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Cancer Medicine

Chun Chen, Zenghong Lu, Jie Yang, Weichao Hao, Yujuan Qin, Huiyan Wang, Congying Xie, Raoying Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various types of cancers. Previous studies have indicated that miR-17-5p is involved in the initiation and development of human tumors. However, its mechanism and function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of miR-17-5p and p21 in NPC cell lines and tissues by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). For the analysis, we have established a stable overexpression or depletion of miR-17-5p NPC cell lines for analyzing the effects of cell proliferation by MTT, colony formation, and cell cycle assay...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Carles Pericay, Fernando Rivera, Carlos Gomez-Martin, Inmaculada Nuñez, Alejo Cassinello, Esteban Rodrigo Imedio
Tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract are increasing in incidence; yet, approaches to the treatment of advanced gastric and/or gastroesophageal junction cancer vary widely, with no internationally agreed first-line regimens. Recent clinical trials have shown that second-line treatment is now possible for selected patients with advanced disease, and current data suggest that the combination of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel may become a standard of care in the second-line setting for metastatic gastric cancer...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Taichiro Goto, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
Identifying genetic alterations in tumors is critical for molecular targeting of therapy. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is usually employed for genetic analysis. However, DNA extracted from FFPE tissue is often not suitable for analysis because of its low levels and poor quality. Additionally, FFPE sample preparation is time-consuming. To provide early treatment for cancer patients, a more rapid and robust method is required for precision medicine. We present a simple method for genetic analysis, called touch imprint cytology combined with massively paralleled sequencing (touch imprint cytology [TIC]-seq), to detect somatic mutations in tumors...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Jun-Long Song, Chuang Chen, Jing-Ping Yuan, Sheng-Rong Sun
Breast cancer is currently the most common form of cancer and the second-leading cause of death from cancer in women. Though considerable progress has been made in the treatment of breast cancer, the heterogeneity of tumors (both inter- and intratumor) remains a considerable diagnostic and prognostic challenge. From clinical observation to genetic mutations, the history of understanding the heterogeneity of breast cancer is lengthy and detailed. Effectively detecting heterogeneity in breast cancer is important during treatment...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Joanna Pancewicz-Wojtkiewicz
Lung cancer is the most common reason of cancer deaths and about 85% of these are non-small-cell lung cancer. Currently, lung cancer therapy is mainly based on the tumor node metastasis (TNM) disease staging and tumor histological classification. Despite therapeutic innovations, the prognosis for lung cancer patients has not significantly changed in the last years. Therefore, a proper understanding of cell signaling pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis seems to be essential for improvement in cancer therapy field...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Michaël Duruisseaux, Anne McLeer-Florin, Martine Antoine, Sanaz Alavizadeh, Virginie Poulot, Roger Lacave, Nathalie Rabbe, Jacques Cadranel, Marie Wislez
Invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma with no effective treatment option in advanced disease. KRAS mutations occur in 28-87% of the cases. NRG1 fusions were recently discovered in KRAS-negative IMA cases and otherwise negative for known driver oncogenes and could represent an attractive therapeutic target. Published data suggest that NRG1 fusions occur essentially in nonsmoking Asian women. From an IMA cohort of 25 French patients of known ethnicity, driver oncogenes EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2 mutations, and ALK and ROS1 rearrangements presence were analyzed...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Paolo Boffetta, Tiffani A Fordyce, Jack S Mandel
We aimed at investigating mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, according to solubility of beryllium and beryllium compounds. We conducted an historical cohort study of 16,115 workers employed during 1925-2008 in 15 facilities, including eight entailing exposure to insoluble beryllium and seven entailing exposure to soluble/mixed beryllium compounds, who were followed up for mortality until 2011. Data were analyzed using indirect standardization and Cox regression modeling. Lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR, national reference rates) was 1...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Masaya Okura, Souichi Yanamoto, Masahiro Umeda, Mitsunobu Otsuru, Yoshihide Ota, Hiroshi Kurita, Takahiro Kamata, Tadaaki Kirita, Nobuhiro Yamakawa, Tetsuro Yamashita, Michihiro Ueda, Takahide Komori, Takumi Hasegawa, Tomonao Aikawa
