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Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology

Edward J Filippone, Astha Gupta, John L Farber
The pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is complex and incompletely understood. Whereas hyperglycemia is clearly important, the role of insulin resistance (IR) is increasingly recognized. We present the case of a normotensive non-smoking obese woman with nephrotic syndrome who was found to have DN by biopsy. All measures of glucose metabolism, including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance testing, were repeatedly normal with little exception. IR was documented, however, based on the presence of the metabolic syndrome and an elevated homeostasis model assessment of IR...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Taisuke Ezaki, Takeo Kosaka, Shuji Mikami, Naoto Kaburaki, Ryuichi Mizuno, Mototsugu Oya
An 82-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of gross hematuria and a history of prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy 6 years previously is described. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder tumors on the right posterior wall. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and a pathological diagnosis of the inverted papilloma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bladder-inverted papilloma after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Hideaki Ishikawa, Junichi Sakamoto
It is frequently necessary to admit critically ill elderly patients to intensive care units (ICUs) due to their physiological impairments and co-morbidities. Several life-sustaining therapies such as mechanical ventilation are performed as necessary treatment in these ICUs. Sometimes renal replacement therapy (i.e. dialysis) is considered for elderly patients with complicating serious renal insufficiency. However, although the necessity for dialysis is recognized, some elderly patients may not benefit from this care because of their limited life expectancy...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Jonathan Amatruda, Kevin Dieckhaus, Poornima Hegde, John Taylor
A 34-year-old male was referred for management of bladder cancer noted on workup for gross hematuria and new-onset irritative voiding symptoms. The patient's history was significant for recently diagnosed granulomatosis with polyangiitis for which he was undergoing treatment with oral cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids. Cystoscopy revealed lesions suspicious for malignancy, but the patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to BK virus infection upon cytology review, and immunostaining confirmed a polyomavirus infection of the urothelium...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Licia Peruzzi, Roberto Bonaudo, Alessandro Amore, Federica Chiale, Maria Elena Donadio, Luca Vergano, Rosanna Coppo
Neonatal sepsis due to E. coli is often complicated by multiple organ failure (MOF) and a high mortality risk. We report the case of a term newborn discharged in good condition who suddenly fell into septic shock after 11 days and required immediate resuscitation, volume expansion and a high-dosage amine infusion. Extremely severe metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with diffuse bleeding, and unstable hemodynamic status with oliguria turned into strict anuria, and the patient became anuric...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Edwin M Spithoven, Niek F Casteleijn, Paul Berger, Roel Goldschmeding
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. It is characterized by progressive cyst formation in both kidneys, often leading to end-stage kidney disease. Indications for surgical removal of an ADPKD kidney include intractable pain, hematuria, infection, or exceptional enlargement and small abdominal cavity hampering implantation of a donor kidney. We report the case of an extraordinarily large ADPKD kidney weighing 8.7 kg (19.3 lb) with a maximal length of 48 cm (19 inch), and with cysts filled with both clear and bloody fluid...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Shun Manabe, Yasuko Oshima, Marie Nakano, Teruhiro Fujii, Takamitsu Maehara, Kosaku Nitta, Michiyasu Hatano
A 43-year-old male experienced renal infarction (RI) following left upper lobectomy for lung cancer. The patient complained of acute-onset severe left flank pain on the 14th postoperative day. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed RI by a large wedge-shaped defect in the left kidney. A chest CT scan located the thrombus in the stump (a blind-ended vessel) of the left superior pulmonary vein. Therefore, thromboembolic RI caused by pulmonary vein thrombosis was suspected. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated with heparin and warfarin to treat RI and to prevent further embolic episodes...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Yosuke Sasaki, Takuya Isegawa, Akira Shimabukuro, Tomoki Yonaha, Hiroyasu Yonaha
Pleural effusion is a ubiquitous complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Common etiologies of pleural effusion in this patient group are heart failure, volume overload, parapneumonic effusion, tuberculotic pleuritis, and uremic pleuritis. Although thoracentesis is a useful diagnostic method of pleural effusion, empirical reduction of the dry weight is often attempted without thoracentesis because pleural effusion is commonly caused by volume overload and responds to the dry-weight reduction. However, this empiricism has a risk of overlooking or delaying the diagnosis of potentially fatal etiologies that need specific treatments...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Yasushi Ohashi, Shizuka Kobayashi, Taichi Arai, Tetsuo Nemoto, Chizu Aoki, Masato Nagata, Ken Sakai
Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare renal neoplasm. Secondary hypertension with juxtaglomerular cell tumor can be seen in females in their 20s and 30s. We present a case of juxtaglomerular cell tumor during pregnancy. A 32-year-old female was hospitalized for refractory hypertension and nephrotic syndrome in the 23rd gestational week. One year before admission, she had been diagnosed with hypertension; plasma renin activity at that time had been 2.3 ng/ml/h. Her blood pressure was uncontrolled during pregnancy, and proteinuria was detected in the 12th gestational week despite the administration of antihypertensive medications...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Maria Isabel Rodríguez Cruz, Jose Emilio Hernández Sánchez, Beatriz Segovia Blázquez, Sara Belen Prieto Nogal, Luis Miguel Gómez Tejeda
We report a case of a large malignant solitary fibrous kidney tumor. A complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and peritoneal disease was carried out, and a histological examination confirmed the initial diagnosis. We describe and discuss the characteristics of this rare kidney neoplasm.
