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Translational Neurodegeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702179/pathological-correlations-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Marcela Cruz-Haces, Jonathan Tang, Glen Acosta, Joseph Fernandez, Riyi Shi
Traumatic brain injury is among the most common causes of death and disability in youth and young adults. In addition to the acute risk of morbidity with moderate to severe injuries, traumatic brain injury is associated with a number of chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, despite the high incidence of traumatic brain injuries and the established clinical correlation with neurodegeneration, the causative factors linking these processes have not yet been fully elucidated...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702178/the-development-prospection-of-hdac-inhibitors-as-a-potential-therapeutic-direction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Shuang-Shuang Yang, Rui Zhang, Gang Wang, Yong-Fang Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, which is associated with learning and memory impairment in the elderly. Recent studies have found that treating AD in the way of chromatin remodeling via histone acetylation is a promising therapeutic regimen. In a number of recent studies, inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDACs) have been found to be a novel promising therapeutic agents for neurological disorders, particularly for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Although HDAC inhibitors have the ability to ameliorate cognitive impairment, successful treatments in the classic AD animal model are rarely translated into clinical trials...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680589/nicotine-from-cigarette-smoking-and-diet-and-parkinson-disease-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Chaoran Ma, Yesong Liu, Samantha Neumann, Xiang Gao
Evidence from epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between cigarette smoking and low risk of Parkinson disease (PD). As a major component of tobacco smoke, nicotine has been proposed to be a substance for preventing against PD risk, with a key role in regulating striatal activity and behaviors mediated through the dopaminergic system. Animal studies also showed that nicotine could modulate dopamine transmission and reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias. However, previous clinical trials yield controversial results regarding nicotine treatment...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638598/caregiver-burden-is-increased-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-pd-mci
#4
Ann J Jones, Roeline G Kuijer, Leslie Livingston, Daniel Myall, Kyla Horne, Michael MacAskill, Toni Pitcher, Paul T Barrett, Tim J Anderson, John C Dalrymple-Alford
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on caregiver outcomes associated with mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) and the coping strategies used by these caregivers. METHODS: To investigate this relationship, we examined levels of burden, depression, anxiety, coping strategies and positive aspects of caregiving in the informal caregivers of 96 PD patients. The PD patients were classified using MDS-Task Force Level II criteria as showing either normal cognition (PD-N; n = 51), PD-MCI (n = 30) or with dementia (PDD; n = 15)...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638597/rest-tremor-revisited-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Franziska Hopfner, Jos Steffen Becktepe, Günther Deuschl
Tremor is the most common movement disorder characterized by a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. Since distinct diseases can cause similar tremor manifestations and vice-versa, it is challenging to make an accurate diagnosis. This applies particularly for tremor at rest. This entity was only rarely studied in the past, although a multitude of clinical studies on prevalence and clinical features of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, have been carried out...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638596/environmental-insults-critical-triggers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Bing Yu, Roger Pamphlett
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by a rapid loss of lower and upper motor neurons. As a complex disease, the ageing process and complicated gene-environment interactions are involved in the majority of cases. MAIN BODY: Significant advances have been made in unravelling the genetic susceptibility to ALS with massively parallel sequencing technologies, while environmental insults remain a suspected but largely unexplored source of risk...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580139/factors-predicting-the-instant-effect-of-motor-function-after-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Xin-Ling Su, Xiao-Guang Luo, Hong Lv, Jun Wang, Yan Ren, Zhi-Yi He
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on surgical outcomes was confirmed by some studies, however there were different conclusions about that through long- and short-term follow-ups. We aimed to investigate the factors which influence the predictive value of levodopa responsiveness, and discover more predictive factors of surgical outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-three PD patients underwent bilateral STN-DBS and completed our follow-up...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536652/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-reduces-cell-apoptosis-via-upregulating-hsp70-in-shsy-5y-cells
