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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

Maria Angélica Martins Lourenço, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Aline Garcia Aun, Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Elisa Moya Kazmarek, Tatiana Fernanda Bachiega, Silmeia Garcia Zanati, Paula Schmidt Azevedo, Bertha Furlan Polegato, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff, Marcos Ferreira Minicucci
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one potential mechanism that explain the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling process. However, no study has compared different myocardial products of macromolecule oxidation after tobacco smoke exposure. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the lipid hydroperoxide (LH) levels, protein carbonyl concentrations and DNA damage in cardiac tissue of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: group C (control, n = 14) composed of animals not exposed to cigarette smoke; group ETS (exposed to tobacco smoke, n = 14) composed by animals exposed to cigarette smoke...
November 16, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Shakir Ullah, Niaz Ali, Adnan Khan, Saad Ali, Haleema Rehna Nazish, Zia Uddin
BACKGROUND: Ethnicity variation is one of the main factors that may affect drug response in clinical practice. As MTHFR gene affects different transcriptome and proteome which affect the clinical response of drugs. Purpose of the current study was to observe possible variations in plasma levels of carbamazepine monotherapy and seizures' control in Pakhtun population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in the context of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms. METHODS: Blood was collected from the epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine monotherapy for the first time following respective oral doses on its steady state concentration after 3 h of morning dose at 3rd and 6th month of the therapy...
November 15, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Min-Chun Chuang, Chih-Hao Chang, Chung Shu Lee, Shih-Hong Li, Ching-Chung Hsiao, Yueh-Fu Fang, Meng-Jer Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Acute cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning, including organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, is a crucial problem in developing countries. Acute intoxication results in a cholinergic crisis, neurological symptoms, or respiratory failure. However, the short-term and long-term outcomes of CI poisoning are seldom reported. METHODS: Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database were used to investigate the outcomes after organophosphate and carbamate poisoning...
November 13, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Amir Kazemi Korayem, Shahriar Ghamami, Zahra Bahrami
PURPOSE: High blood pressure (hypertension) is a relatively common condition that increases blood pressure in the arteries abnormally, causing problems such as heart disease and stroke. Blood pressure is a force that is felt through the walls of the blood vessels and has a direct relationship to the power of pumping the heart and vascular resistance to the blood flow. One of the lowing of blood pressure medications is hydrochlorothiazide (Hctz) which is used to treat high blood pressure and swelling from heart failure, liver damage, and other minor actions...
November 9, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Qiang Luo, Ankang Yang, Quan Cao, Hongjing Guan
BACKGROUND: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been extensively studied as a potential therapeutic drug with free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects. However, whether DIM has similar effects on cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Here we evaluated DIM's influence on inflammation and apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes induced by LPS and to explore the possible mechanism of the effects. METHODS: H9C2 cells were incubated with DIM (10, 20 and 30 μM) with or without LPS for 24 h...
November 9, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Hongzhen Zhong, Zhiqing Zhong, Hongyan Li, Tianbiao Zhou, Weiji Xie
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is a natural alkaloid that is mainly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Effective and toxic doses are very similar, but case reports of higher colchicine doses inducing acute toxicosis is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old woman was sent to the emergency room for taking 80 colchicine tablets (0.5 mg per tablet) 44 h previously. The main physical symptom was abdominal pain. Following ingestion, the patient suffered multi-system failure including renal, respiratory, circulatory, and digestive...
October 30, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Hans Benno Leicht, Elke Weinig, Beate Mayer, Johannes Viebahn, Andreas Geier, Monika Rau
BACKGROUND: Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare complication and often underdiagnosed. DIIHA is frequently associated with a bad outcome, including organ failure and even death. For the last decades, ceftriaxone has been one of the most common drugs causing DIIHA, and ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia (IHA) has especially been reported to cause severe complications and fatal outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old male patient was treated with ceftriaxone for cholangitis...
October 25, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
O Awodele, W A Badru, A A Busari, O E Kale, T B Ajayi, R O Udeh, P M Emeka
BACKGROUND: The misconception about dietary supplements being safe has led many into the in-patient wards. Cellgevity® (CGV) is a Max International premiere antioxidant supplement formula used by a large population. This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of CGV on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats. METHODS: Seventy-two Wistar rats weighing 130 ± 15.8 g were grouped into two categories (male or female) of six rats per group...
