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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321061/enoxaparin-attenuates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats-via-interfering-with-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#1
Reem Ali Shaker, Samer Hassan Abboud, Hayder Chasib Assad, Najah Hadi
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancers but its cardiotoxicity is limiting its clinical use. Beyond its anticoagulant action, enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight heparin, has been shown to exert multiple pharmacological actions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess if ENX could ameliorate cardiotoxicity induced by DOX. METHODS: Twenty-one adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 7 each) of control, receiving 0...
January 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304875/antinociceptive-tolerance-to-nsaids-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-is-mediated-via-endogenous-opioid-mechanism
#2
Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze, Merab G Tsagareli
BACKGROUND: In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. Given this evidence, in this study we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac and xefocam microinjected into the rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rats...
January 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301580/pharmacokinetics-comparison-of-two-pegylated-interferon-alfa-formulations-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Marisa Boff Costa, Paulo Dornelles Picon, Guilherme Becker Sander, Hugo Nodarse Cuni, Carmen Valenzuela Silva, Rolando Páez Meireles, Ana Carolina Magalhães Andrade Góes, Nadia Maria Batoreu, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Elizabeth Maciel Albuquerque, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos, Pedro Lopez Saura
BACKGROUND: Several countries have used pegylation technology to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of essential drugs. Recently, a novel interferon alfa-2b protein conjugated to four-branched 12 kDa polyethylene glycol molecules was developed jointly between Cuba and Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of BIP48 (pegylated interferon alfa-2b from Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, Brazil) to those of PEGASYS® (commercially available pegylated interferon alfa-2a from Roche Pharmaceutical)...
January 4, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273084/identification-of-cryptolepine-metabolites-in-rat-and-human-hepatocytes-and-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-cryptolepine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W Wright, Caroline Rynn
BACKGROUND: This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the single-dose oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of cryptolepine in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: The in vitro metabolic profiles of cryptolepine were determined by LC-MS/MS following incubation with rat and human hepatocytes. The in vivo metabolic profile of cryptolepine was determined in plasma and urine samples from Sprague Dawley rats following single-dose oral administration of cryptolepine...
December 22, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246184/liraglutide-modulates-gabaergic-signaling-in-rat-hippocampal-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-predominantly-by-presynaptic-mechanism
#5
Omar Babateen, Sergiy V Korol, Zhe Jin, Amol K Bhandage, Aikeremu Ahemaiti, Bryndis Birnir
BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain where it regulates activity of neuronal networks. The receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the hippocampus, which is the center for memory and learning. In this study we examined effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog, on GABA signaling in CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. METHODS: We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record synaptic and tonic GABA-activated currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal brain slices...
December 16, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237484/the-clinical-efficacy-of-afatinib-30%C3%A2-mg-daily-as-starting-dose-may-not-be-inferior-to-afatinib-40%C3%A2-mg-daily-in-patients-with-stage-iv-lung-adenocarcinoma-harboring-exon-19-or-exon-21-mutations
#6
Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Jen-Yu Hung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Tsai, Jui-Feng Hsu, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Shyan Huang, Inn-Wen Chong
BACKGROUND: Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. However, 40 mg daily as the initial dose is often accompanied by serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and 28 to 53.3% of patients required a dose reduction. No previous study has compared the clinical efficacy and ADRs of different initial doses (40 mg vs...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233194/ibuprofen-plasma-concentration-profile-in-deliberate-ibuprofen-overdose-with-circulatory-depression-treated-with-therapeutic-plasma-exchange-a-case-report
#7
Stefanie Geith, Bertold Renner, Christian Rabe, Jochen Stenzel, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: Inquiries relating to ibuprofen overdose have more than tripled in the last ten years in our poison control center. Although the vast majority of cases have a benign clinical course, there are few severe or even fatal cases present with refractory circulatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 48 year-old male with suicidal mono-ingestion of approximately 72 g ibuprofen. Despite an initial rapid spontaneous drop in the total ibuprofen plasma concentration (IPC) from 550 to 275 mcg/mL within the first 5 h after admission, the patient developed a circulatory failure, refractory to aggressive fluid resuscitation and high doses of vasopressors...
