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Translational Neurodegeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719720/chinese-expert-consensus-on-programming-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Shengdi Chen, Guodong Gao, Tao Feng, Jianguo Zhang
Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is now a well-established option for some patients. Postoperative standardized programming processes can improve the level of postoperative management and programming, relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Main body: In order to improve the quality of the programming, the experts on DBS and PD in neurology and neurosurgery in China reviewed the relevant literatures and combined their own experiences and developed this expert consensus on the programming of deep brain stimulation in patients with PD in China...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719719/divergent-topological-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-analysis
#2
Jia-Xing Cheng, Hong-Ying Zhang, Zheng-Kun Peng, Yao Xu, Hui Tang, Jing-Tao Wu, Jun Xu
Background: Brain consists of plenty of complicated cytoarchitecture. Gaussian-model based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is far from satisfactory interpretation of the structural complexity. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a tool to determine brain non-Gaussian diffusion properties. We investigated the network properties of DKI parameters in the whole brain using graph theory and further detected the alterations of the DKI networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Magnetic resonance DKI scanning was performed on 21 AD patients and 19 controls...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713467/cerebral-glucose-metabolic-prediction-from-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Hai Rong Ma, Li Qin Sheng, Ping Lei Pan, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Hai Cun Shi, Zhen Yu Dai, Jian Guo Zhong
Brain 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been utilized to monitor disease conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD). However, the conversion patterns of FDG-PET metabolism across studies are not conclusive. We conducted a voxel-wise meta-analysis using Seed-based d Mapping that included 10 baseline voxel-wise FDG-PET comparisons between 93 aMCI converters and 129 aMCI non-converters from nine longitudinal studies. The most robust and reliable metabolic alterations that predicted conversion from aMCI to AD were localized in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588852/treating-refractory-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra M Lesenskyj, Megan P Samples, Jill M Farmer, Christina R Maxwell
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is often accompanied by clinically identified depression. Providing effective pharmacotherapies that concomitantly treat both motor and psychological symptoms can pose a challenge to physicians. For this reason, alternatives to standard anti-depressant treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), have been evaluated within the Parkinson's population. Methods: A literature search was conducted on the PubMed database for all studies that evaluated rTMS as a treatment in patients with both depression and PD...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568518/exercise-induced-increase-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-human-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Mark A Hirsch, Erwin E H van Wegen, Mark A Newman, Patricia C Heyn
Background: Animal models of exercise and Parkinson's disease (PD) have found that the physiologic use of exercise may interact with the neurodegenerative disease process, likely mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). No reviews so far have assessed the methodologic quality of available intervention studies or have bundled the effect sizes of individual studies on exercise-induced effects on BDNF blood levels in human PD. Research design and methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed from inception to June 2017...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568517/surfen-and-oxalyl-surfen-decrease-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-mitigate-neuron-deficits-in-vivo-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-tauopathy
#6
Seyedeh Maryam Alavi Naini, Constantin Yanicostas, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Sébastien Blondeel, Mohamed Bennis, Ryan J Weiss, Yitzhak Tor, Jeffrey D Esko, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas
Background: Tauopathies comprise a family of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease for which there is an urgent and unmet need for disease-modifying treatments. Tauopathies are characterized by pathological tau hyperphosphorylation, which has been shown to correlate tightly with disease progression and memory loss in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. We recently demonstrated an essential requirement for 3- O -sulfated heparan sulfate in pathological tau hyperphosphorylation in zebrafish, a prominent model organism for human drug discovery...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507718/the-role-of-statins-in-both-cognitive-impairment-and-protection-against-dementia-a-tale-of-two-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Bob G Schultz, Denise K Patten, Daniel J Berlau