#8
Hui Sun, Ming Jiang, Xing Fu, Qiong Cai, Jingxing Zhang, Yanxin Yin, Jia Guo, Lihua Yu, Yun Jiang, Yigang Liu, Liang Feng, Zhiyu Nie, Jianmin Fang, Lingjing Jin
BACKGROUND: Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a new candidate growth factor for dopaminergic neurons against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). HSP70 family, a chaperon like heat shock protein family, was proved to be involved in the MANF induced survival pathway in 6-OHDA treated SHSY-5Y cells. However, the ER stress relative transcriptome, in MANF signaling cascades is still investigated. The involvement of HSP70, a 70kd member of HSP70 family, need further to be verified...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529730/effect-of-low-versus-high-frequency-stimulation-on-freezing-of-gait-and-other-axial-symptoms-in-parkinson-patients-with-bilateral-stn-dbs-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Tao Xie, Mahesh Padmanaban, Lisa Bloom, Ellen MacCracken, Breanna Bertacchi, Abraham Dachman, Peter Warnke
Some studies have shown that low frequency stimulation (LFS, most commonly 60 Hz), compared to high frequency stimulation (HFS, most commonly 130 Hz), has beneficial effects, short-term or even long-term, on improving freezing of gait (FOG) and other axial symptoms, including speech and swallowing function, in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). However, other studies failed to confirm this. It seems not clear what determines the difference in response to LFS...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451382/roles-of-functional-catechol-o-methyltransferase-genotypes-in-chinese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Qin Xiao, Yiwei Qian, Jiujiang Liu, Shaoqing Xu, Xiaodong Yang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may be associated with the susceptibility to and pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this case-control study, we investigated the most common functional COMT gene haplotypes that had been shown to influence COMT enzymatic activity and the association of the single and combined COMT haplotypes with clinical symptoms and pharmacotherapy in Chinese patients with PD. METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients with idiopathic PD and 157 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439409/serial-deletion-reveals-structural-basis-and-stability-for-the-core-enzyme-activity-of-human-glutaminase-1-isoforms-relevance-to-excitotoxic-neurodegeneration
#11
Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase 1 is a phosphate-activated metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis, which converts glutamine into glutamate. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses, executing important physiological functions in the central nervous system. There are two isoforms of glutaminase 1, KGA and GAC, both of which are generated through alternative splicing from the same gene. KGA and GAC both transcribe 1-14 exons in the N-terminal, but each has its unique C-terminal in the coding sequence...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396731/clinical-features-and-genotype-phenotype-correlation-analysis-in-patients-with-atl1-mutations-a-literature-reanalysis
#12
Guo-Hua Zhao, Xiao-Min Liu
BACKGROUND: The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. Approximately 10% of the autosomal dominant (AD) HSPs (ADHSPs) have the spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A) genotype which is caused by ATL1 gene mutations. Currently there are more than 60 reported ATL1 gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlation remains unclear. The study aims to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlation in SPG3A patients. METHODS: We performed a reanalysis of the clinical features and genotype-phenotype correlations in 51 reported studies exhibiting an ATL1 gene mutation...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360997/imaging-biomarkers-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinsonian-syndromes-current-and-emerging-concepts
#13
REVIEW
Usman Saeed, Jordana Compagnone, Richard I Aviv, Antonio P Strafella, Sandra E Black, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis
Two centuries ago in 1817, James Parkinson provided the first medical description of Parkinson's disease, later refined by Jean-Martin Charcot in the mid-to-late 19th century to include the atypical parkinsonian variants (also termed, Parkinson-plus syndromes). Today, Parkinson's disease represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated global prevalence of over 10 million. Conversely, atypical parkinsonian syndromes encompass a group of relatively heterogeneous disorders that may share some clinical features with Parkinson's disease, but are uncommon distinct clinicopathological diseases...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360996/the-role-of-cognitive-activity-in-cognition-protection-from-bedside-to-bench
#14
REVIEW
