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Perspectives on Medical Education

Elise Paradis, Lara Varpio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Anne-Marie Reid, Jeremy M Brown, Julie M Smith, Alexandra C Cope, Susan Jamieson
CONTEXT: For medical education researchers, a key concern may be the practicalities of gaining ethical approval where this is a national or local requirement. However, in qualitative studies, where the dynamics of human interaction pervade, ethical considerations are an ongoing process which continues long after approval has been granted. Responding to ethical dilemmas arising 'in the moment' requires a reflexive approach whereby the researcher questions his/her own motivations, assumptions and interests...
March 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Cary Cuncic, Glenn Regehr, Heather Frost, Joanna Bates
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between preceptor and trainee is becoming recognized as a critical component of teaching, in particular in the negotiation of feedback and in the formation of professional identity. This paper elaborates on the nature of the relationships between preceptor and student that evolve in the context of rural longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). METHODS: We drew on constructivist grounded theory for the research approach. We interviewed nine LIC family practice preceptors from three sites at one educational institution...
March 12, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Cees van der Vleuten, Adrian Freeman, Carlos Fernando Collares
This paper discusses the advantages of progress testing. A utopia is described where medical schools would work together to develop and administer progress testing. This would lead to a significant reduction of cost, an increase in the quality of measurement and phenomenal feedback to learner and school. Progress testing would also provide more freedom and resources for more creative in-school assessment. It would be an educationally attractive alternative for the creation of cognitive licensing exams. A utopia is always far away in the future, but by formulating a vision for that future we may engage in discussions on how to get there...
March 9, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Lorelei Lingard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Sandra Monteiro, Debra Sibbald, Karen Coetzee
INTRODUCTION: Tablet-based assessments offer benefits over scannable-paper assessments; however, there is little known about the impact to the variability of assessment scores. METHODS: Two studies were conducted to evaluate changes in rating technology. Rating modality (paper vs tablets) was manipulated between candidates (Study 1) and within candidates (Study 2). Average scores were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Cronbach's alpha and generalizability theory...
February 27, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Teresa M Chan, David Jo, Andrew W Shih, Vinai C Bhagirath, Lana A Castellucci, Calvin Yeh, Brent Thoma, Eric K Tseng, Kerstin de Wit
BACKGROUND: Online educational resources are criticized as being teacher-centred, failing to address learner's needs. Needs assessments are an important precursor to inform curriculum development, but these are often overlooked or skipped by developers of online educational resources due to cumbersome measurement tools. Novel methods are required to identify perceived and unperceived learning needs to allow targeted development of learner-centred curricula. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of performing a novel technique dubbed the Massive Online Needs Assessment (MONA) for the purpose of emergency haematology online educational curricular planning, within an online learning community (affiliated with the Free Open Access Medical education movement)...
February 27, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Robert M Klassen, Joel R L Klassen
INTRODUCTION: Self-efficacy is a theoretically and empirically robust motivation belief that has been shown to play an important role in the learning and development of new skills and knowledge. In this article, we critically review research on the self-efficacy beliefs of medical students, with a goal to evaluate the existing research and to strengthen future work. In particular, we sought to describe the state of research on medical student self-efficacy and to critically examine the conceptualization and measurement of the construct...
February 26, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Ahmed Al Rumayyan, Nasr Ahmed, Reem Al Subait, Ghassan Al Ghamdi, Moeber Mohammed Mahzari, Tarig Awad Mohamed, Jerome I Rotgans, Mustafa Donmez, Silvia Mamede, Henk G Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Self-explanation while individually diagnosing clinical cases has proved to be an effective instructional approach for teaching clinical reasoning. The present study compared the effects on diagnostic performance of self-explanation in small groups with the more commonly used hypothetico-deductive approach. METHODS: Second-year students from a six-year medical school in Saudi Arabia (39 males; 49 females) worked in small groups on seven clinical vignettes (four criterion cases representing cardiovascular diseases and three 'fillers', i...
February 26, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Luuk Theelen, Cheryll Bischoff, Bernd Grimm, Ide C Heyligers
AIM: To investigate whether the current, generally accepted practice of orthopaedic surgical skills training can raise the performance of supervised residents to levels equal to those of experienced orthopaedic surgeons when it comes to clinical outcomes or implant position after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of primary total knee arthroplasty outcomes (minimum follow-up of 12 months) procedures were split into two groups: supervised orthopaedic residents as first surgeon (group R), and experienced senior orthopaedic surgeons as first surgeon (group S)...
February 23, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Stefan N van Vendeloo, David J Prins, Cees C P M Verheyen, Jelle T Prins, Fleur van den Heijkant, Frank M M A van der Heijden, Paul L P Brand
INTRODUCTION: Concerns exist about the negative impact of burnout on the professional and personal lives of residents. It is suggested that the origins of burnout among residents are rooted in the learning environment. We aimed to evaluate the association between the learning environment and burnout in a national sample of Dutch residents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among all Dutch residents in September 2015. We measured the learning environment using the three domain scores on content, organization, and atmosphere from the Scan of Postgraduate Educational Environment Domains (SPEED) and burnout using the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (UBOS-C)...
February 23, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Nora Gimpel, Tiffany Kindratt, Alvin Dawson, Patti Pagels
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and service-learning are unique experiential approaches designed to train medical students how to provide individualized patient care from a population perspective. Medical schools in the US are required to provide support for service-learning and community projects. Despite this requirement, few medical schools offer structured service-learning. We developed the Community Action Research Track (CART) to integrate population medicine, health promotion/disease prevention and the social determinants of health into the medical school curriculum through CBPR and service-learning experiences...
January 26, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Evangeline Stubbing, Esther Helmich, Jennifer Cleland
INTRODUCTION: Students enter the 'figured world' of medical school with preconceptions of what it means to be a doctor. The meeting of these early preconceptions and their newly developing identities can create emotional tensions. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of how such tensions were experienced and managed. Using figured worlds as a theoretical framework we explored students' interactions of preconceptions with their newly developing professional identities in their first year at medical school...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Kirkpatrick B Fergus, Bronte Teale, Milani Sivapragasam, Omar Mesina, Erene Stergiopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
John Sweller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Sara Aldekhyl, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti, Laura M Naismith
INTRODUCTION: The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. METHODS: Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
André-Sébastien Aubin, Christina St-Onge, Jean-Sébastien Renaud
INTRODUCTION: With the Standards voicing concern for the appropriateness of response processes, we need to explore strategies that would allow us to identify inappropriate rater response processes. Although certain statistics can be used to help detect rater bias, their use is complicated by either a lack of data about their actual power to detect rater bias or the difficulty related to their application in the context of health professions education. This exploratory study aimed to establish the worthiness of pursuing the use of l z to detect rater bias...
January 2, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Anna Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Sarah Yardley, Michiel Westerman, Maggie Bartlett, J Mark Walton, Julie Smith, Ed Peile
INTRODUCTION: Transitions are traditionally viewed as challenging for clinicians. Throughout medical career pathways, clinicians need to successfully navigate successive transitions as they become progressively more independent practitioners. In these guidelines, we aim to synthesize the evidence from the literature to provide guidance for supporting clinicians in their development of independence, and highlight areas for further research. METHODS: Drawing upon D3 method guidance, four key themes universal to medical career transitions and progressive independence were identified by all authors through discussion and consensus from our own experience and expertise: workplace learning, independence and responsibility, mentoring and coaching, and patient perspectives...
February 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Lorelei Lingard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
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