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Cancer Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719152/a-first-in-human-phase-i-multicenter-open-label-dose-escalation-study-of-the-oral-raf-vegfr-2-inhibitor-raf265-in-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-melanoma-independent-from-braf-mutation-status
#1
Benjamin Izar, William Sharfman, F Stephen Hodi, Donald Lawrence, Keith T Flaherty, Ravi Amaravadi, Kevin B Kim, Igor Puzanov, Jeffrey Sosman, Reinhard Dummer, Simone M Goldinger, Lyhping Lam, Shefali Kakar, Zhongwen Tang, Oliver Krieter, David F McDermott, Michael B Atkins
To establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), safety profile, and anti-tumor efficacy of RAF265. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase-I, dose-escalation trial of RAF265, an orally available RAF kinase/VEGFR-2 inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis, pharmacodynamics (PD) and tumor response assessment were conducted. We evaluated metabolic tumor response by 18[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET), tissue biomarkers using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and modulators of angiogenesis...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719148/high-expression-of-fundc1-predicts-poor-prognostic-outcomes-and-is-a-promising-target-to-improve-chemoradiotherapy-effects-in-patients-with-cervical-cancer
#2
Hailing Hou, Puchun Er, Jingjing Cheng, Xiuli Chen, Xiaofeng Ding, Yuwen Wang, Xi Chen, Zhiyong Yuan, Qingsong Pang, Ping Wang, Dong Qian
FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1) is an important molecule in receptor-dependent mitophagy. However, the roles of FUNDC1 in human cancer biology remain unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and roles of FUNDC1 in cervical cancer. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were applied to detect the expression of FUNDC1, and small-hairpin RNA was applied to inhibit the expression of endogenous FUNDC1 in cervical cancer cells. MTT assays and Flow cytometric analysis were applied to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719077/metformin-synergistic-pemetrexed-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-vitro
#3
Yan Zhang, Xiuli Feng, Tao Li, Erpan Yi, Yu Li
The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin in combination with pemetrexed has an effect on the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models and to explore the related molecular mechanism. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and combination index (CI) of metformin and pemetrexed were detected by the CCK8 assay to assess the antiproliferative and therapeutic effects of the two-drug combination. Flow cytometry (FCM) and invasion assays were used to estimate the variation in apoptosis rate and invasion ability of the differently treated NSCLC cell lines...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719055/endocrine-toxicity-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-essential-crosstalk-between-endocrinologists-and-oncologists
#4
REVIEW
Frédéric Illouz, Claire Briet, Lucie Cloix, Yannick Le Corre, Nathalie Baize, Thierry Urban, Ludovic Martin, Patrice Rodien
Two types of immune checkpoint inhibitors, both antibodies that target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and those that target programmed cell death-protein 1, have been approved for use in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma as first-line or second-line therapy. Their adverse events are primarily regarded as immune-related adverse events. We felt it was important to pinpoint and discuss certain preconceptions or misconceptions regarding thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, and diabetes induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707457/clinical-value-of-integrated-signature-mirnas-in-esophageal-cancer
#5
Heng-Chao Zhang, Kai-Fu Tang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression in tumorigenesis and are of great interest to researchers, but miRNA profiles are often inconsistent between studies. The aim of this study was to confirm candidate miRNA biomarkers for esophageal cancer from integrated-miRNA expression profiling data and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data in tissues. Here, we identify five significant miRNAs by a comprehensive analysis in esophageal cancer, and two of them (hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-133b) show better prognoses with significant difference for both 3-year and 5-year survival...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707435/evidence-based-policy-choices-for-efficient-and-equitable-cervical-cancer-screening-programs-in-low-resource-settings
#6
Nicole G Campos, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Mercy Mvundura, Jane J Kim
Women in developing countries disproportionately bear the burden of cervical cancer. The availability of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, which cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, provides reason for optimism as roll-out begins with support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. However, for the hundreds of millions of women beyond the target age for HPV vaccination, cervical cancer screening to detect and treat precancerous lesions remains the only form of prevention...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707432/mechanisms-of-breast-cancer-risk-in-shift-workers-association-of-telomere-shortening-with-the-duration-and-intensity-of-night-work
#7
