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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506250/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-isolated-from-ear-discharges-of-patients-at-university-of-hawassa-comprehensive-specialized-hospital
#1
Serawit Deyno, Alemayehu Toma, Mesfin Worku, Muluken Bekele
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant microorganism are a growing global danger. Strains of S. aureus have developed resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and treatment becoming a challenge. Studies assessing pattern and determinants of S. aureus resistance in ear infection in Ethiopia are very scarce. This study presents overview of pattern and determinants S. aureus resistance from samples of ear discharge in Ethiopia. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who visit ENT clinic of University of Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital from February 1, 2016 to November 1, 2016...
May 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486985/the-salvage-therapy-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-initially-harbored-susceptible-egfr-mutation-and-acquired-resistance-occurred-to-the-first-line-gefitinib-and-second-line-cytotoxic-chemotherapy
#2
Chih-Jen Yang, Jen-Yu Hung, Ming-Ju Tsai, Kuan-Li Wu, Ta-Chih Liu, Shah-Hwa Chou, Jui-Ying Lee, Jui-Sheng Hsu, Ming-Shyan Huang, Inn-Wen Chong
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as gefitinib can provide better efficacy and prolonged progression free survival (PFS) than cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung non-squamous cell carcinoma harboring susceptible EGFR mutations when used as first-line therapy. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is regarded as being the standard therapy to overcome acquired resistance to an initial EGFR TKI. However, there is currently no consensus on how best to treat patients who develop resistance to both an initial EGFR TKI and chemotherapy...
May 10, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486949/a-decade-of-adverse-drug-events-in-portuguese-hospitals-space-time-clustering-and-spatial-variation-in-temporal-trends
#3
Gianina Scripcaru, Ceu Mateus, Carla Nunes
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify the distribution by municipalities of adverse drug events (ADE) in Portugal, including adverse drug reactions (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), on municipality/years ADE rate clustering. Also we identify areas with different trends in time. METHODS: We used a national dataset of public hospital discharges in Continental Portugal from 2004 to 2013. Events were identified based on codes: from E930 to E949...
May 10, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476169/effects-of-diacetyl-liensinine-on-electrophysiology-in-rabbit-ventricular-myocytes
#4
Feng Cao, Teng Wang, Wenmao Ding, Zhe Li, Shaobo Shi, Xiaozhan Wang
BACKGROUND: Diacetyl-liensinine is a chemosynthetic derivative of liensinine, extracted from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, in China. It has been found to have extensive anti- arrhythmic actions. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of diacetyl-liensinine on electro- physiology of myocytes. METHODS: We exposed rabbit ventricular myocytes to diacetyl-liensinine using standard whole-cell patch-clamp technique and measured the action potential, L-type calcium current (I Ca-L), delayed rectifier potassium current (I K), transient outward potassium current (I to) and inward rectifier potassium current (I K1)...
May 5, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472978/molecular-mechanism-of-cardol-isolated-from-trigona-incisa-stingless-bee-propolis-induced-apoptosis-in-the-sw620-human-colorectal-cancer-cell-line
#5
Paula Mariana Kustiawan, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Tanapat Palaga, Songchan Puthong, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan, Jisnuson Svasti, Chanpen Chanchao
BACKGROUND: Cardol is a major bioactive constituent in the Trigona incisa propolis from Indonesia, with a strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against the SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC50 of 4.51 ± 0.76 μg/mL). Cardol induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. The present study was designed to reveal the mechanism of cardol's antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis. METHODS: Changes in cell morphology were observed by light microscopy...
May 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468637/drug-transporter-mediated-interactions-between-anthelminthic-and-antiretroviral-drugs-across-the-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#6
Gabriel Kigen, Geoffrey Edwards
BACKGROUND: Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and anthelminthic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) and praziquantel (PZQ) were assessed by investigating their permeation through the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a transwell. The impact of anthelminthics on the transport of ARVs was determined by assessing the apical to basolateral (AP → BL) [passive] and basolateral to apical (BL → AP) [efflux] directions alone, and in presence of an anthelminthic. The reverse was conducted for the assessment of the influence of ARVs on anthelminthics...
