of tumor samples has the potential to uncover significant insights into kinase signaling networks present in late stage prostate cancer that are complementary to genomic and transcriptomic approaches. Phosphoproteomics could potentially aid drug development in clinical trial design as well as provide utility for oncologists in the personalized therapeutic management of individual cancers through identifying novel biomarkers and druggable targets. Rapid advancement of targeted mass spectrometry platforms is underway to integrate phosphoproteomic technology with genomic assays to soon translate this information into the cancer clinic...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176278/re-choices-have-consequences-the-nexus-between-dna-repair-pathways-and-genomic-instability-in-cancer%C3%A2
#6
LETTER
Michael McKay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108884/precision-medicine-in-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
LETTER
Xiaoming Liu, William C Cho
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy by targeting the programmed death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis using antibodies has yielded promising clinical responses in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, owing to the dynamic expression of PD-L1, degree of mutational/neoantigen load, intratumoral heterogeneity, infiltrated immune cells of tumor microenvironment of NSCLC, the response rates to these agents are limited, despite several companion diagnostic assays by detecting PD-L1 in tumor cells have been introduced into clinical practice...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101783/tissue-is-the-issue-and-tissue-competition-re-biopsy-for-mutation-t790-where-and-why
#8
LETTER
Paul Zarogoulidis, Mina Gaga, Haidong Huang, Kaid Darwiche, Aggeliki Rapti, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt
Lung cancer is still the leading cause of death among all cancers. During the last 15 years, pharmacogenomics of lung cancer have established targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive patients in adenocarcinoma or mixed adenosquamus lung cancer patients. However; while novel drugs are released in the market, at the same time novel mutations are observed after tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration. Recently the novel mutation T790 was observed and is highly prevalent in patients already treated with a TKI...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101782/the-antineoplastic-drug-trastuzumab-dysregulates-metabolism-in-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes
#9
Brian M Necela, Bianca C Axenfeld, Daniel J Serie, Jennifer M Kachergus, Edith A Perez, E Aubrey Thompson, Nadine Norton
BACKGROUND: The targeted ERBB2 therapy, trastuzumab, has had a tremendous impact on management of patients with HER2+ breast cancer, leading to development and increased use of further HER2 targeted therapies. The major clinical side effect is cardiotoxicity but the mechanism is largely unknown. On the basis that gene expression is known to be altered in multiple models of heart failure, we examined differential gene expression of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes treated at day 11 with the ERBB2 targeted monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab for 48 h and the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and ERBB2...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054277/contact-allergy-to-aluminium-induced-by-commonly-used-pediatric-vaccines
#10
LETTER
E Bergfors, B Trollfors, A Inerot, A Gente Lidholm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050779/a-current-perspective-on-cancer-immune-therapy-step-by-step-approach-to-constructing-the-magic-bullet
#11
REVIEW
Gabriele D'Errico, Heather L Machado, Bruno Sainz
Immunotherapy is the new trend in cancer treatment due to the selectivity, long lasting effects, and demonstrated improved overall survival and tolerance, when compared to patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. Despite these positive results, immunotherapy is still far from becoming the perfect magic bullet to fight cancer, largely due to the facts that immunotherapy is not effective in all patients nor in all cancer types. How and when will immunotherapy overcome these hurdles? In this review we take a step back to walk side by side with the pioneers of immunotherapy in order to understand what steps need to be taken today to make immunotherapy effective across all cancers...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050778/a-systematic-approach-to-cancer-evolution-beyond-selection
#12
William B Miller, John S Torday
Cancer is typically scrutinized as a pathological process characterized by chromosomal aberrations and clonal expansion subject to stochastic Darwinian selection within adaptive cellular ecosystems. Cognition based evolution is suggested as an alternative approach to cancer development and progression in which neoplastic cells of differing karyotypes and cellular lineages are assessed as self-referential agencies with purposive participation within tissue microenvironments. As distinct self-aware entities, neoplastic cells occupy unique participant/observer status within tissue ecologies...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044245/mri-detection-of-endothelial-cell-inflammation-using-targeted-superparamagnetic-particles-of-iron-oxide-spio
#13
Joyce M S Chan, Maggie S H Cheung, Richard G J Gibbs, Kishore K Bhakoo