Johanna Samulin Erdem, Heidi Ødegaard Notø, Øivind Skare, Jenny-Anne S Lie, Marte Petersen-Øverleir, Edyta Reszka, Beata Pepłońska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Occupational factors such as shiftwork and especially night work that involves disruption of the circadian rhythm may contribute to increased breast cancer risk. Circadian disruption may also affect telomere length (TL). While short TL generally is associated with increased cancer risk, its association with breast cancer risk is inconclusive. We suggest that working schedules might be an important factor in assessment of effects of TL on breast cancer risk. Moreover, telomere shortening might be a potential mechanism for night work-related breast cancer...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707427/time-dependent-and-nonlinear-effects-of-prognostic-factors-in-nonmetastatic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Sheng-Qiang Chi, Yu Tian, Jun Li, Dan-Yang Tong, Xiang-Xing Kong, Graeme Poston, Ke-Feng Ding, Jing-Song Li
The survival risk following curative surgery for nonmetastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) may be over- or underestimated due to a lack of attention to nonlinear effects and violation of the proportional hazards assumption. In this paper, we aimed to detect and interpret the shape of time-dependent and nonlinear effects to improve the predictive performance of models of prognoses in nonmetastatic CRC patients. Data for nonmetastatic CRC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results registry...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707400/hormone-factors-play-a-favorable-role-in-female-head-and-neck-cancer-risk
#9
Dana Hashim, Samantha Sartori, Carlo La Vecchia, Diego Serraino, Luigino Dal Maso, Eva Negri, Elaine Smith, Fabio Levi, Stefania Boccia, Gabriella Cadoni, Hung N Luu, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Mia Hashibe, Paolo Boffetta
Due to lower female incidence, estimates of exogenous and endogenous hormonal factors in head and neck cancers (HNCs, comprising cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) among women have been inconsistent and unable to account for key HNC risk factors. We pooled data from 11 studies from Europe, North America, and Japan. Analysis included 1572 HNC female cases and 4343 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688161/identification-of-patients-with-cancer-with-a-high-risk-to-develop-delirium
#10
Elisabeth C W Neefjes, Maurice J D L van der Vorst, Bertha A T T Verdegaal, Aartjan T F Beekman, Johannes Berkhof, Henk M W Verheul
Delirium deteriorates the quality of life in patients with cancer, but is frequently underdiagnosed and not adequately treated. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of delirium and its risk factors in patients admitted to the hospital for treatment or palliative care in order to develop a prediction model to identify patients at high risk for delirium. In a period of 1.5 years, we evaluated the risk of developing delirium in 574 consecutively admitted patients with cancer to our academic oncology department with the Delirium Observation Screening Scale...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677271/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-germline-mutations-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Benedetta Donati, Alessandro Pietrelli, Piero Pingitore, Paola Dongiovanni, Andrea Caddeo, Lucy Walker, Guido Baselli, Serena Pelusi, Chiara Rosso, Ester Vanni, Ann Daly, Rosellina Margherita Mancina, Antonio Grieco, Luca Miele, Stefania Grimaudo, Antonio Craxi, Salvatore Petta, Laura De Luca, Silvia Maier, Giorgio Soardo, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Fabio Colli, Renato Romagnoli, Quentin M Anstee, Helen L Reeves, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Silvia Fargion, Stefano Romeo, Luca Valenti
In an increasing proportion of cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) are associated with familial liver diseases. The aim of this study was to examine telomere length and germline hTERT mutations as associated with NAFLD-HCC. In 40 patients with NAFLD-HCC, 45 with NAFLD-cirrhosis and 64 healthy controls, peripheral blood telomere length was evaluated by qRT-PCR and hTERT coding regions and intron-exon boundaries sequenced...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675698/the-mtor-inhibition-in-concurrence-with-erk1-2-activation-is-involved-in-excessive-autophagy-induced-by-glycyrrhizin-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Xuan Zhang, Hua Yang, Shuqiang Yue, Guangbin He, Shibin Qu, Zhuochao Zhang, Ben Ma, Rui Ding, Wei Peng, Hongtao Zhang, Zhaoxu Yang, Kefeng Dou, Kaishan Tao, Xiao Li
Autophagy is a life phenomenon in which autophagosomes remove damaged or aging organelles and long-lived circulating proteins to maintain the cell's stability. However, disorders of excessive autophagy are a response of cancer cells to a variety of anticancer treatments which lead to cancer cell death. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways are both involved in nutrient-induced autophagic phenomenon and exhibit vital relevance to oncogenesis in various cancer cell types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
July 3, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675660/meta-analysis-of-first-line-therapies-with-maintenance-regimens-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-in-molecularly-and-clinically-selected-populations
#13
Pui San Tan, Marcel Bilger, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Sanchalika Acharyya, Benjamin Haaland
Evidence has suggested survival benefits of maintenance for advanced NSCLC patients not progressing after first-line chemotherapy. Additionally, particular first-line targeted therapies have shown survival improvements in selected populations. Optimal first-line and maintenance therapies remain unclear. Here, currently available evidence was synthesized to elucidate optimal first-line and maintenance therapy within patient groups. Literature was searched for randomized trials evaluating first-line and maintenance regimens in advanced NSCLC patients...
