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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

Yu Sun, Vaibhav A Narayan, Gayle M Wittenberg
BACKGROUND: Side effects, or the adverse effects of drugs, contain important clinical phenotypic information that may be useful in predicting novel or unknown targets of a drug. It has been suggested that drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share common targets. The diagnostic class, Major Depressive Disorder, is increasingly viewed as being comprised of multiple depression subtypes with different biological root causes. One 'type' of depression generating substantial interest today focuses on patients with high levels of inflammatory burden, indicated by elevated levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Saeed Mohammed Imran Hosen, Dipesh Das, Rupkanowar Kobi, Dil Umme Salma Chowdhury, Md Jibran Alam, Bashudev Rudra, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Saiful Islam, Zillur Rahman, Mohammad Al-Forkan
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in animal model. METHODS: A pot experiment was conducted with arsenic amended irrigation water (0.0, 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg/L As) to investigate the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Marwan A Ahmed, George Muntingh, Paul Rheeder
BACKGROUND: The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the studies. The potential of the deficiency to cause or worsen peripheral neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been investigated with conflicting results. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in T2DM patients on metformin; 2) the association between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy; 3) and the risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in these patients...
October 7, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Joseph Friedrich, Dara Khatib, Keon Parsa, Ariana Santopietro, G Ian Gallicano
With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early pregnancy failure, birth defects and developmental delay, the mechanisms of such outcomes are largely unexplained. Furthermore, the use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment via growth inhibition and apoptosis may indicate how cannabis exposure likely harms a growing fetus. Cannabinoid signaling is required for proper pre-implantation development, embryo transport to the uterus, and uterine receptivity during implantation...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Niaz Ali, Robina Begum, Muhammad Saleh Faisal, Aslam Khan, Muhammad Nabi, Gulfam Shehzadi, Shakir Ullah, Waqar Ali
BACKGROUND: Statins are used for treatment of hypercholestremia. Common adverse reports associated with use of statins are generalized bodyache, rhabdomyolysis, muscles weakness and gastrointestinal disorders. The current work is an attempt to explain how smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tissues are affected by the current statins (Simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin). METHODS: Effects of the current statins were studied on spontaneous activity of isolated rabbits' jejunal preparations...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Maria G Garcia-Orjuela, Lineth Alarcon-Franco, Juan C Sanchez-Fernandez, Yuli Agudelo, Andres F Zuluaga
BACKGROUND: In some countries the misuse and diversion of prescribed opioid analgesic is increasing considerably, but there is no official data regarding the situation in Colombia. The aim of this study was to identify all dependent to opioid analgesics legally prescribed patients that were treated in a University Hospital in Medellin, Colombia during 4 years and to characterize this population. METHODS: Observational study in a University Hospital in Medellin, Colombia, searching for patients with ICD-10 codes related with opioid related disorders, adverse events or pain and treated between January 2011 and December 2014...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Lingyu He, Shu Liu, Chun Shan, Yingmei Tu, Zhengqing Li, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang
BACKGROUND: It has been observed that the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as compared to the placebo groups in some clinical trials conducted in China is weaker than that in trials conducted outside China, leading to the suspicion that this may be caused by differential Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) response in the placebo arm of DPP-4 inhibitor clinical trials conducted in China compared to other countries. METHODS: We searched published articles and other documents related to phase III placebo-control trials of DPP-4 inhibitors in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Małgorzata Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Anna Marciniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Ściborski, Aneta Stachurska, Andrzej Mysiak, Adam Matkowski
BACKGROUND: Taxus (yew) is one of the most frequently reported plants causing potentially fatal outcome when taken incidentally or for suicidal reasons. A fast and reliable method of detection of poisonous compounds or their metabolites is critical in life-saving procedures in cases of yew ingestion. Previously, several chromatographic analytical procedures have been described usually taking longer than one hour of total analysis time. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report we describe a suicide case study and an ad hoc developed fast method of detection and quantitation of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol - the main taxane metabolite in the blood plasma from the patient as well as the determination of major taxine components in the plant material (Taxus baccata)...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita, Adina Popa
BACKGROUND: The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication associated- risks is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the most frequent potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) recommended to ambulatory and institutionalized Romanian elderly, through an observational retrospective design. METHODS: All reimbursed medications prescribed to a sample of ambulatory elderly accessing two community pharmacies and all medications recommended to a group of institutionalized elderly (urban facilities, Romania, same month) were analyzed...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Gabriel Kigen, Geoffrey Edwards
BACKGROUND: Praziquantel (PZQ) is an antihelminthic drug whose P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate specificity has not been conclusively characterized. We investigated its specificity by comparing its in vitro intracellular accumulation in CEM (parental), and CEMVBL cells which over express P-gp, a drug efflux transporter. Saquinavir (SQV), a known substrate of efflux transporters was used as control. METHODS: A reversed phase liquid chromatography method was developed to simultaneously quantify PZQ and SQV in cell culture media involving involved a liquid - liquid extraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography using a Hypurity C18 column and ultraviolet detection set at a wavelength of 215 nm...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Fabio Teixeira Ferracini, Alexandre R Marra, Claudio Schvartsman, Oscar F Pavão Dos Santos, Elivane da Silva Victor, Neila Maria Marques Negrini, Wladimir Mendes Borges Filho, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND: The number of medication errors occurring in healthcare is large and many are preventable. To analyze medication errors and evaluate whether Positive Deviance is effective in reducing them. METHODS: The study was divided into three phases: (2011- Phase I, control period; 2012 - Phase II, manager intervention, and 2013 - Phase III, frontline healthcare worker intervention). In Phases II and III, the Positive Deviance method (PD) was used to mitigate medication errors classified as "C" and higher according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP)...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Supatcharee Siriwong, Yothin Teethaisong, Kanjana Thumanu, Benjawan Dunkhunthod, Griangsak Eumkeb