Nearly 30% of adults 40 years and older in the United States are on a statin. Their widespread use heightens the importance of careful consideration of their varied effects on the body. Although randomized controlled trials have not confirmed cognitive impairing effects with statins, continuing evidence suggests statins have the ability to cause reversible cognitive impairment in some patients. Paradoxically, statins have also been shown to decrease the risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and improve cognitive impairment in some cases...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484176/factors-that-influence-adult-neurogenesis-as-potential-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Belal Shohayeb, Mohamed Diab, Mazen Ahmed, Dominic Chi Hiung Ng
Adult neurogenesis involves persistent proliferative neuroprogenitor populations that reside within distinct regions of the brain. This phenomenon was first described over 50 years ago and it is now firmly established that new neurons are continually generated in distinct regions of the adult brain. The potential of enhancing the neurogenic process lies in improved brain cognition and neuronal plasticity particularly in the context of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, adult neurogenesis might also play a role in mood and affective disorders...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456842/hydrogen-sulfide-nitric-oxide-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Sumeet Manandhar, Kripa Gautam
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2 S) and Nitric Oxide (NO) have become recognized as important gaseous signaling molecules with enormous pharmacological effects, therapeutic value, and central physiological roles. NO is one of the most important regulators of the pathophysiological condition in central nervous system (CNS). It is critical in the various functioning of the brain; however, beyond certain concentration/level, it is toxic. H2 S was regarded as toxic gas with the smell like rotten egg. But, it is now regarded as emerging neuroprotectant and neuromodulator...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423193/alzheimer-s-disease-hypothesis-and-related-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoguang Du, Xinyi Wang, Meiyu Geng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause for dementia. There are many hypotheses about AD, including abnormal deposit of amyloid β (Aβ) protein in the extracellular spaces of neurons, formation of twisted fibers of tau proteins inside neurons, cholinergic neuron damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc., and many anti-AD drugs based on these hypotheses have been developed. In this review, we will discuss the existing and emerging hypothesis and related therapies...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387348/age-induced-neuronal-cell-death-is-enhanced-in-g2019s-lrrk2-mutation-with-increased-rage-expression
#11
Hyun Jin Cho, Chengsong Xie, Huaibin Cai
Background: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations represent the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Especially, LRRK2 G2019S missense mutation has been identified as the most prevalent genetic cause in the late-onset PD. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced in high amounts in diabetes and diverse aging-related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and neurological disease. AGEs trigger intracellular signaling pathway associated with oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cell death...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296278/clinical-features-of-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#12
Ye Liu, Xiao-Ying Zhu, Xiao-Jin Zhang, Sheng-Han Kuo, William G Ondo, Yun-Cheng Wu
Background: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two distinct clinical diseases but they share some common pathological and anatomical characteristics. This study aims to confirm the clinical features of RBD in Chinese PD patients. Methods: One hundred fifty PD patients were enrolled from the Parkinson`s disease and Movement Disorders Center in  Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270291/mini-review-on-initiatives-to-interfere-with-the-propagation-and-clearance-of-alpha-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Kam Yin Chan, Ying Hua Xu, Luke Kar Man Chan, Nady Braidy, George D Mellick
In this mini-review, we summarize recent findings relating to the prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to target synucleinopathy in Parkinson's disease (PD). We link the Braak's staging hypothesis of PD with the recent evidence from in-vivo and in-vitro studies for the prion-like cell-to-cell propagation of α-syn (via exocytosis and endocytosis). The classical accumulation of aggregated α-syn in PD may result from an increased production or a failure in the mechanisms of clearance of α-syn...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255601/identification-of-ser465-as-a-novel-pink1-autophosphorylation-site
#14
Ji-Feng Guo, Ling-Yan Yao, Qi-Ying Sun, Yi-Ting Cui, Yang Yang, Qian Xu, Xin-Xiang Yan, Bei-Sha Tang
Background: PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) gene is the causal gene for recessive familial type 6 of Parkinson's disease (PARK6), which is an early-onset autosomal recessive inherited neurodegenerative disease. PINK1 has been reported to exert both autophosphorylation and phosphorylation activity, affecting cell damage under stress and other physiological responses. However, there has been no report on the identification of PINK1 autophosphorylation sites and their physiological functions...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209494/rnai-mechanisms-in-huntington-s-disease-therapy-sirna-versus-shrna