July 3, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639751/gefitinib-or-erlotinib-in-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#14
Chia-Hao Chang, Chih-Hsin Lee, Jen-Chung Ko, Lih-Yu Chang, Ming-Chia Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu
Among treatment modalities for lung cancer, the most promising therapy is the use of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Both erlotinib and gefitinib, the two first-generation EGFR-TKIs, exhibit significant clinical responses for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, few studies have compared the effects of these two drugs, and results have been inconclusive because of the small sample sizes in these studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate this issue...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639750/protein-lysine-methyltransferase-smyd3-is-involved-in-tumorigenesis-through-regulation-of-her2-homodimerization
#15
Yuichiro Yoshioka, Takehiro Suzuki, Yo Matsuo, Giichiro Tsurita, Toshiaki Watanabe, Naoshi Dohmae, Yusuke Nakamura, Ryuji Hamamoto
HER2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is amplified and overexpressed in a subset of human cancers including breast and gastric cancers, and is indicated in its involvement in progression of cancer. Although its specific ligand(s) has not been detected, HER2 homodimerization, which is critical for its activation, is considered to be dependent on its expression levels. Here, we demonstrate a significant role of HER2 methylation by protein lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 in HER2 homodimerization. We found that SMYD3 trimethylates HER2 protein at lysine 175...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639741/the-impact-of-comorbidity-on-mortality-in-multiple-myeloma-a-danish-nationwide-population-based-study
#16
Henrik Gregersen, Annette Juul Vangsted, Niels Abildgaard, Niels Frost Andersen, Robert Schou Pedersen, Ulf Christian Frølund, Carsten Helleberg, Bettina Broch, Per Trøllund Pedersen, Peter Gimsing, Tobias Wirenfeldt Klausen
To describe the prevalence of comorbidity and its impact on survival in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients compared with population controls. Cases of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma during the 2005-2012 period were identified in the Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry. For each myeloma patient, 10 members of the general population matched by age and sex were chosen from the national Civil Registration System. Data on comorbidity in the myeloma patients and the general population comparison cohort were collected by linkage to the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR)...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639738/impact-of-postoperative-complications-on-the-colorectal-cancer-survival-and-recurrence-analyses-of-pooled-individual-patients-data-from-three-large-phase-iii-randomized-trials
#17
Toru Aoyama, Koji Oba, Michitaka Honda, Sotaro Sadahiro, Chikuma Hamada, Shuhei Mayanagi, Mitsuro Kanda, Hiromichi Maeda, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Junichi Sakamoto, Shigetoyo Saji, Takaki Yoshikawa
This study assessed the impact of postoperative complications on the colorectal cancer survival and recurrence after curative surgery using pooled individual patients' data from three large phase III randomized trials. In total, 5530 patients were included in this study. The patients were classified as those with postoperative complications (C group) and those without postoperative complications (NC group). The risk factors for the overall survival (OS) and the disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Postoperative complications were found in 861 (15...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639735/neonates-with-cancer-and-causes-of-death-lessons-from-615-cases-in-the-seer-databases
#18
Ahmad S Alfaar, Waleed M Hassan, Mohamed Sabry Bakry, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
Neonatal tumors are rare with no standard treatment approaches to these diseases, and the patients experience poor outcomes. Our aim was to determine the distribution of cancers affecting neonates and compare survival between these cancers and older children. We analyzed SEER data (1973-2007) from patients who were younger than 2 years at diagnosis of malignancy. Special permission was granted to access the detailed (i.e., age in months) data of those patients. The Chi-square Log-rank test was used to compare survival between neonates (aged <1 month) and older children (>1 month to <2 years)...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639733/genetic-variants-of-cell-cycle-pathway-genes-predict-disease-free-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Shun Liu, Tian-Bo Yang, Yue-Li Nan, An-Hua Li, Dong-Xiang Pan, Yang Xu, Shu Li, Ting Li, Xiao-Yun Zeng, Xiao-Qiang Qiu
Disruption of the cell cycle pathway has previously been related to development of human cancers. However, associations between genetic variants of cell cycle pathway genes and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the associations between 24 potential functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 16 main cell cycle pathway genes and disease-free survival (DFS) of 271 HCC patients who had undergone radical surgery resection. We identified two SNPs, i...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639410/long-term-survival-benefit-of-upfront-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Bikram Shrestha, Yifei Sun, Farzana Faisal, Victoria Kim, Kevin Soares, Alex Blair, Joseph M Herman, Amol Narang, Avani S Dholakia, Lauren Rosati, Amy Hacker-Prietz, Linda Chen, Daniel A Laheru, Ana De Jesus-Acosta, Dung T Le, Ross Donehower, Nilofar Azad, Luis A Diaz, Adrian Murphy, Valerie Lee, Elliot K Fishman, Ralph H Hruban, Tingbo Liang, John L Cameron, Martin Makary, Matthew J Weiss, Nita Ahuja, Jin He, Christopher L Wolfgang, Chiung-Yu Huang, Lei Zheng
The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation for borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BL-PDAC) is increasing. However, the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy on the outcome of BL-PDAC remains to be elucidated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 93 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with BL-PDAC and primarily followed at Johns Hopkins Hospital between February 2007 and December 2012. Among 93 patients, 62% received upfront neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, whereas 20% received neoadjuvant chemoradiation alone and 15% neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
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