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Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology

Prajita Paul, SureshK Verma, Pritam Kumar Panda, Sangeeta Jaiswal, Bikash R Sahu, Mrutyunjay Suar
Emergence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent for clinical application has raised attention towards its mode of action and needs detailed understanding of the mechanism. The current study investigates the influential role of Hha-TomB toxin-antitoxin system in determination of AgNPs antibacterial activity. AgNPs were synthesized by biogenic process using bacterial supernatant and were characterized for their physiochemical properties. Microbiological and computational assays like molecular docking, growth curve analysis, live/dead assay, oxidative stress and apoptosis assay were performed with wild type (WT) and mutants (Δhha, ΔtomB) strains treated with AgNPs for elucidation of mechanism...
November 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ives Charlie-Silva, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo
In recent years, artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have highlighted according to their effects on highly aggressive cancers, as well as treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis, besides presenting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. It has also been shown that ART compounds have the ability to modulate the immune response by regulating cell proliferation and cytokine release. These effects may be beneficial and improve the treatment of cancer and parasitic diseases by increasing therapeutic success, but it has some pharmacological limitations such as low bioavailability, short half-life and limited tissue access...
November 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Fatemeh Akbarzadeh, Karim Khoshgard, Elham Arkan, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Abbas Hemati Azandaryani
Selective accumulation of photosensitizers (PSs) into cancerous cells is one of the most important factors affecting photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is precursor of a strong PS, protoporphyrin-IX (Pp-IX); but it has poor permeability in lipophilic membrane of the cells due to its hydrophilic property. Therefore, establishment of an improved delivery strategy could highly affect on treatment outcome. Moreover, folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on the surface of many tumor cells...
November 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ziwei Sun, Fang Lu, Jinjun Cheng, Meiling Zhang, Yue Zhang, Wei Xiong, Yan Zhao, Huihua Qu
Schizonepetae Spica Carbonisata (SSC) has pronounced haemostatic effects for hundreds of years and has been acknowledged in the 2015 Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (PPRC) as a haemostatic charcoal drug. However, after years of efforts, the underlying mechanism and the material basis is still less defined. In this research, we developed a novel CDs derived from SSC (SSC-CDs) with an average diameter of 1.29-6.87 nm and a quantum yield of 6.31%. SSC was prepared using a modified pyrolysis method and no further modification and external surface passivation agent is required...
November 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Cuixia Di, Qianjing Zhang, Yupei Wang, Fang Wang, Yuhong Chen, Lu Gan, Rong Zhou, Chao Sun, Hongyan Li, Xuetian Zhang, Hongying Yang, Hong Zhang
Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles shed from all cell types and play a major role in communication and transportation of materials between cells due to their ability to transfer proteins and nucleic acids from one cell to another. Analogous in size and function to synthetic nanoparticles, exosomes offer many advantages, rendering them the most promising candidates for targeted drug or gene delivery vehicles. Exosomes can also induce chemoresistance or radioresistance of tumor cells. Studies about the related mechanisms help overcome cancer therapy resistance to some extent...
November 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Priyanka Singh, Santosh Pandit, Mariam Beshay, V R S S Mokkapati, Jørgen Garnaes, Mikael Emil Olsson, Abida Sultan, Aiga Mackevica, Ramona Valentina Mateiu, Henrik Lütken, Anders Egede Daugaard, Anders Baun, Ivan Mijakovic
Bacterial biofilm represents a major problem in medicine. They colonize and damage medical devices and implants and, in many cases, foster development of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Biofilm development starts by bacterial attachment to the surface and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS forms a structural scaffold for dividing bacterial cells. The EPS layers also play a protective role, preventing the access of antibiotics to biofilm-associated microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the production nanoparticles that could be used to inhibit biofilm formation...
November 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ravichandran M, Velumani S, Jose Tapia Ramirez, Vera A, Leija L
Novel materials are explored very often by material scientists to design an efficient drug delivery system to target carcinoma cells. Among various nanosystem, functionalized Iron oxide Nanoparticles (IoNP) were definitely studied especially to target, endocyte and release drug moieties inside the cells. This IoNP platform is usually composed of an inorganic core and a highly biocompatible shell layer in order to perform numerous tasks at the same time, such as drug delivery, multimodal imaging, and instantaneous monitoring, along with collective therapeutic approaches...