Bin-Yin Li, Ying Wang, Hui-Dong Tang, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline poses a great concern to elderly people and their families. In addition to pharmacological therapies, several varieties of nonpharmacological intervention have been developed. Most training trials proved that a well-organized task is clinically effective in cognition improvement. MAIN BODY: We will first review clinical trials of cognitive training for healthy elders, MCI and AD patients, respectively. Besides, potential neuroprotective and compensatory mechanisms in animal models of AD are discussed...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293421/protein-misfolding-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-implications-and-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Hyunsun Park, Marc Baumann, John Dunlop, Judith Frydman, Ron Kopito, Alexander McCampbell, Gabrielle Leblanc, Anjli Venkateswaran, Antti Nurmi, Robert Hodgson
A hallmark of neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the formation of misfolded protein aggregates that cause cellular toxicity and contribute to cellular proteostatic collapse. Therapeutic options are currently being explored that target different steps in the production and processing of proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease, including synthesis, chaperone-assisted folding and trafficking, and degradation via the proteasome and autophagy pathways. Other therapies, like mTOR inhibitors and activators of the heat shock response, can rebalance the entire proteostatic network...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265351/elevated-axonal-membrane-permeability-and-its-correlation-with-motor-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Gary Leung, Melissa Tully, Jonathan Tang, Shengxi Wu, Riyi Shi
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly clear that in addition to myelin disruption, axonal degeneration may also represent a key pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, elucidating the mechanisms of axonal degeneration may not only enhance our understanding of the overall MS pathology, but also elucidate additional therapeutic targets. The objective of this study is assess the degree of axonal membrane disruption and its significance in motor deficits in EAE mice. METHODS: Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis was induced in mice by subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein/complete Freud's adjuvant emulsion, followed by two intraperitoneal injections of pertussis toxin...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239455/the-underlying-mechanism-of-prodromal-pd-insights-from-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-and-the-olfactory-system
#17
REVIEW
Shu-Ying Liu, Piu Chan, A Jon Stoessl
Neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30-50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying therapies. The most focused underlying mechanisms linking the pathological pattern and clinical characteristics of prodromal PD are the prion hypothesis of alpha-synuclein and the selective vulnerability of neurons...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184302/the-role-of-exosomes-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease
#18
REVIEW
Tingting Xiao, Weiwei Zhang, Bin Jiao, Chu-Zheng Pan, Xixi Liu, Lu Shen
Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by most cell types including neurons that function in intercellular communication through transfer of their cargo or encapsulate and eliminate unnecessary cellular components and therefore have a broad impact on nerve development, activation and regeneration. In addition, exosomes have been observed to be involved in spreading pathological misfolded proteins, thereby leading to the onset and propagation of disease. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and characterized by two types of lesions: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149509/music-therapy-is-a-potential-intervention-for-cognition-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Rong Fang, Shengxuan Ye, Jiangtao Huangfu, David P Calimag
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a global health issue given the increasing prevalence rate and the limitations of drug effects. As a consequent, non-pharmacological interventions are of importance. Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological way with a long history of use and a fine usability for dementia patients. In this review, we will summarize different techniques, diverse clinical trials, and the mechanisms of MT as it is helpful to the cognition in AD, providing reference for future research. Many articles have demonstrated that MT can reduce cognitive decline especially in autobiographical and episodic memories, psychomotor speed, executive function domains, and global cognition...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105331/opioid-system-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#20
REVIEW
Jing Pan, Huaibin Cai
L-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major clinical complication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). This debilitating side effect likely reflects aberrant compensatory responses for a combination of dopaminergic neuron denervation and repeated L-DOPA administration. Abnormal endogenous opioid signal transduction pathways in basal ganglia have been well documented in LID. Opioid receptors have been targeted to alleviate the dyskinesia. However, the exact role of this altered opioid activity is remains under active investigation...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
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