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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145890/pharmacokinetic-study-of-single-and-multiple-dosing-with-metolazone-tablets-in-healthy-chinese-population
#1
Xueqing Li, Rutao Wang, Yang Liu, Yun Liu, Heng Zheng, Yabo Feng, Na Zhao, Hongbin Geng, Wanzhi Zhang, Aidong Wen
BACKGROUND: Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharmacokinetics of metolazone in the Chinese population has rarely been studied. This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety characteristic, and tolerability of metolazone in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses taken orally as well as the effects that food and gender have on oral metolazone pharmacokinetic parameters...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141696/use-of-a-trigger-tool-to-detect-adverse-drug-reactions-in-an-emergency-department
#2
Silvana Maria de Almeida, Aruana Romualdo, Andressa de Abreu Ferraresi, Giovana Roberta Zelezoglo, Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND: Although there are systems for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADR), these safety events remain under reported. The low-cost, low-tech trigger tool method is based on the detection of events through clues, and it seems to increase the detection of adverse events compared to traditional methodologies. This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to drugs in patients seeking care in the emergency department. METHODS: Retrospective study from January to December, 2014, applying the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) trigger tool methodology for patients treated at the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141695/methylxanthines-induce-structural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-cardiac-system-in-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi, Maurizio Memo
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115994/exploring-venlafaxine-pharmacokinetic-variability-with-a-phenotyping-approach-a-multicentric-french-swiss-study-marvel-study
#4
Célia Lloret-Linares, Youssef Daali, Sylvie Chevret, Isabelle Nieto, Fanny Molière, Philippe Courtet, Florence Galtier, Raphaëlle-Marie Richieri, Sophie Morange, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Wissam El-Hage, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Haesebaert, Philippe Vignaud, Jerôme Holtzmann, Jean-Luc Cracowski, Marion Leboyer, Antoine Yrondi, Fabienne Calvas, Liova Yon, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Olivier Doumy, Kyle Heron, Damien Montange, Siamak Davani, Julien Déglon, Marie Besson, Jules Desmeules, Emmanuel Haffen, Frank Bellivier
BACKGROUND: It is well known that the standard doses of a given drug may not have equivalent effects in all patients. To date, the management of depression remains mainly empirical and often poorly evaluated. The development of a personalized medicine in psychiatry may reduce treatment failure, intolerance or resistance, and hence the burden and costs of mood depressive disorders. The Geneva Cocktail Phenotypic approach presents several advantages including the "in vivo" measure of different cytochromes and transporter P-gp activities, their simultaneous determination in a single test, avoiding the influence of variability over time on phenotyping results, the administration of low dose substrates, a limited sampling strategy with an analytical method developed on DBS analysis...
November 7, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096701/assessment-of-utilization-pattern-of-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-healthcare-centers-in-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
BACKGROUND: Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for different levels of health care centers, several studies from Nepal and other countries in the region have revealed poor medicine use practices, including irrational use of fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs). This research aimed at assessing the utilization pattern of FDCs among primary (PHC), secondary (SHC) and tertiary health care (THC) centers in Western region of Nepal...
November 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070067/prescription-of-potentially-inappropriate-medications-among-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-register-study
#6
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström, Patrik Midlöv
BACKGROUND: Older people have a greater disease burden and are more likely than younger to be prescribed medications. They are also more sensitive to adverse effects. With this in mind, a range of medications have been suggested inappropriate in this population. People with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher disease burden than the general population, putting them at even greater risk of prescription of such medications. The aim of this study was to describe prescription of potentially inappropriate medications among older people with ID in relation to prescriptions among their age peers in the general population...
October 25, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065926/glucagon-like-peptide-receptor-agonists-attenuate-advanced-glycation-end-products-induced-inflammation-in-rat-mesangial-cells
#7
Jui-Ting Chang, Yao-Jen Liang, Chia-Yu Hsu, Chao-Yi Chen, Po-Jung Chen, Yi-Feng Yang, Yen-Lin Chen, Dee Pei, Jin-Biou Chang, Jyh-Gang Leu
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) production play major roles in progression of diabetic nephropathy. Anti-RAGE effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ) agonists was shown in previous studies. PPARδ agonists also stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from human intestinal cells. METHODS: In this study, the individual and synergic anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 receptor (exendin-4) and PPARδ (L-165,041) agonists in AGE-treated rat mesangial cells (RMC) were investigated...
