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Clinical and Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#1
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766605/evaluation-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-using-reverse-nutech-functional-score-and-expanded-disability-status-scale-after-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#2
Geeta Shroff
BACKGROUND: The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is a validated and reliable tool to assess the extent of disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the use of this tool has been found to be limited in assessing various symptoms of MS that are important. Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a new scoring system, reverse nutech functional score (RNFS) as compared to EDSS in assessing patients with MS treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766604/a-braided-cancer-river-connects-tumor-heterogeneity-and-precision-medicine
#3
James J Hsieh, Emily H Cheng
With the ever-increasing complexity of tumor heterogeneity (TH) discovered through cancer genome sequencing, it is apparent that TH has become the biggest hurdle for precision cancer therapeutics. Through studying the genomics of exceptional responders to targeted therapeutic agents in kidney cancer, we demonstrated parallel convergent gene/pathway/capability/function evolution of kidney cancer in the context of TH, which prompted us to propose a new cancer evolution model "the braided cancer river model". Based on this model, we might be able to outsmart a given cancer type within an individual patient through simultaneously inhibiting preferred parallel pathways or sequential nodes...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766603/role-of-physiotherapy-in-the-mobilization-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-undergoing-human-embryonic-stem-cells-transplantation
#4
Geeta Shroff, Dipin Thakur, Varun Dhingra, Deepak Singh Baroli, Deepanshu Khatri, Rahul Dev Gautam
BACKGROUND: The major complication faced by patients with chronic static spinal cord injury (SCI) is the loss of mobilization. With the aim to rehabilitate SCI patients, physiotherapy is performed worldwide. However, it only helps the patients to live with their disabilities. An interdisciplinary management involving human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy along with physiotherapy as a supportive therapy offers regenerative treatment of the patients with SCI. MAIN BODY: The present study focuses on the role of physiotherapy in the mobilization of patients with SCI (paraplegic 136; tetraplegics 90) undergoing hESC therapy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766602/clinical-study-of-gene-eden-vir-novirin-in-genital-herpes-suppressive-treatment-safely-decreases-the-duration-of-outbreaks-in-both-severe-and-mild-cases
#5
Hanan Polansky, Edan Itzkovitz, Adrian Javaherian
BACKGROUND: We conducted a clinical study that tested the effect of suppressive treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on genital herpes. Our previous paper showed that the treatment decreased the number of genital herpes outbreaks without any side effects. It also showed that the clinical effects of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin are mostly better than those reported in the studies that tested acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. The current paper reports the effect of suppressive treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the duration of outbreaks, in severe and mild genital herpes cases...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709523/serum-levels-of-s100a6-are-unaltered-in-patients-with-resectable-cholangiocarcinoma
#6
Sven H Loosen, Fabian Benz, Jennifer Niedeggen, Maximilian Schmeding, Florian Schüller, Alexander Koch, Mihael Vucur, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Christoph Roderburg, Ulf P Neumann, Tom Luedde
BACKGROUND: Elevated expression levels of S100A6, a calcium-binding low-molecular-weight protein, were demonstrated in various malignancies. Moreover, increased serum levels of S100A6 were suggested as a novel biomarker for various inflammatory and malignant diseases including lung and gastric cancer. However, up to now, serum concentrations of S100A6 have not been analyzed in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: S100A6 mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human and murine CCA tumor samples, using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709522/adult-pulmonary-tuberculosis-as-a-pathological-manifestation-of-hyperactive-antimycobacterial-immune-response
#7
Pawan Kumar
The intricate relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and immune system remains poorly understood. It is generally believed that weakening of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reactivation of latent infection into the active pulmonary disease. However, heterogeneous nature of TB and failure of rationally designed vaccines in clinical trials raises serious questions against the simplistic view of TB as an outcome of weakened immunity. In the wake of accumulating human TB data, it is argued here that a hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response is to blame for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent adults...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596232/pharmacokinetics-of-oseltamivir-in-infants-under-the-age-of-1-year
