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Translational Neurodegeneration

Alexander Schulz, Franziska Wagner, Martin Ungelenk, Ingo Kurth, Christoph Redecker
BACKGROUND: Acute-onset neurodegenerative diseases in older patients are rare clinical cases, especially when the degeneration only affects specific regions of the nervous system. Several neurological disorders have been described in which the degeneration of brain parenchyma originates from and/or primarily affects the brain stem. Clinical diagnosis in these patients, however, is often complicated due to a poor understanding of these diseases and their underlying mechanisms. CASE PRESENTATION: In this manuscript we report on a 73-year-old female who had experienced a sudden onset of complex neurological symptoms that progressively worsened over a period of 2 years...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Zhu-Fei Guan, Xiu-Ling Zhou, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yan-Mei Wang, Qi-Lin Guo, Gang Ji, Guo-Feng Wu, Na-Na Wang, Hao Yang, Zhong-Yu Yu, Hou-Guang Zhou, Jing-Chun Guo, Ying-Chao Liu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease with many chronic complications, and cognitive disorders are one of the common complications in patients with diabetes. Previous studies have showed that autophagy played important roles in the progression of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and other diseases. So we investigated whether aged diabetic mice are prone to be associated with the cognitive and affective disorders and whether Beclin-1-mediated autophagy might be involved in thepahological process...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Maowen Ba, Min Kong, Xiaofeng Li, Kok Pin Ng, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
Amyloid plaques are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are important in diagnosing amyloid pathology in vivo. ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE ɛ 4), which is a major genetic risk factor for late onset AD, is an important genetic biomarker for AD pathophysiology. It has been shown that ApoE ɛ 4 is involved in Aβ deposition and formation of amyloid plaques...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Bao Wang, Neeta Abraham, Guodong Gao, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Increasing evidence supports that dysregulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function are closely related with PD pathogenesis. In this review, we briefly summarized autophagy pathway, which consists of macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Then, we discussed the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD pathogenesis. We specifically reviewed the recent developments in the relationship among several PD related genes, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by the therapeutic implications of these pathways...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Lin-Lin Gao, Tao Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the aging population. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying parkinsonian symptoms remain unclear. PD affects extensive neural networks and a more thorough understanding of network disruption will help bridge the gap between known pathological changes and observed clinical presentations in PD. Development of neuroimaging techniques, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, allows for detection of the functional connectivity of neural networks in patients with PD...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Zhibin Wang, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chao Gao
In the clinic, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinicians' experience. When the diagnosis is made, approximately 80% of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN) have been lost. Additionally, it is rather challenging to differentiate PD from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). Clinially-available 3T conventional MRI contributes little to solve these problems. The pathologic alterations of parkinsonism show abnormal brain iron deposition, and therefore susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which is sensitive to iron concentration, has been applied to find iron-related lesions for the diagnosis and differentiation of PD in recent decades...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Li Chen, Mingshu Mo, Guangning Li, Luan Cen, Lei Wei, Yousheng Xiao, Xiang Chen, Shaomin Li, Xinling Yang, Shaogang Qu, Pingyi Xu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is referring to the multi-systemic α-synucleinopathy with Lewy bodies deposited in midbrain. In ageing, the environmental and genetic factors work together and overactive major histocompatibility complex pathway to regulate immune reactions in central nerve system which resulting in neural degeneration, especially in dopaminergic neurons. As a series of biomarkers, the human leukocyte antigen genes with its related proteomics play cortical roles on the antigen presentation of major histocompatibility complex molecules to stimulate the differentiation of T lymphocytes and i-proteasome activities under their immune response to the PD-related environmental alteration and genetic variation...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Wenyan Kang, Fangyi Dong, Dunhui Li, Thomas J Quinn, Shengdi Chen, Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter based imaging has high diagnostic performance in distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) from patients with non-Parkinsonian syndromes. Our previous study indicated that the "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test (SS-16) acts as a valid instrument for olfactory assessment in Chinese PD patients. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of the two methods in diagnosing PD. METHODS: Fifty-two PD patients were involved in this study and underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using the labeled dopamine transporter radiotracer (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic function...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Qingsong Hu, Guanghui Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the formation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in surviving DA neurons in most cases. Although the cause of PD is still unclear, the remarkable advances have been made in understanding the possible causative mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. Numerous studies showed that dysfunction of mitochondria may play key roles in DA neuronal loss...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Riqiang Yan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disease which impairs cognitive function and gradually causes patients to be unable to lead normal daily lives. While the etiology of AD remains an enigma, excessive accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is widely believed to induce pathological changes and cause dementia in brains of AD patients. BACE1 was discovered to initiate the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the β-secretase site. Only after this cleavage does γ-secretase further cleave the BACE1-cleaved C-terminal APP fragment to release Aβ...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Shengdi Chen, Piu Chan, Shenggang Sun, Haibo Chen, Baorong Zhang, Weidong Le, Chunfeng Liu, Guoguang Peng, Beisha Tang, Lijuan Wang, Yan Cheng, Ming Shao, Zhenguo Liu, Zhenfu Wang, Xiaochun Chen, Mingwei Wang, Xinhua Wan, Huifang Shang, Yiming Liu, Pingyi Xu, Jian Wang, Tao Feng, Xianwen Chen, Xingyue Hu, Anmu Xie, Qin Xiao