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most multiple resistances to antibiotics in the recent years. Therefore, practically-prescribed antibiotics in the treatment of these strains are not effective. Plant-derived antibacterial is one of the most interesting sources of new therapeutics. The present study was to investigate antibacterial, synergy and modes of action of quercetin and amoxicillin against amoxicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (ARSE). METHODS: The MICs, checkerboard assay, viability curves, cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, enzyme assay, transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and FT-IR microspectroscopy measurement was performed...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Tae Hwan Kim, Min Gi Kim, Soyoung Shin, Yong-Ha Chi, Soo-Heui Paik, Joo-Han Lee, Sun Dong Yoo, Yu Seok Youn, Jürgen B Bulitta, Sang Hoon Joo, Seok Won Jeong, Kwon-Yeon Weon, Beom Soo Shin
BACKGROUND: Fimasartan (FMS) is a potent angiotensin receptor blocker for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the transfer of FMS to fetus and breast milk in rats. METHODS: In order to study the transfer to the fetus and nursing pup, pregnant and nursing maternal rats were administered with FMS by a constant intravenous infusion to reach target plasma concentrations of 200 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL. The concentrations of FMS in plasma, placenta, amniotic fluid, fetus, and milk were determined by a validated LC-MS/MS assay...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Dipankar Chaudhuri, Nikhil Baban Ghate, Sourav Panja, Nripendranath Mandal
BACKGROUND: Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. METHODS: In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sarah C Campbell, Tyler T Kast, Manijeh Kamyar, Julia Robertson, Catherine M Sherwin
BACKGROUND: MotherToBaby Utah is a teratogen information service that provides support for pregnant and breastfeeding women and healthcare providers regarding risks of exposures to medications, infections, herbals, homeopathic and dietary medications, chemicals and other substances. Calls are anonymous and free of charge. This study was undertaken to examine the volume and classification of calls regarding exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: Data were extracted from calls requesting information about medication use and other exposures to pregnant and breastfeeding women, between January 1 2009 and December 31 2012...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yan-Xin Huang, Jian Zhao, Qiu-Hang Song, Li-Hua Zheng, Cong Fan, Ting-Ting Liu, Yong-Li Bao, Lu-Guo Sun, Li-Biao Zhang, Yu-Xin Li
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, diabetes and other human diseases. HDAC inhibitors, as a new class of potential therapeutic agents, have attracted a great deal of interest for both research and clinical applications. Increasing efforts have been focused on the discovery of HDAC inhibitors and some HDAC inhibitors have been approved for use in cancer therapy. However, most HDAC inhibitors, including the clinically approved agents, do not selectively inhibit the deacetylase activity of class I and II HDAC isforms, and many suffer from metabolic instability...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Mohammad Alsalem, Paul Millns, Ahmad Altarifi, Khalid El-Salem, Victoria Chapman, David A Kendall
BACKGROUND: Olvanil (NE 19550) is a non-pungent synthetic analogue of capsaicin, the natural pungent ingredient of capsicum which activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel and was developed as a potential analgesic compound. Olvanil has potent anti-hyperalgesic effects in several experimental models of chronic pain. Here we report the inhibitory effects of olvanil on nociceptive processing using cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and compare the effects of capsaicin and olvanil on thermal nociceptive processing in vivo; potential contributions of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor to olvanil's anti-hyperalgesic effects were also investigated...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Udaya Ralapanawa, Kushalee Poornima Jayawickreme, Ekanayake Mudiyanselage Madhushanka Ekanayake, A M S Dhammika Menike Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has a high suicide rate, with more than 40 % of poisoning admissions due to overdose of drugs with Paracetamol being the commonest. Data regarding cardiotoxicity to paracetamol is very minimal though hepatotoxicity following poisoning is well studied. Paracetamol cardiotoxicity has rarely been clinically significant and may have well been overlooked. The possibility that paracetamol overdose might be directly cardiotoxic has been the subject of a few reports. Unexplained deaths and electrocardiographic changes associated with paracetamol poisoning have also been reported in which cardiac origin cannot be clearly ruled out...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Antonio Carlos Ribeiro-Filho, Marcus Vinicius Buri, Carlos Castilho Barros, Juliana Luporini Dreyfuss, Helena Bonciani Nader, Giselle Zenker Justo, Rogério Bastos Craveiro, João Bosco Pesquero, Antonio Miranda, Alice Teixeira Ferreira, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero
BACKGROUND: All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown. METHODS: Pharmacological characteristics of P2 receptors were evaluated by Ca(2+) measurements using Fura-2 fluorophore. P2 receptors expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. P2 interaction were shown by coimmunoprecipitation, western blotting and FRET. RESULTS: Granulocytes were responsive to P2Y agonists, whereas P2X agonists were ineffective...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Armanda Teixeira-Gomes, Vera Marisa Costa, Rita Feio-Azevedo, José Alberto Duarte, Margarida Duarte-Araújo, Eduarda Fernandes, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Capela
BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a worldwide drug of abuse commonly used by adolescents. Most reports focus on MDMA's neurotoxicity and use high doses in adult animals, meanwhile studies in adolescents are scarce. We aimed to assess in rats the acute MDMA toxicity to the brain and peripheral organs using a binge dose scheme that tries to simulate human adolescent abuse. METHODS: Adolescent rats (postnatal day 40) received three 5 mg/kg doses of MDMA (estimated equivalent to two/three pills in a 50 kg adolescent), intraperitoneally, every 2 h, while controls received saline...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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