October 24, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058622/adverse-drug-effects-observed-with-vildagliptin-versus-pioglitazone-or-rosiglitazone-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Girish Janoo, Abhishek Rishikesh Teeluck, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Vildagliptin and pioglitazone/rosiglitazone are emerging Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) which are used to treat patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the adverse drug events which were observed with the use of vildagliptin versus pioglitazone or rosiglitazone respectively. METHODS: Online databases were searched for studies comparing vildagliptin with pioglitazone/rosiglitazone...
October 23, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020988/haloperidol-affects-bones-while-clozapine-alters-metabolic-parameters-sex-specific-effects-in-rats-perinatally-treated-with-phencyclidine
#9
Tatjana Nikolić, Milan Petronijević, Jelena Sopta, Milica Velimirović, Tihomir Stojković, Gordana Jevtić Dožudić, Milan Aksić, Nevena V Radonjić, Nataša Petronijević
BACKGROUND: The presentation of schizophrenia (SCH) symptoms differs between the sexes. Long-term treatment with antipsychotics is frequently associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased fracture risk and metabolic side effects. Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration to rodents represents an animal model of SCH. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on bone mass, body composition, corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations and metabolic parameters in male and female rats perinatally treated with PCP...
October 11, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035170/abstracts-from-the-8th-international-conference-on-cgmp-generators-effectors-and-therapeutic-implications-bamberg-germany-23-25-june-2017
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877739/estrogen-and-soy-isoflavonoids-decrease-sensitivity-of-medulloblastoma-and-central-nervous-system-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-cytotoxicity
#11
Scott M Belcher, Caleb C Burton, Clifford J Cookman, Michelle Kirby, Gabriel L Miranda, Fatima O Saeed, Kathleen E Wray
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that growth and migration of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are stimulated by 17β-estradiol. The growth stimulating effects of estrogens are mediated through ERβ and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling to inhibit caspase 3 activity and reduce tumor cell apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether estrogens decreased sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutic drugs...
September 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854981/rosiglitazone-increases-endothelial-cell-migration-and-vascular-permeability-through-akt-phosphorylation
#12
Yun Hyi Ku, Bong-Jun Cho, Min Joo Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Hak C Jang, Sung Hee Choi
BACKGROUND: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists, exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and inhibit endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, which is anti-atherogenic. However, fluid retention, which may lead to congestive heart failure and peripheral edema, is also a concern, which may result from endothelial cell leakage. In the current study, we examined the effects of PPAR-γ agonists on vascular endothelial cell migration and permeability in order to determine its underlying mechanisms...
August 30, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800748/short-term-treatment-with-taurolidine-is-associated-with-liver-injury
#13
René Fahrner, Anika Möller, Adrian T Press, Andreas Kortgen, Michael Kiehntopf, Falk Rauchfuss, Utz Settmacher, Alexander S Mosig
BACKGROUND: Taurolidine has been used for peritonitis, oncological and catheter-lock treatment because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It has been suggested that taurolidine has no severe side-effects, but after long-term use morphological and functional changes of the liver were reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term use of taurolidine on the liver. METHODS: In HepaRG cell cultures and on a novel liver biochip dose-dependent effects of taurolidine treatment on hepatocyte adherence and cell viability was investigated...
August 11, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743294/evaluation-of-pharmacotherapy-complexity-in-residents-of-long-term-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#14
Vanessa Alves-Conceição, Daniel Tenório da Silva, Vanessa Lima de Santana, Edileide Guimarães Dos Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante Santos, Divaldo Pereira de Lyra
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a reality in long-term care facilities. However, number of medications used by the patient should not be the only predictor of a complex pharmacotherapy. Although the level of complexity of pharmacotherapy is considered an important factor that may lead to side effects, there are few studies in this field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the complexity of pharmacotherapy in residents of three long-term care facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the complexity of pharmacotherapy using the protocols laid out in the Medication Regimen Complexity Index instrument in three long-term care facilities in northeastern Brazil...