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive and debilitating disease, which affects over 2.5 million people in China. PD is characterized clinically by resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. As the disease progresses, additional complications can arise such as non-motor and neurobehavioral symptoms. Pharmacological treatment and surgical intervention for PD have been implemented in China. Until 10 years ago, there was lack of standardization for the management of PD in different regions and among different physicians, leading to different treatment levels in different regions and different physicians...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Yaqian Xu, Jing Yang, Huifang Shang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder in elder population. Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is one of the most common non-motor manifestations in PD patients. No comprehensive review has been conducted to assess risk factors for PDD. METHODS: A systemic search for studies on PDD risk factors was performed. Cohort and case-control studies that clearly defined PDD and presented relevant data were included. The data were analyzed to generate a pooled effect size and 95 % confidence interval (CI)...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Wissam Deeb, Wei Hu, Leonardo Almeida, Addie Patterson, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Aparna Wagle Shukla
Benign tremulous parkinsonism (BTP) is characterized by a prominent tremor that occurs both at rest and with action in conjunction with other mild features of parkinsonism. The progression of symptoms is typically slow and there is often a positive family history. Although BTP is included within the phenotypic spectrum of Parkinsonism its exact relationship with idiopathic Parkinson's disease remains unclear. Treatment of BTP is challenging especially considering the poor response to levodopa, therefore surgical therapies such as deep brain stimulation surgery are sought for treatment of these tremors...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Rao Fu, Xiao-Guang Luo, Yan Ren, Zhi-Yi He, Hong Lv
BACKGROUND: Fatigue, which is commonly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), can greatly reduce quality of life and is difficult to treat. We here aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of fatigue among PD patients and to explore an effective strategy to treat PD fatigue. METHOD: This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in northeastern China. We examined fatigue in 222 PD patients from northeastern China using the Parkinson Fatigue Scale-16 (PFS-16)...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Chun-Xia Ban, Shi-Fu Xiao, Xiang Lin, Tao Wang, Qi Qiu, Min-Jie Zhu, Xia Li
BACKGROUND: China has more cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than any other country in the world. As training to recognize and manage dementia is in its early stage, it is important to study clinicians' current prescription preferences for treating patients with AD. METHODS: This study surveyed neurologists, psychiatrists, and general physicians (GPs) in Shanghai who had outpatients with AD, using a questionnaire asking about their prescription preferences for these patients...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Cong Zheng, Xin-Wen Zhou, Jian-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the elderly. Although the mechanisms underlying AD neurodegeneration are not fully understood, it is well recognized that inflammation plays a crucial role in the initiation and/or deterioration of AD neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that different cytokines, including interleukins, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ, are actively participated in AD pathogenesis and may serve as diagnostic or therapeutic targets for AD neurodegeneration...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Yuyan Tan, Li Wu, Dunhui Li, Xiaoli Liu, Jianqing Ding, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: DJ-1 has been thought as a candidate biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). It was found reduced in PD brains, CSF and saliva, although there were conflicting results. How DJ-1 expression may be regulated is not clear. Recently, blood-based DNA methylation represents a highly promising biomarker for PD by regulating the causative gene expression. Thus, in this study, we try to explore whether blood-based DNA methylation of DJ-1 could be used as a biomarker to differentiate PD patients from normal control (NC), and whether DNA methylation could regulate DJ-1 expression in a SH-SY5Y cell model...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Sofie Sølvsten Sørensen, Ann-Britt Nygaard, Thomas Christensen
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Measurements of miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood have just started gaining attention as a novel diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions. The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to analyze the expression of miRNAs in CSF and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in order to identify potential miRNA biomarker candidates able to separate AD from other types of dementia...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Xue-Ping Wang, Ming Wei, Qin Xiao
BACKGROUND: Levodopa and dopamine agonists are the main treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) in recent years. Increased drug dosages are linked to some severe side effects, one of which is impulse control disorders (ICD). Many studies have reported the related risk factors of ICDs, such as dopamine agonist, male sex, younger age, earlier age of onset and so on. This study aims to investigate the incidence of ICD in Chinese PD patients from Shanghai area, explore the association of ICD with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT)...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
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