BACKGROUND: There is currently no clinical imaging technique available to assess the degree of inflammation associated with atherosclerotic plaques. This study aims to develop targeted superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe for detecting inflamed endothelial cells. METHODS: The in vitro study consists of the characterisation and detection of inflammatory markers on activated endothelial cells by immunocytochemistry and MRI using biotinylated anti-P-selectin and anti-VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) antibody and streptavidin conjugated SPIO...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995592/clinical-protein-science-developments-for-patient-monitoring-in-hospital-central-laboratories
#14
LETTER
Johan Malm, György Marko-Varga
Patient care relies heavily on standardized tests performed in hospital laboratories, typically including clinical chemistry, pathology and microbiology. With the introduction of personalized medicine tremendous efforts have been made to identify new biomarkers of disease with various omics technologies, often including mass spectrometry. In order to validate new biomarkers and perform clinical studies high quality biobank samples are of key importance. In this editorial different aspects of mass spectrometry in future personalized medicine are discussed...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921284/safety-concerns-and-hidden-agenda-behind-hpv-vaccines-another-generation-of-drug-dependent-society
#15
LETTER
Mahin Khatami
Analyses of data and hidden agenda behind repeated failed outcomes of cancer research and therapy, status of American health, safety concerns for HPV vaccines and future research considerations are summarized in this commentary. A closer look at cancer science reveals that highly power structure (system) in medical establishment vs. anti-system and chaos in cancer research ('medical/scientific ponzi schemes') is potent recipe for failed therapeutics that kills patients but generates huge corporate profit. American health status ranks last among other developed nations despite the highest amount that USA invests in healthcare...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921283/choices-have-consequences-the-nexus-between-dna-repair-pathways-and-genomic-instability-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Sonali Bhattacharjee, Saikat Nandi
BACKGROUND: The genome is under constant assault from a multitude of sources that can lead to the formation of DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are cytotoxic lesions, which if left unrepaired could lead to genomic instability, cancer and even cell death. However, erroneous repair of DSBs can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and loss of heterozygosity, which in turn can also cause cancer and cell death. Hence, although the repair of DSBs is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity the process of repair need to be well regulated and closely monitored...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766605/evaluation-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-using-reverse-nutech-functional-score-and-expanded-disability-status-scale-after-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#18
Geeta Shroff
BACKGROUND: The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is a validated and reliable tool to assess the extent of disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the use of this tool has been found to be limited in assessing various symptoms of MS that are important. Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a new scoring system, reverse nutech functional score (RNFS) as compared to EDSS in assessing patients with MS treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766604/a-braided-cancer-river-connects-tumor-heterogeneity-and-precision-medicine
#19
James J Hsieh, Emily H Cheng
With the ever-increasing complexity of tumor heterogeneity (TH) discovered through cancer genome sequencing, it is apparent that TH has become the biggest hurdle for precision cancer therapeutics. Through studying the genomics of exceptional responders to targeted therapeutic agents in kidney cancer, we demonstrated parallel convergent gene/pathway/capability/function evolution of kidney cancer in the context of TH, which prompted us to propose a new cancer evolution model "the braided cancer river model". Based on this model, we might be able to outsmart a given cancer type within an individual patient through simultaneously inhibiting preferred parallel pathways or sequential nodes...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766603/role-of-physiotherapy-in-the-mobilization-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-undergoing-human-embryonic-stem-cells-transplantation
#20
Geeta Shroff, Dipin Thakur, Varun Dhingra, Deepak Singh Baroli, Deepanshu Khatri, Rahul Dev Gautam
BACKGROUND: The major complication faced by patients with chronic static spinal cord injury (SCI) is the loss of mobilization. With the aim to rehabilitate SCI patients, physiotherapy is performed worldwide. However, it only helps the patients to live with their disabilities. An interdisciplinary management involving human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy along with physiotherapy as a supportive therapy offers regenerative treatment of the patients with SCI. MAIN BODY: The present study focuses on the role of physiotherapy in the mobilization of patients with SCI (paraplegic 136; tetraplegics 90) undergoing hESC therapy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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