A multi-institutional study was undertaken to determine whether mandibular canal (MC) invasion and mandibular medullary bone invasion are independent factors in lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A total of 345 patients with lower gingival SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Mandibular bone invasion was categorized into three types; no bone invasion; invasion through cortical bone (medullary); and MC invasion. The overall survival rate and factors affecting local, regional, and distant failures were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier estimates...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Maria T Bourlon, Dexiang Gao, Sara Trigero, Julia E Clemons, Kathryn Breaker, Elaine T Lam, Thomas W Flaig
Increases in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) have been observed in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) on tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment; however, its association with progression-free-survival (PFS) is unknown. We aimed to characterize TKI-associated macrocytosis in mRCC and its relationship with PFS. Retrospective review of data on macrocytosis and thyroid dysfunction on mRCC patients treated with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. These results are evaluated in the context of our previous report on the association of hypothyroidism in this setting...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Yingze Wei, Danyang Liu, Xiaoxia Jin, Pan Gao, Qingying Wang, Jiawen Zhang, Nong Zhang
Acquired resistance to doxorubicin in breast cancer is a serious therapeutic problem. In this study, we investigated whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) could inhibit the growth of doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. We found that the expressions of Nrf2 and p62 in breast cancer were higher than that in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues and benign breast epithelial cell. The expressions of Nrf2 and p62 in breast cancer doxorubicin-resistant cells MCF-7/ADR were higher than that in doxorubicin-sensitive cells MCF-7...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Mohamed Alalem, Alpana Ray, Bimal K Ray
Activation of mTOR is implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. mTOR inhibition exhibited promising antitumor effects in breast cancer; however, its effect is compromised by several feedback mechanisms. One of such mechanisms is the upregulation of mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Despite the established role of mTOR activation in breast cancer, the status of total mTOR protein and its impact on the tumor behavior and response to treatment are poorly understood. Besides, the mechanisms underlying mTOR protein degradation in normal and cancer breast cells are still largely unknown...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Kirsten A M White, Li Luo, Todd A Thompson, Salina Torres, Chien-An Andy Hu, Nancy E Thomas, Jenna Lilyquist, Hoda Anton-Culver, Stephen B Gruber, Lynn From, Klaus J Busam, Irene Orlow, Peter A Kanetsky, Loraine D Marrett, Richard P Gallagher, Lidia Sacchetto, Stefano Rosso, Terence Dwyer, Anne E Cust, Colin B Begg, Marianne Berwick
Autophagy has been linked with melanoma risk and survival, but no polymorphisms in autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been investigated in relation to melanoma progression. We examined five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three ATG genes (ATG5; ATG10; and ATG16L) with known or suspected impact on autophagic flux in an international population-based case-control study of melanoma. DNA from 911 melanoma patients was genotyped. An association was identified between (GG) (rs2241880) and earlier stage at diagnosis (OR 0...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Lila J Finney Rutten, Victoria Findley, Debra J Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Monica Albertie, Robert M Jacobson, Gerardo Colón-Otero
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines offer primary prevention of cervical cancer and protection against other HPV-associated cancers. HPV vaccine coverage in the United States (U.S.) remains low, particularly among older adolescents/young adults, and the uninsured. We assessed awareness and knowledge of HPV disease, HPV-related cancers, and HPV vaccines among working, uninsured adults. Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 4) were used as a benchmark. Patients were surveyed in late 2014 at the Volunteers in Medicine free clinic in Duval County, Florida...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Yoshiyasu Kitagawa, Dai Ikebe, Taro Hara, Kazuki Kato, Teisuke Komatsu, Fukuo Kondo, Ryousaku Azemoto, Fumitake Komoda, Taketsugu Tanaka, Hirofumi Saito, Makiko Itami, Taketo Yamaguchi, Takuto Suzuki