November 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Armin Mooranian, Nassim Zamani, Ryu Takechi, Hesham Al-Sallami, Momir Mikov, Svetlana Goločorbin-Kon, Bozica Kovacevic, Frank Arfuso, Hani Al-Salami
INTRODUCTION: The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids changes during Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) development and these effects might be ameliorated by using cholesterol lowering drugs or hydrophilic bile acids. Probucol is a cholesterol-lowering drug, while ursodeoxycholic acid is a hydrophilic bile acid. This study investigated whether nanoencapsulated probucol with ursodeoxycholic acid altered bile acid ratios and the development of diabetes. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into three groups and gavaged daily with either free probucol, nanoencapsulated probucol or nanoencapsulated probucol with ursodeoxycholic acid for seven days...
November 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Chiraphat Kloypan, Ausanai Prapan, Nittiya Suwannasom, Saranya Chaiwaree, Waraporn Kaewprayoon, Axel Steffen, Yu Xiong, Nuttakorn Baisaeng, Radostina Georgieva, Hans Bäumler
The coprecipitation-cross-linking-dissolution (CCD) technique for protein submicron particle fabrication was improved by omitting one preparation step using the macromolecular cross-linker, periodate-oxidized dextran (Odex, M.W. of 40 and 70 kDa). The coprecipitation and cross-linking of haemoglobin (Hb) were combined in one single step since the cross-linker is incorporated into the inorganic template, MnCO3 , together with the protein. After removal of the MnCO3 templates by EDTA, the amount of entrapped Hb was 60 to 70% of the initial amount...
November 2, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Hector Katifelis, Anna Lyberopoulou, Iuliia Mukha, Nadiia Vityuk, Gallina Grodzyuk, George E Theodoropoulos, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos, Maria Gazouli
Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) exhibit a wide range of excellent electronic, chemical, biological, mechanical and thermal properties due to synergistic effects. However, critical questions regarding stability, biocompatibility and their cytotoxic effects remain to be answered. In this study, Ag/Au BNPs have been synthesized as "alloy" via a chemical reduction method using double molar excess of tryptophan [ν(M):ν(Trp) = 1:2]. We then estimated their toxicity in HCT116, 4T1, HUH7 and HEK293 cell lines in monocellular and spheroid cultures...
October 29, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yuwei Ma, Huiyi Zhou, Fan Hu, Zhichao Pei, Yongqian Xu, Qi Shuai
Nanogels exhibit potential application values in drug delivery systems because of their tunable properties and biocompatibility. In this study, multifunctional hyaluronic-based nanogels (HNPs), all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA)/aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen) fluorophores (TPENH2 )-grafted hyaluronic acid (HA) with disulfide bonds as linkers of (HA-ss-ATRA/TPENH2 ), were successfully developed for doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) delivery. Besides, the controls of HA-ATRA/TPENH2 were also developed for comparison...
October 29, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Younes Ghasemi, Amir Atapour, Ali Mohammad Amani, Amir Savar Dashtaki, Aziz Babapoor, Omid Arjmand
Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable worldwide attention in matter of medical science and disease treatment. Herein, the green synthesis of silver nanomaterials using organic green sources has been evaluated and discussed. These kinds of materials are widely used for treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, cancer and etc due to their elegant properties compared with other chemical ways and drugs. Moreover, the outcome of green-based approaches were compared with chemical procedures and obtained data were examined via various analyses including UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
October 17, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Juhi Singh, Pooja Mittal, Gunjan Vasant Bonde, Gufran Ajmal, Brahmeshwar Mishra
Quercetin (Qu), is a flavonoid known to have anti-diabetic effects owing to its antioxidant property, thus promoting regeneration of the pancreatic islets, ultimately increasing insulin secretion. But the therapeutic application of Qu is hampered by its low oral bioavailability and its unfavourable physicochemical characteristics. The present work aimed at formulation of Quercetin loaded Soluplus® micelles (SMs) so as to enhance its bioavailability and provide prolonged release for the management of diabetes...
