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Alcohol Research: Current Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988580/development-prevention-and-treatment-of-alcohol-induced-organ-injury-the-role-of-nutrition
#1
REVIEW
Shirish Barve, Shao-Yu Chen, Irina Kirpich, Walter H Watson, Craig Mcclain
Alcohol and nutrition have the potential to interact at multiple levels. For example, heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with normal nutrition, resulting in overall malnutrition or in deficiencies of important micronutrients, such as zinc, by reducing their absorption or increasing their loss. Interactions between alcohol consumption and nutrition also can affect epigenetic regulation of gene expression by influencing multiple regulatory mechanisms, including methylation and acetylation of histone proteins and DNA...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988579/alcohol-misuse-and-kidney-injury-epidemiological-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#2
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Janos Paloczi, Pal Pacher
Chronic alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor for tissue injury. The link between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and kidney injury is intriguing but controversial, and the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol may damage the kidneys are poorly understood. Epidemiological studies attempting to link AUD and kidney disease are, to date, inconclusive, and there is little experimental evidence directly linking alcohol consumption to kidney injury. However, studies conducted primarily in other organs and tissues suggest several possible mechanisms by which alcohol may promote kidney dysfunction...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988578/alcohol-and-puberty
#3
William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for developing youth. Alcohol use and misuse are especially problematic behaviors during this time. Adolescents are more sensitive to alcohol and less tolerant of its detrimental effects than are adults. Research in humans and animals has revealed that early alcohol consumption can result in delayed pubertal development. Animal studies have shown that alcohol detrimentally affects neuroendocrine systems within the hypothalamic region of the brain that are associated with the normal, timely onset of the pubertal process...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988577/pathophysiology-of-the-effects-of-alcohol-abuse-on-the-endocrine-system
#4
Nadia Rachdaoui, Dipak K Sarkar
Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988576/alcohol-and-the-lung
#5
Ashish J Mehta, David M Guidot
Among the many organ systems affected by harmful alcohol use, the lungs are particularly susceptible to infections and injury. The mechanisms responsible for rendering people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) vulnerable to lung damage include alterations in host defenses of the upper and lower airways, disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity, and alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. Collectively, these derangements encompass what has been termed the "alcoholic lung" phenotype. Alcohol-related reductions in antioxidant levels also may contribute to lung disease in people with underlying AUD...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988575/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#6
Mariann R Piano
Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use may mitigate certain mechanisms such as risk and hemostatic factors affecting atherosclerosis and inflammation, pathophysiologic processes integral to most CV disease...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988574/alcoholic-myopathy-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Liz Simon, Sarah E Jolley, Patricia E Molina
Skeletal muscle dysfunction (i.e., myopathy) is common in patients with alcohol use disorder. However, few clinical studies have elucidated the significance, mechanisms, and therapeutic options of alcohol-related myopathy. Preclinical studies indicate that alcohol adversely affects both anabolic and catabolic pathways of muscle-mass maintenance and that an increased proinflammatory and oxidative milieu in the skeletal muscle is the primary contributing factor leading to alcohol-related skeletal muscle dysfunction...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#8
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988572/uniting-epidemiology-and-experimental-disease-models-for-alcohol-related-pancreatic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Kristine Monroe, Aurelia Lugea, Dhiraj Yadav, Stephen Pandol
Findings from epidemiologic studies and research with experimental animal models provide insights into alcohol-related disease pathogeneses. Epidemiologic data indicate that heavy drinking and smoking are associated with high rates of pancreatic disease. Less clear is the association between lower levels of drinking and pancreatitis. Intriguingly, a very low percentage of drinkers develop clinical pancreatitis. Experimental models demonstrate that alcohol administration alone does not initiate pancreatitis but does sensitize the pancreas to disease...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988571/alcohol-and-gut-derived-inflammation
#10
Faraz Bishehsari, Emmeline Magno, Garth Swanson, Vishal Desai, Robin M Voigt, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
In large amounts, alcohol and its metabolites can overwhelm the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and liver and lead to damage both within the GI and in other organs. Specifically, alcohol and its metabolites promote intestinal inflammation through multiple pathways. That inflammatory response, in turn, exacerbates alcohol-induced organ damage, creating a vicious cycle and leading to additional deleterious effects of alcohol both locally and systemically. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which chronic alcohol intake leads to intestinal inflammation, including altering intestinal microbiota composition and function, increasing the permeability of the intestinal lining, and affecting the intestinal immune homeostasis...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988570/alcoholic-liver-disease-pathogenesis-and-current-management
#11
Natalia A Osna, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum K Kharbanda
Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295724/alcohol-use-among-special-populations
#12
EDITORIAL
Mary E Larimer, Judith A Arroyo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163368/biology-genetics-and-environment-underlying-factors-influencing-alcohol-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Tamara L Wall, Susan E Luczak, Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel
Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159820/nature-and-treatment-of-comorbid-alcohol-problems-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-american-military-personnel-and-veterans
#14
REVIEW
John P Allen, Eric F Crawford, Harold Kudler
Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159819/the-influence-of-gender-and-sexual-orientation-on-alcohol-use-and-alcohol-related-problems-toward-a-global-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Tonda L Hughes, Sharon C Wilsnack, Lori Wolfgang Kantor
Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159818/drinking-over-the-lifespan-focus-on-older-adults
#16
REVIEW
Kristen L Barry, Frederic C Blow
A substantial and growing number of older adults misuse alcohol. The emerging literature on the "Baby Boom" cohort, which is now reaching older adulthood, indicates that they are continuing to use alcohol at a higher rate than previous older generations. The development and refinement of techniques to address these problems and provide early intervention services will be crucial to meeting the needs of this growing population. This review provides background on the extent of alcohol misuse among older adults, including the Baby Boom cohort that has reached age 65, the consequences of misuse, physiological changes related to alcohol use, guidelines for alcohol use, methods for screening and early interventions, and treatment outcomes...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159817/drinking-over-the-lifespan-focus-on-college-ages
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer E Merrill, Kate B Carey
Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non-college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159816/drinking-over-the-lifespan-focus-on-early-adolescents-and-youth
#18
REVIEW
Michael Windle
Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159815/associations-between-socioeconomic-factors-and-alcohol-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Susan E Collins
Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. Findings have indicated that people with higher SES may consume similar or greater amounts of alcohol compared with people with lower SES, although the latter group seems to bear a disproportionate burden of negative alcohol-related consequences. These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Thus, among individuals with lower SES, members of further marginalized communities, such as racial and ethnic minorities and homeless individuals, experience greater alcohol-related consequences...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159814/alcohol-use-and-related-problems-along-the-united-states-mexico-border
#20
REVIEW
Britain A Mills, Raul Caetano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
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