May 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468688/erroneous-formulation-of-delayed-release-omeprazole-capsules-alert-for-importing-countries
#7
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Naoko Yoshida, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tep Keila, Tey Sovannarith, Heng Bun Kiet, Eav Dararth, Theingi Zin, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto, Kazuko Kimura
BACKGROUND: Poor drug quality is a matter of serious concern, especially in countries where drug regulation and law enforcement are constrained by limited resources. This study was carried out to investigate the cause of quality failure of omeprazole in Cambodia in 2010 and Myanmar in 2014. METHODS: We conducted pharmacopoeial quantity, content uniformity and dissolution tests of 156 samples of omeprazole capsules collected in Cambodia in 2010 and Myanmar in 2014...
May 3, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449705/large-scale-detection-of-drug-off-targets-hypotheses-for-drug-repurposing-and-understanding-side-effects
#8
Matthieu Chartier, Louis-Philippe Morency, María Inés Zylber, Rafael J Najmanovich
BACKGROUND: Promiscuity in molecular interactions between small-molecules, including drugs, and proteins is widespread. Such unintended interactions can be exploited to suggest drug repurposing possibilities as well as to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for observed side-effects. METHODS: We perform a large-scale analysis to detect binding-site molecular interaction field similarities between the binding-sites of the primary target of 400 drugs against a dataset of 14082 cavities within 7895 different proteins representing a non-redundant dataset of all proteins with known structure...
April 28, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441970/salidroside-contributes-to-reducing-blood-pressure-and-alleviating-cerebrovascular-contractile-activity-in-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats-by-inhibition-of-l-type-calcium-channel-in-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Yu-Guang Ma, Jun-Wei Wang, Yun-Gang Bai, Mei Liu, Man-Jiang Xie, Zhi-Jun Dai
BACKGROUND: Vascular disease is a common and often severe complication in diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia and hypertension are considered to be two of the leading risk factors for vascular complications in diabetic patients. However, few pharmacologic agents could provide a combinational therapy for controlling hyperglycemia and blood pressure in diabetic patients at the same time. Salidroside (SAL) is the major active ingredient derived from Rhodiola. Recently, it has been reported that SAL have an obvious hypoglycemic effect in diabetes and show a beneficial activity in diabetic vascular dysfunction...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431577/dichloroacetic-acid-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-male-rats-and-the-protective-effect-of-date-fruit-extract
#10
Amira El Arem, Lamia Lahouar, Emna Behija Saafi, Amira Thouri, Fatma Ghrairi, Zohra Houas, Fadoua Neffati, Lotfi Achour
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous date extract (ADE) against the dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced testicular injury in rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group I served as the control; group II was given ADE (4 ml/kg) by gavage; groups III and IV received DCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L drinking water, respectively; and groups V and VI received DCA at 0.5 and 2 g/L drinking water, respectively, before ADE administration...
April 22, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427467/coenzyme-q10-prevents-oxidative-stress-and-fibrosis-in-isoprenaline-induced-cardiac-remodeling-in-aged-rats
#11
Anayt Ulla, Mustafe Khalid Mohamed, Biswajit Sikder, Afm Towheedur Rahman, Farzana Akther Sumi, Murad Hossain, Hasan Mahmud Reza, G M Sayedur Rahman, Md Ashraful Alam
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study aimed to investigate the effect of CoQ10 treatment on isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac remodeling in rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups namely Control group, ISO treated group and CoQ10 + ISO treated group, each consisting of 6 rats. The cardiac specific CK-MB, AST, ALT activity and other oxidative stress parameters were estimated in heart and kidneys. Additionally histological examination was also performed to visualize the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in both tissues...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411624/adverse-drug-events-observed-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-100%C3%A2-mg-versus-300%C3%A2-mg-canagliflozin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-published-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, canagliflozin monotherapy, or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), is often administered in patients who are treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we aimed to systematically compare the adverse drugs events (AEs) which were associated with 100 mg versus 300 mg canagliflozin respectively, using a large number of randomized patients with T2DM which were obtained from published trials. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 100 mg versus 300 mg canagliflozin in patients who were treated for T2DM were searched from electronic databases...
April 16, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391776/mechanism-of-the-blood-pressure-lowering-effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Shin Kawasoe, Yukiko Maruguchi, Shoko Kajiya, Hitoshi Uenomachi, Masaaki Miyata, Mariko Kawasoe, Takuro Kubozono, Mitsuru Ohishi
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are reported to have BP-lowering effect in addition to blood glucose-lowering effect, however, its mechanism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of blood pressure (BP) lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors using 24-h urinary collection in obese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (age 48.2 ± 10.7 years, BMI 33.0 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) were enrolled...