July 25, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743285/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-camp-pka-signaling-contributes-to-the-intracellular-ca-2-release-by-tentacle-extract-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#15
Qianqian Wang, Hui Zhang, Bo Wang, Chao Wang, Liang Xiao, Liming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by extracellular Ca(2+) entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom, while the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Under extracellular Ca(2+)-free or Ca(2+)-containing conditions, the Ca(2+) fluorescence in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes pre-incubated with tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and β blockers was scanned by laser scanning confocal microscope...
July 25, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738843/astaxanthin-mitigates-cobalt-cytotoxicity-in-the-mg-63-cells-by-modulating-the-oxidative-stress
#16
Dahe Li, Wenwen Tong, Denghui Liu, Yuming Zou, Chen Zhang, Weidong Xu
BACKGROUND: With the re-popularity of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing in recent years, the cobalt toxicity has been a cause for concern in the total hip replacement surgery by both physicians and patients. METHODS: MG-63 cell line was cultured in vitro and incubated with cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) and/or with astaxanthin (ASX) for 24 h. MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the cell viability after cobalt exposure and ASX treatment. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was performed to examine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level...
July 24, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716056/the-inhibitory-effect-of-isoliquiritigenin-on-the-proliferation-of-human-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell
#17
Tianbao Chen, Shaoxiong Deng, Rong Lin
BACKGROUND: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has various biological activities including as antioxidant and an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. However, both oxidative stress and activated PI3K/AKT signaling contribute to the aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study is aimed to explore the effect of ISL on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal or ISL treated HASMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693558/zinc-as-an-adjunct-treatment-for-reducing-case-fatality-due-to-clinical-severe-infection-in-young-infants-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Nitya Wadhwa, Sudha Basnet, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Laxman P Shrestha, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Halvor Sommerfelt, Tor A Strand, Siddarth Ramji, K C Aggarwal, Harish Chellani, Anuradha Govil, Mamta Jajoo, N B Mathur, Meenakshi Bhatt, Anup Mohta, Imran Ansari, Srijana Basnet, Ram H Chapagain, Ganesh P Shah, Binod M Shrestha
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.7 of the 5.9 million deaths in children under 5 years of age occur in the neonatal period. Severe infections contribute to almost a quarter of these deaths. Mortality due to severe infections in developing country settings is substantial despite antibiotic therapy. Effective interventions that can be added to standard therapy for severe infections are required to reduce case fatality. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel group superiority trial to investigate the effect of zinc administered orally as an adjunct to standard therapy to infants aged 3 days up to 2 months (59 days) hospitalized with clinical severe infection, that will be undertaken in seven hospitals in Delhi, India and Kathmandu, Nepal...
July 10, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683823/sema3a-drastically-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-oral-cancer-xenograft-model-of-mice
#19
Chao Huang, Yi Wang, Jian-Hua Huang, Weixian Liu
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies suggest anti-angiogenesis to be a promising and rational option in cancer treatment. Interestingly, the axonal sprouting inhibitor semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a potent suppressor of tumor angiogenesis in various cancer models, is lowly expressed in human oral cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of Sema3A in human oral cancer cells may have potential therapeutic effects. METHODS: The LentiSema3A-EGFP was first constructed and transduced to the tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line SSC-9...
July 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676080/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-oral-mitiglinide-on-glucose-lowering-in-healthy-chinese-volunteers
#20
Shijia Liu, Peidong Chen, Yang Zhao, Guoliang Dai, Bingting Sun, Yao Wang, Anwei Ding, Wenzheng Ju
BACKGROUND: Mitiglinide is a widely used agent for diabetic treatment. We established a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to illustrate the relationship between mitiglinide plasma concentration and its glucose lowering effects in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The volunteers participated in the test after the administration of a single dose of 10 mg mitiglinide. The drug concentration in Plasma and the values of glucose levels were determined by LC-MS/MS assay and hexokinase method...
July 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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