#15
REVIEW
Sebastian Aguiar, Bram van der Gaag, Francesco Albert Bosco Cortese
Huntington's Disease (HD) is a genetically dominant trinucleotide repeat disorder resulting from CAG repeats within the Huntingtin (HTT) gene exceeding a normal range (> 36 CAGs). Symptoms of the disease manifest in middle age and include chorea, dystonia, and cognitive decline. Typical latency from diagnosis to death is 20 years. There are currently no disease-modifying therapies available to HD patients. RNAi is a potentially curative therapy for HD. A popular line of research employs siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to knock down mutant Huntingtin mRNA (mHTT)...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204273/specific-serum-antibody-binding-to-phosphorylated-and-non-phosphorylated-tau-in-non-cognitively-impaired-mildly-cognitively-impaired-and-alzheimer-s-disease-subjects-an-exploratory-study
#16
Andrea C Klaver, Mary P Coffey, David A Bennett, David A Loeffler
Background: Tau vaccination and administration of anti-tau antibodies can prevent pathology and cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy, suggesting that therapies which increase anti-tau antibodies might slow the development and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extent to which individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI) possess serum anti-tau antibodies, and whether their concentrations of these antibodies differ from anti-tau antibody levels in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, are unclear...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201361/quercetin-prevents-spinal-motor-neuron-degeneration-induced-by-chronic-excitotoxic-stimulus-by-a-sirtuin-1-dependent-mechanism
#17
Rafael Lazo-Gomez, Ricardo Tapia
Background: Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of foremost importance in the selective motor neuron degeneration characteristic of motor neuron disorders. Effective therapeutic strategies are an unmet need for these disorders. Polyphenols, such as quercetin and resveratrol, are plant-derived compounds that activate sirtuins (SIRTs) and have shown promising results in some models of neuronal death, although their effects have been scarcely tested in models of motor neuron degeneration. Methods: In this work we investigated the effects of quercetin and resveratrol in an in vivo model of excitotoxic motor neuron death induced by the chronic infusion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) into the rat spinal cord tissue...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093814/nicorandil-potentiates-sodium-butyrate-induced-preconditioning-of-neurons-and-enhances-their-survival-upon-subsequent-treatment-with-h-2-o-2
#18
Parisa Tabeshmehr, Haider Kh Husnain, Mahin Salmannejad, Mahsa Sani, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Khorraminejad Shirazi
Background: Extensive loss of donor neural stem cell (NSCs) due to ischemic stress and low rate of differentiation at the site of cell graft are two of the major issues that hamper optimal outcome in NSCs transplantation studies. Given that histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate various cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins, we hypothesized that combined treatment with small molecules, sodium butyrate (NaB; a known HDAC inhibitor) and nicorandil, will enhance the rate neuronal differentiation of NSCs besides their preconditioning to resist oxidative stress...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090092/current-understanding-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-parkinson-s-disease-targets-for-potential-treatments
#19
REVIEW
Panchanan Maiti, Jayeeta Manna, Gary L Dunbar
Gradual degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, pars compacta and subsequent reduction of dopamine levels in striatum are associated with motor deficits that characterize Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, half of the PD patients also exhibit frontostriatal-mediated executive dysfunction, including deficits in attention, short-term working memory, speed of mental processing, and impulsivity. The most commonly used treatments for PD are only partially or transiently effective and are available or applicable to a minority of patients...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046784/the-role-of-gene-variants-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neurodegenerative-disorders-as-revealed-by-next-generation-sequencing-studies-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Shirley Yin-Yu Pang, Kay-Cheong Teo, Jacob Shujui Hsu, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Miaoxin Li, Pak-Chung Sham, Shu-Leong Ho
The clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders based on phenotype is difficult in heterogeneous conditions with overlapping symptoms. It does not take into account the disease etiology or the highly variable clinical course even amongst patients diagnosed with the same disorder. The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed for a system-wide, unbiased approach to identify all gene variants in the genome simultaneously. With the plethora of new genes being identified, genetic rather than phenotype-based classification of Mendelian diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) has become widely accepted...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
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