#8
Rashmi Dixit, Slade Matthews, Gulam Khandaker, Karen Walker, Marino Festa, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir is the only antiviral treatment recommended for influenza in young children over the age of 1 year. There is scant data on oseltamivir pharmacokinetics (PK) in infants <1 year. We set out to perform PK measurements in infants who received oseltamivir. METHODS: This study was a prospective, uncontrolled, open label evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir metabolism, safety of oseltamivir, viral clearance in infants <12 months diagnosed with influenza by nasopharyngeal influenza nucleic acid antigen test (NAAT)...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590145/jnk-inhibition-reduces-lung-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrotic-systemic-markers
#9
Jos L J van der Velden, Ying Ye, James D Nolin, Sidra M Hoffman, David G Chapman, Karolyn G Lahue, Sarah Abdalla, Peng Chen, Yong Liu, Brydon Bennett, Nasreen Khalil, Donna Sutherland, William Smith, Gerald Horan, Mahmoud Assaf, Zebulun Horowitz, Rajesh Chopra, Randall M Stevens, Maria Palmisano, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Peter H Schafer
BACKGROUND: Lung remodeling and pulmonary fibrosis are serious, life-threatening conditions resulting from diseases such as chronic severe asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Preclinical evidence suggests that JNK enzyme function is required for key steps in the pulmonary fibrotic process. However, a selective JNK inhibitor has not been investigated in translational models of lung fibrosis with clinically relevant biomarkers, or in IPF patients. METHODS: The JNK inhibitor CC-930 was evaluated in the house dust mite-induced fibrotic airway mouse model, in a phase I healthy volunteer pharmacodynamic study, and subsequently in a phase II multicenter study of mild/moderate IPF (n = 28), with a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, sequential ascending-dose period (50 mg QD, 100 mg QD, 100 mg BID) and a 52-week open-label treatment-extension period...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558401/is-cancer-a-severe-delayed-hypersensitivity-reaction-and-histamine-a-blueprint
#10
Mahin Khatami
Longevity and accumulation of multiple context-dependent signaling pathways of long-standing inflammation (antigen-load or oxidative stress) are the results of decreased/altered regulation of immunity and loss of control switch mechanisms that we defined as Yin and Yang of acute inflammation or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation is initiated by immune disruptors-induced progressive changes in physiology and function of susceptible host tissues that lead to increased immune suppression and multistep disease processes including carcinogenesis...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539581/therapeutic-use-of-stem-cells-for-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Whitney Faiella, Rony Atoui
Stem cell treatments are a desirable therapeutic option to regenerate myocardium and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Several different types of cells have been explored, each with their own benefits and limitations. Induced pluripotent stem cells possess an embryonic-like state and therefore have a high proliferative capacity, but they also pose a risk of teratoma formation. Mesenchymal stem cells have been investigated from both bone marrow and adipose tissue. Their immunomodulatory characteristics may permit the use of allogeneic cells as universal donor cells in the future...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539580/a-quantitative-metabolomics-profiling-approach-for-the-noninvasive-assessment-of-liver-histology-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#12
M Omair Sarfaraz, Robert P Myers, Carla S Coffin, Zu-Hua Gao, Abdel Aziz M Shaheen, Pam M Crotty, Ping Zhang, Hans J Vogel, Aalim M Weljie
BACKGROUND: High-throughput technologies have the potential to identify non-invasive biomarkers of liver pathology and improve our understanding of basic mechanisms of liver injury and repair. A metabolite profiling approach was employed to determine associations between alterations in serum metabolites and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Sera from 45 non-diabetic patients with chronic HCV were quantitatively analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539579/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-breast-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b
#13
Marek Malecki, Chelsea Sabo, Afsoon Foorohar, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy of patients suffering from the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpressing (HER-2(+)) breast cancers with the anti-HER-2 antibodies results in increase of the patients' overall survival. However, no prophylactic vaccine is available against HER-2(+) breast cancers. Although, prophylactic vaccine for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is very effective. SPECIFIC AIM: The specific aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and test bio-molecules which would engage prophylactic immunity against hepatitis B virus towards killing breast cancers cells...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527620/creatine-kinase-in-ischemic-and-inflammatory-disorders