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Niina Koivuviita, Risto Tertti, Maija Heiro, Ilkka Manner, Kaj Metsärinne
Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Alberto Mella, Maria Messina, Andrea Ranghino, Paolo Solidoro, Giuseppe Tabbia, Giuseppe Paolo Segoloni, Luigi Biancone
Pneumotoxic drugs like amiodarone and m-TOR inhibitors (m-TORi) may be administered contemporaneously in therapy for patients who had renal transplants. We present a case of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) in a patient treated with amiodarone and everolimus. A 57-year-old Caucasian male, under treatment with both everolimus (for 3 years) and amiodarone (for 2 months), presented with fever, dyspnoea and a negative chest X-ray after his second kidney transplant with suboptimal serum creatinine (3 mg/dl). A non-contrastive high-resolution CT scan showed bilateral interstitial lung disease with an associated reduction in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Ryo Koda, Atsunori Yoshino, Yuji Imanishi, Shinya Kawamoto, Yoshihiko Ueda, Junichiro James Kazama, Ichiei Narita, Tetsuro Takeda
Glomerulonephropathy is a rare complication of Takayasu's arteritis (TA). To date, most glomerulonephropathies associated with TA show the histological feature of mesangial proliferation. Membranous glomerulonephropathy (MG) is a form of glomerulonephropathy in which the mesangial proliferation is not conspicuous and its association with TA is extremely rare. A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to progressive edema in the lower limbs and nephrotic range proteinuria. Five years previously, he underwent percutaneous angioplasty for left subclavian artery stenosis...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Naoto Kaburaki, Takeo Kosaka, Satoshi Yazawa, Mototsugu Oya
An 86-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of clot retention and had a history of prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy 11 years previously is described. Cystoscopy revealed radiation cystitis in coexistence with bladder cancer. Since bladder cancer may be present in patients with macroscopic hematuria who have a history of radiation therapy, referral to an urologist is recommended.
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Yosuke Sasaki, Yoshihiko Raita, Genta Uehara, Yasushi Higa, Hitoshi Miyasato
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) may be complicated by thromboembolism, which occasionally manifests as stroke. Although the optimal, standardized approach to the prophylaxis and management of thromboembolic complications associated with NS has not been established, anticoagulation with heparin and subsequent warfarin is the de facto standard of treatment. Dabigatran, a novel direct thrombin inhibitor, has become a substitute for warfarin and heparin for many indications, including the prophylaxis of stroke associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and postoperative thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic patients...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Tim Ulinski, Aurélie Davourie-Salandre, Isabelle Brocheriou, Bilal Aoun
We report the case of an 11-year-old previously healthy girl who presented for microscopic hematuria and nephrotic proteinuria with normal renal function, which persisted after 6 months of steroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers, hydroxychloroquine, mycophenolic acid and a low-salt diet. A serum investigation suggested lupus nephritis and a renal biopsy, performed 2 weeks after the first proteinuria detection, revealed membranous lupus nephritis. We decided to perform ten sessions of daily immunoadsorption...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Jili Zhu, Huiming Wang, Dingping Yang
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, accounting for approximately 30-40% of patients undergoing renal biopsy in Asia. The characteristic and diagnostic lesion of IgAN is the deposition of glomerular IgA. The morphological lesions observed by light microscopy are extremely variable. A causal relationship between IgAN and burn injury has not been established, and the correlation between them is not clear if they appear at the same time. We have explored the cause of severe proteinuria of a Chinese patient with burns of 2nd or 3rd degree after a gas leakage accident 2 weeks ago...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Masayuki Yamanouchi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Koki Mise, Noriko Hayami, Rikako Hiramatsu, Keiichi Sumida, Tatsuya Suwabe, Eiko Hasegawa, Junichi Hoshino, Naoki Sawa, Fumi Takemoto, Kenmei Takaichi
We report a 68-year-old Japanese man with end-stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis and chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) related to thrombosis in an aortic aneurysm. He had undergone graft replacement for the dissection of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta in 1990 and 2002, respectively. Computed tomography disclosed an aneurysm with thrombosis in the residual aorta adjacent to the graft anastomosis. DIC was diagnosed based on elevation of serum fibrinogen degradation products while his activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and fibrinogen level were normal...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
S Treille, J M Bailly, J Van Cauter, F Dehout, B Guillaume
The secretion of large volumes of fluid into cysts and changes in the structure and mobility of the cilia of the renal tubular epithelium can lead to nephromegaly. This in turn often causes a deterioration of kidney function and arterial hypertension. In recent clinical studies, somatostatin analogues have demonstrated efficacy in isolated polycystic liver disease and, to a lesser extent, in polycystic kidney disease. Since the publication of these clinical studies, several patients have been referred to us for somatostatin analogue treatment...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
N Lumen, P Houtmeyers, S Monstrey, A-F Spinoit, W Oosterlinck, P Hoebeke
Perineal urethrostomy is considered to be the last option to restore voiding in complex/recurrent urethral stricture disease. It is also a necessary procedure after penectomy or urethrectomy. Stenosis of the perineal urethrostomy has been reported in up to 30% of cases. There is no consensus on how to treat a stenotic perineal urethrostomy, but, in general, a form of urinary diversion is offered to the patient. We present the case of a young male who underwent perineal urethrostomy after urethrectomy for urethral cancer...
January 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
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