Rectal neuroendocrine tumor (RNET) lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is regarded as an important predictor of nodal metastasis after endoscopic resection (ER). However, little is known about the frequency of immunohistochemical detection of LVI in RNETs. This study was performed to establish the actual detection of LVI rate in RNETs ≤10 mm and to evaluate associated clinical outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the records for 98 consecutive patients treated by ER with a total of 102 RNETs ≤10 mm. Tissue sections were labeled with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stain, the D2-40 monoclonal antibody to evaluate lymphatic invasion, and Elastica van Gieson (EVG) stain to detect venous invasion...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Hitoshi Tajiri, Tomoko Takano, Hideo Tanaka, Kosuke Ushijima, Ayano Inui, Yoko Miyoshi, Keiichi Ozono, Daiki Abukawa, Takeshi Endo, Stephen Brooks, Yasuhito Tanaka
The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics of patients who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related to persistent HBV infection since childhood and to investigate usefulness of assessing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in this population. A nationwide multicenter survey of children with chronic HBV infection was performed. Among 548 patients, 15 patients developed HCC at the median age of 15 years (range 9-36), including 13 males and 2 females. A case-control comparison showed that HBeAg seroconversion and liver cirrhosis were associated with the occurrence of HCC...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Hitomi Takada, Kaoru Tsuchiya, Yutaka Yasui, Natsuko Nakakuki, Nobuharu Tamaki, Shoko Suzuki, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Jun Itakura, Yuka Takahashi, Masayuki Kurosaki, Yasuhiro Asahina, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Namiki Izumi
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Maria Vadalà, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Annamaria Vallelunga, Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Tommaso Iannitti
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non-invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non-cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Patrice Chevallier, Myriam Labopin, Regis Peffault de La Tour, Bruno Lioure, Claude-Eric Bulabois, Anne Huynh, Didier Blaise, Pascal Turlure, Etienne Daguindau, Natacha Maillard, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Gaelle Guillerm, Jeremy Delage, Nathalie Contentin, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Florence Beckerich, Jean-Henri Bourhis, Marie Detrait, Stéphane Vigouroux, Sylvie François, Faezeh Legrand, Thierry Guillaume, Mohamad Mohty
We have retrospectively compared survivals between acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who received either a clofarabine/busulfan (CloB2A2) or a fludarabine/busulfan (FB2A2) RIC regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Between 2009 and 2014, 355 allotransplanted cases were identified from the SFGM-TC registry as having received either the FB2A2 (n = 316, 56% males, median age: 59.2 years, AML 78.5%, first complete remission [CR1] 72%, median follow-up: 20 months) or the CloB2A2 (n = 39, 62% males, median age: 60...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Nageatte Ibrahim, Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Scott R Granter, Scott J Rodig, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Carla Becerra, Argyro Tsiaras, Evisa Gjini, David E Fisher, F Stephen Hodi
Epigenetic alterations by histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the many mechanisms that cancer cells use to alter gene expression and promote growth. HDAC inhibitors have proven to be effective in the treatment of specific malignancies, particularly in combination with other anticancer agents. We conducted a phase I trial of panobinostat in patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Patients were treated with oral panobinostat at a dose of 30 mg daily on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays (Arm A)...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Carmine Pinto, Francesca Di Fabio, Gerardo Rosati, Ivan R Lolli, Enzo M Ruggeri, Libero Ciuffreda, Daris Ferrari, Giovanni Lo Re, Giovanni Rosti, Paolo Tralongo, Raimondo Ferrara, Oscar Alabiso, Silvana Chiara, Giovanni P Ianniello, Antonio Frassoldati, Domenico Bilancia, Giovanna A Campanella, Carlo Signorelli, Patrizia Racca, Elena Benincasa, Maria Elena Stroppolo, Francesco Di Costanzo
Cetuximab improves efficacy when added to chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Effective management of skin reactions from cetuximab improves quality of life (QoL), and treatment compliance in clinical trials. No data are available from real-world settings. The ObservEr observational, multicenter, prospective study evaluated QoL, the incidence of skin reactions, and management of chemotherapy plus cetuximab in first-line for mCRC. The primary endpoint was QoL measured with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and EORTC QLQ-C30...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
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