December 12, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233189/head-to-head-comparison-of-prasugrel-versus-ticagrelor-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#8
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Jia-Xin Shi, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Prasugrel and Ticagrelor are emerging antiplatelet drugs that might have the potential to replace currently used antiplatelet agents. Previous analyses comparing prasugrel with ticagrelor mainly focused on an indirect comparison whereas direct comparison was reported only in a few recently published trials. We aimed to systematically carry out a head to head comparison of the adverse clinical outcomes which were associated with prasugrel versus ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
December 12, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216902/improved-drug-safety-through-intensive-pharmacovigilance-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#9
Alan O Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal, Selene G Huerta-Olvera
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one prescribed medication (indistinct drug group)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216899/generic-reference-and-generic-generic-bioequivalence-of-forty-two-randomly-selected-on-market-generic-products-of-fourteen-immediate-release-oral-drugs
#10
Muhammad M Hammami, Sophia J S De Padua, Rajaa Hussein, Eman Al Gaai, Nesrine A Khodr, Reem Al-Swayeh, Syed N Alvi, Nada Binhashim
BACKGROUND: The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. METHODS: We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208039/effects-of-metamizole-maa-and-paracetamol-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-necrosis-in-the-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-patu-8988%C3%A2-t-and-panc-1
#11
Manuela Malsy, Bernhard Graf, Anika Bundscherer
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive cancer diseases affecting the human body. Recent research has shown the importance of the perioperative phase in disease progression. Particularly during this vulnerable phase, substances such as metamizole and paracetamol are given as general anesthetics and postoperative analgesics. Therefore, the effects of metamizole and paracetamol on tumor progression should be investigated in more detail because the extent to which these substances influence the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma is still unclear...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202811/high-prevalence-of-prescription-of-psychotropic-drugs-for-older-patients-in-a-general-hospital
#12
Inken Arnold, Kati Straube, Wolfgang Himmel, Stephanie Heinemann, Vivien Weiss, Laura Heyden, Eva Hummers-Pradier, Roland Nau
BACKGROUND: Many elderly patients receive psychotropic drugs. Treatment with psychotropic agents is associated with serious side effects including an increased risk of falls and fractures. Several psychotropic drugs are considered potentially inappropriate for treatment of the elderly. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted covering all patients aged ≥ 65 years who were admitted to Evangelisches Krankenhaus Göttingen-Weende between 01/01/2013 and 03/31/2013...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191244/frequency-characteristics-and-risk-factors-of-qt-interval-prolonging-drugs-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-cancer-patients-a-multicenter-study
#13
Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail, Sehrash Khan
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, their TdP risk, QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), levels, predictors, and TdP risk of drugs involved in QT-DDIs. METHODS: This multicenter study included cancer patients from three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
December 1, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179737/dose-dependent-effect-of-daptomycin-on-the-artificial-prolongation-of-prothrombin-time-in-coagulation-abnormalities-in-vitro-verification
#14
Hideki Hashimoto, Makoto Saito, Naoki Kanda, Takehito Yamamoto, Makiko Mieno, Shuji Hatakeyama
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that daptomycin induced artificial prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) in some test reagents, particularly in warfarin users. However, it remains unknown whether the artificial prolongation can be affected by coagulation abnormalities other than the use of warfarin. Thus, we investigated the effect of daptomycin on PT with two types of coagulation abnormalities. METHODS: Plasma samples were pooled by four groups: healthy volunteers (Plasma A), warfarin users with a PT-international normalized ratio (INR) of approximately 2...
November 28, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145890/pharmacokinetic-study-of-single-and-multiple-dosing-with-metolazone-tablets-in-healthy-chinese-population
#15
Xueqing Li, Rutao Wang, Yang Liu, Yun Liu, Heng Zheng, Yabo Feng, Na Zhao, Hongbin Geng, Wanzhi Zhang, Aidong Wen
BACKGROUND: Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharmacokinetics of metolazone in the Chinese population has rarely been studied. This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety characteristic, and tolerability of metolazone in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses taken orally as well as the effects that food and gender have on oral metolazone pharmacokinetic parameters...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141696/use-of-a-trigger-tool-to-detect-adverse-drug-reactions-in-an-emergency-department
#16
Silvana Maria de Almeida, Aruana Romualdo, Andressa de Abreu Ferraresi, Giovana Roberta Zelezoglo, Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND: Although there are systems for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADR), these safety events remain under reported. The low-cost, low-tech trigger tool method is based on the detection of events through clues, and it seems to increase the detection of adverse events compared to traditional methodologies. This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to drugs in patients seeking care in the emergency department. METHODS: Retrospective study from January to December, 2014, applying the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) trigger tool methodology for patients treated at the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141695/methylxanthines-induce-structural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-cardiac-system-in-zebrafish-embryos
#17
Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi, Maurizio Memo
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115994/exploring-venlafaxine-pharmacokinetic-variability-with-a-phenotyping-approach-a-multicentric-french-swiss-study-marvel-study
#18
Célia Lloret-Linares, Youssef Daali, Sylvie Chevret, Isabelle Nieto, Fanny Molière, Philippe Courtet, Florence Galtier, Raphaëlle-Marie Richieri, Sophie Morange, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Wissam El-Hage, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Haesebaert, Philippe Vignaud, Jerôme Holtzmann, Jean-Luc Cracowski, Marion Leboyer, Antoine Yrondi, Fabienne Calvas, Liova Yon, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Olivier Doumy, Kyle Heron, Damien Montange, Siamak Davani, Julien Déglon, Marie Besson, Jules Desmeules, Emmanuel Haffen, Frank Bellivier
BACKGROUND: It is well known that the standard doses of a given drug may not have equivalent effects in all patients. To date, the management of depression remains mainly empirical and often poorly evaluated. The development of a personalized medicine in psychiatry may reduce treatment failure, intolerance or resistance, and hence the burden and costs of mood depressive disorders. The Geneva Cocktail Phenotypic approach presents several advantages including the "in vivo" measure of different cytochromes and transporter P-gp activities, their simultaneous determination in a single test, avoiding the influence of variability over time on phenotyping results, the administration of low dose substrates, a limited sampling strategy with an analytical method developed on DBS analysis...
November 7, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096701/assessment-of-utilization-pattern-of-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-healthcare-centers-in-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
BACKGROUND: Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for different levels of health care centers, several studies from Nepal and other countries in the region have revealed poor medicine use practices, including irrational use of fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs). This research aimed at assessing the utilization pattern of FDCs among primary (PHC), secondary (SHC) and tertiary health care (THC) centers in Western region of Nepal...
November 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070067/prescription-of-potentially-inappropriate-medications-among-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-register-study
#20
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström, Patrik Midlöv
BACKGROUND: Older people have a greater disease burden and are more likely than younger to be prescribed medications. They are also more sensitive to adverse effects. With this in mind, a range of medications have been suggested inappropriate in this population. People with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher disease burden than the general population, putting them at even greater risk of prescription of such medications. The aim of this study was to describe prescription of potentially inappropriate medications among older people with ID in relation to prescriptions among their age peers in the general population...
October 25, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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