#14
REVIEW
David Kitzenberg, Sean P Colgan, Louise E Glover
The creatine/phosphocreatine pathway plays a conserved and central role in energy metabolism. Compartmentalization of specific creatine kinase enzymes permits buffering of local high energy phosphates in a thermodynamically favorable manner, enabling both rapid energy storage and energy transfer within the cell. Augmentation of this metabolic pathway by nutritional creatine supplementation has been shown to elicit beneficial effects in a number of diverse pathologies, particularly those that incur tissue ischemia, hypoxia or oxidative stress...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520795/erratum-to-clinical-trial-considerations-on-male-contraception-and%C3%A2-collection-of%C3%A2-pregnancy-information-from-female-partner-update
#15
Maria Longauer Banholzer, Christoph Wandel, Paul Barrow, Marie Mannino, Georg Schmitt, Melanie Guérard, Lutz Müller, Gerard Greig, Kenjie Amemiya, Richard Peck, Thomas Singer, Lucette Doessegger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510264/clinical-significance-of-t-cell-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Christoph Herbel, Nikolaos Patsoukis, Kankana Bardhan, Pankaj Seth, Jessica D Weaver, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Conversion of normal cells to cancer is accompanied with changes in their metabolism. During this conversion, cell metabolism undergoes a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect, which is a hallmark for cancer cell metabolism. In cancer cells, glycolysis functions in parallel with the TCA cycle and other metabolic pathways to enhance biosynthetic processes and thus support proliferation and growth. Similar metabolic features are observed in T cells during activation but, in contrast to cancer, metabolic transitions in T cells are part of a physiological process...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510263/does-it-make-sense-to-target-one-tumor-cell-chemotactic-factor-or-its-receptor-when-several-chemotactic-axes-are-involved-in-metastasis-of-the-same-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Malwina Suszynska, Magda Kucia
The major problem with cancer progression and anti-cancer therapy is the inherent ability of cancer cells to migrate and establish distant metastases. This ability to metastasize correlates with the presence in a growing tumor of cells with a more malignant phenotype, which express certain cancer stem cell markers. The propensity of malignant cells to migrate and their resistance to radio-chemotherapy somewhat mimics the properties of normal developmentally early stem cells that migrate during organogenesis in the developing embryo...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510262/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-osteoarthritis
#18
REVIEW
John Burke, Monte Hunter, Ravindra Kolhe, Carlos Isales, Mark Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease affecting articular cartilage in joints, and it is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Current pharmacological treatment strategies are ineffective to prevent the OA progression; however, cellular therapies have the potential to regenerate the lost cartilage, combat cartilage degeneration, provide pain relief, and improve patient mobility. One of the most promising sources of cellular regenerative medicine is from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465020/emerging-therapeutic-roles-for-nad-metabolism-in-mitochondrial-and-age-related-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Sarika Srivastava
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465019/integrated-information-for-integrated-care-in-the-general-practice-setting-in-italy-using-social-network-analysis-to-go-beyond-the-diagnosis-of-frailty-in-the-elderly
#20
Michela Franchini, Stefania Pieroni, Loredana Fortunato, Tamara Knezevic, Michael Liebman, Sabrina Molinaro
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been defined in different ways and several diagnostic tools exist, but most of them are not applicable in routine primary care. Nonetheless, general practitioners (GPs) have a natural advantage in identifying frailty, due to their continued access to patients, patient-centered approach and training. GPs have also an advantage in conducting population-based evaluation as consequence of their role of gatekeepers of the health care system. This paper aims to identify those socio-demographic and clinical profiles and the relative information sources that, from the GPs' perspective, act as frailty markers, not solely as a diagnosis of state but as the ability to identify a patient's trajectory, over time, through the aging process...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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