October 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Poonam Parashar, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Malti Arya, Jovita Kanoujia, Mahendra Singh, Abhishek Yadav, Amit Kumar, Anupam Guleria, Shubhini A Saraf
Co-therapy through biotin modified nanoparticles (NPs) of gefitinib (Gnb) and naringenin (Nar) was investigated for its therapeutic and synergistic potential against lung cancer. The biotin-conjugated polymeric NPs (bty-Nar/Gnb) were developed using oil in water emulsion technique and optimized using central composite design. The formulations were subjected to various in vitro (A549 cell lines) and in vivo evaluations in urethane-induced lung cancer. Co-administration of Gnb and Nar NPs displayed a significant reduction in tumour volume while restoring the biochemical parameters and serum metabolites to normal levels...
October 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sung Hyun Hwang, Woo Young Kwon, Hyunmin Eun, Sehan Jeong, Jun Seok Park, Kwang Jin Kim, Hyung Joo Kim, Sang Hyun Lee, Kyungmoon Park, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Yung-Hun Yang, Ki Soo Park
A simple, sequence-specific DNA detection method, utilizing a fluorescent 2-aminopurine (2-AP) nucleobase analogue-containing split G-quadruplex as the key detection component, is described. In the sensor, the 2-AP-containing G-quadruplex is split into two segments and linked to a target-specific overhang sequence. The separate G-quadruplex sequences form an active G-quadruplex structure only in the presence of a complementary target DNA, which leads to a significant increase in the intensity of fluorescence from the 2-AP fluorophore...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sushant Singh, Anh Ly, Soumen Das, Tamil S Sakthivel, Swetha Barkam, Sudipta Seal
The authors investigated the role of different size and morphology of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) in cellular uptake and internalization at the nano-bio interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been utilized to record changes in the membrane elasticity as a function of ceria particle morphology and concentration. Young's Modulus was estimated in presence and absence of CNPs of different sizes by gauging the membrane elasticity of CCL30 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells. Significant change in Young's Modulus was observed for CNP treatments at higher concentrations, while minimum membrane disruption was observed at lower concentrations...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Waleed M Alshawafi, Musab Aldhahri, Yaaser Q Almulaiky, Numan Salah, Said S Moselhy, Ibrahim H Ibrahim, Reda M El-Shishtawy, Saleh A Mohamed
In the present study, nanodiamond (ND) was blended with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and then electrospun into nanofibers (nfPMMA-ND) for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The maximum immobilization efficiency of HRP (96%) was detected at 10% ND and pH 7.0. ATR-FTIR, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the immobilized enzyme. The immobilized enzyme retained 60% of its initial activity after ten reuses. The pH was shifted from 7.0 for soluble HRP to 7.5 for the immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, whereas this temperature was shifted to 40 °C for the immobilized enzyme...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ping Leng, Dawei Li, Yi Sun, Yingzhen Wang, Haining Zhang
The aim of the study is to screen the effective shRNA sequence which can silence the human COX-2 expression level in synovial cells of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient transfected by the lentivirus. Four pairs of hCOX-2 shRNA were designed and inserted into lentivirus to form pGPHI/GFP/Neo-shRNA vector. The reconstructed virus was transfected into synovial cells derived from RA patients, and then the expression level of hCOX-2 mRNA and the protein of the inflammatory factors including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the supernatants were examined with real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Bijayananda Panigrahi, Rohit Kumar Singh, Sourav Mishra, Dindyal Mandal
RNA interference shows a great strategy for biological studies; however, delivering of small interfering RNA (siRNA) remains challenging. Although several delivery vehicles, including cell-penetrating peptides, have been developed, their implementation is often restricted because of their endosomal entrapment. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled nanostructures from rationally designed cyclic peptides and explore them for efficient delivery of functional biomacromolecules such as siRNA into mammalian cells...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ching-Wen Tsai, Jyh-Horng Wang, Tai-Horng Young
An ideal in vitro drug screening model is important for the drug development. In addition to monoculture systems, 3 dimensional (3D) coculture systems are extensively used to simulate the in vivo tumor microenvironment as cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions within the tumor tissues can be mimicked. In this study, in vitro 3D suspension coculture multicellular spheroids with core/shell cell distribution were developed on chitosan-coated surfaces. Based on the characteristic of chitosan inhibiting cell adhesion, SW620 (colon cancer cell line), 3A6 (mesenchymal stem-like cell line) and Hs68 (foreskin fibroblast line) cells could aggregate to form 3D coculture spheroids with intimate cell contacts...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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