April 10, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390432/impact-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-rs3918242-genetic-variant-on-lipid-lowering-efficacy-of-simvastatin-therapy-in-chinese-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#14
Yuanyuan Xu, Yan Wang, Jixin Zhi, Lichun Qi, Tong Zhang, Xueqi Li
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene polymorphism has been suggested to modulate coronary heart diseases (CHD), yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: We investigated the association of MMP9 rs3918242 single nucleotide polymorphism with inflammation and lipid-lowering efficacy after simvastatin treatment in Chinese patients with CHD. Fasting serum lipid profile and plasma inflammatory mediators were determined at baseline in 264 patients with CHD and 186 healthy control subjects, and after HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin treatment (20 mg/day) for 12 weeks in CHD subjects...
April 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381296/genotoxicity-and-acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-studies-of-a-bioactive-polyoxometalate-in-wistar-rats
#15
Xiaofeng Qu, Kun Xu, Chao Zhao, Xiuling Song, Jinhua Li, Li Li, Wei Nie, Hao Bao, Juan Wang, Fenglan Niu, Juan Li
BACKGROUND: Cs2K4Na [SiW9Nb3O40] (POM93) is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral agent with high activity, high stability, and low toxicity in vitro. Most toxicity studies for POM93 have been performed in cultured cell lines rather than in animals. Like other POMs, there is a lack of evidence for in vivo toxicity limits, oral bioavailability, and therapeutic applications. METHODS: The toxic properties of POM93 were evaluated comprehensively in vivo, including the acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests...
April 5, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381241/drug-adherence-for-antihypertensive-medications-and-its-determinants-among-adult-hypertensive-patients-attending-in-chronic-clinics-of-referral-hospitals-in-northwest-ethiopia
#16
Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen, Mignote Hailu Gebrie, Kokeb Haile Eyasu, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
BACKGROUND: Adherence to prescribed medication is an imperative issue which can be directly linked with the management of chronic diseases like hypertension; failure to adhere can affect the effectiveness of medication as well as the efficiency of the health care system. There is scarcity of information regarding the level of drug adherence for antihypertensive medications and its determinants in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess adherence level and its determinants for antihypertensive medications among adult hypertensive patients attending the chronic illness clinics of the referral hospitals in northwest Ethiopia...
April 5, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372573/treatment-adherence-and-persistence-with-long-acting-somatostatin-analog-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-acromegaly-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
Michelle H Gurel, Yi Han, Andrea L Stevens, Aaron Furtado, David Cox
BACKGROUND: Many patients with acromegaly require medical treatment that includes somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Long-acting SSA formulations are widely used, due in part to increased patient convenience and increased treatment adherence vs daily medications. Although medication compliance can be poor in patients with chronic conditions, adherence and persistence with these SSAs in patients with acromegaly has not been evaluated. This analysis utilized claims data to estimate treatment adherence and persistence for lanreotide depot and long-acting octreotide in this population...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356130/parecoxib-reduced-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Fan-You Meng, Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contributes to ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of parecoxib on VILI in ARDS. METHODS: In this parallel controlled study performed at Harbin Medical University, China between January 2016 and March 2016, 24 rats were randomly allocated into sham group (S), volume ventilation group/ARDS (VA), parecoxib/volume ventilation group/ARDS (PVA)...
March 29, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347318/pharmacokinetics-of-surotomycin-from-phase-1-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Gurudatt Chandorkar, Qiao Zhan, Julie Donovan, Shruta Rege, Hernando Patino
BACKGROUND: Surotomycin, a novel, orally administered, cyclic, lipopeptide antibacterial in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, has demonstrated minimal intestinal absorption in animal models. METHODS: Safety, tolerability, and plasma pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses (SAD/MAD) of surotomycin in healthy volunteers were characterized in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies...
March 28, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320470/methimazole-associated-eosinophilic-pleural-effusion-a-case-report
#20
Pedro Gaspar-da-Costa, Filipa Duarte Silva, Júlia Henriques, Sónia do Vale, Sandra Braz, João Meneses Santos, Rui M M Victorino
BACKGROUND: Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to thionamides have also been reported, two with propylthiouracil and three with carbimazole. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a case of a 75-year-old man admitted because of unilateral pleural effusion. The patient had a recent diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and 6 days after starting methimazole complained of pleuritic chest pain...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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