October 25, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Selemani Saidi Sungi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Nzovu Ulenga, Philip Sasi, Sabina Mugusi
BACKGROUND: Children are subject to varying drug pharmacokinetics which influence plasma drug levels, and hence treatment outcomes especially for drugs like efavirenz whose plasma concentrations are directly related to treatment outcomes. This study is aimed at determining plasma efavirenz concentrations among Tanzanian pediatric HIV-1 patients on efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and relating it to clinical, immunological and virologic treatment responses. METHODS: A cross sectional study involving pediatric HIV patients aged 5-15 years on efavirenz-based cART for ≥ 6 months were recruited in Dar es Salaam...
October 23, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sabah Ansar, Manal Abudawood, Amal S A Alaraj, Sherifa S Hamed
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles are widely utilized in many products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (HSP) on nano zinc oxide particles (nZnO) induced oxidative stress in rat livers. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each and exposed to single administration of nZnO intraperitoneally (600 mg/kg bwt) and HSP (100 mg/kg bwt) by gavage. Group I served as the control; group II was given nZnO only; groups III received HSP only and group IV received nZnO 1 h after pretreatment with HSP for 7 days...
October 19, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jian Lv, Ruidan Bai, Li Wang, Jiefang Gao, Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies are investigating the effects of Chinese medicine on hepatic fibrosis, but only few studies have examined the anti-fibrogenic properties of Artesunate (ART). The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-fibrotic effects of ART on LX-2 cells, the human HSC cell line, and to determine potential molecular mechanisms via the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/ protein kinase B (Akt)/ β-catenin pathway. METHODS: LX-2 cells were stimulated with different concentration of ART (0, 12...
October 16, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Aleksandra Świderska, Marek Wiśniewski, Marek Wiergowski, Anna Krakowiak, Jacek Sein Anand
BACKGROUND: Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few publications dealing with the problem are based on data obtained from toxicology units and therefore do not include information about cases treated at emergency departments and other non-toxicology units. METHODS: We analyzed all admissions due to poisonings reported to the Polish National Health Fund by all hospital units in Poland in the 2009-2011 period...
October 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Julián Olalla, Javier Pérez-Stachowski, Begoña Tortajada, Alfonso Del Arco, Efrén Márquez, Javier De la Torre, Miriam Nieto, José María García de Lomas, José Luis Prada, Javier García-Alegría
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs may help to support antiretroviral treatment. We want to assess the efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of the change of coformulated (abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir) to (abacavir + lamivudine) coformulated as a generic pharmaceutical specialty + dolutegravir. METHODS: Between February and June 2017, switch from Triumeq® to a generic pharmaceutical specialty co-formulated tablet (abacavir + lamivudine) plus Tivicay® was made. Demographic, viroimmunological characteristics and the Charlson index were collected...
October 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Chengfeng Lei, Xiulian Sun
BACKGROUND: Evaluating the toxicity or effectiveness of two or more toxicants in a specific population often requires specialized statistical software to calculate and compare median lethal doses (LD50 s). Tests for equality of LD50 s using probit regression with parallel slopes have been implemented in many software packages, while tests for cases of arbitrary slopes are not generally available. METHODS: In this study, we established probit-log(dose) regression models and solved them by the maximum likelihood method using Microsoft Excel...
October 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Chenguang Zhou, Yi Sui, Weijin Zhao, Chunyao Dong, Li Ren, Pingmei Song, Bing Xu, Xiaohong Sun
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) and warfarin are commonly prescribed for patients with epilepsy and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). When VPA and warfarin are prescribed together, clinically important interactions may occur. VPA may replace warfarin from the protein binding sites and result in an abnormally increased anticoagulation effect. This is commonly underrecognized. CASE PRESENTATION: In our case, we report a 78-year-old woman with a glioma who presented with status epilepticus...
October 1, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Rezvan Enteshari Najafabadi, Nasrin Kazemipour, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Siamak Beheshti, Saeed Nazifi
BACKGROUND: Quercetin (QT) as a bioactive flavonoid has a potential therapeutic activity for numerous neuronal injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low absorption rate of QT, especially through the blood-brain barrier, restricts its bioactivity in the body. The current research took the advantage of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to enhance the bioavailability of quercetin. METHODS: Quercetin conjugated with SPIONs was prepared by means of nanoprecipitation method and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer analyses...
September 25, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Xiaowen Zhang, Fei Shao, Lin Zhu, Yuyang Ze, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Efficacy trials showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists reduced metabolic risk factors in addition to glucose lowering, but the cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of this drug class remains to be determined. We aimed to evaluate the overall cardiovascular and microvascular efficacy of GLP1R agonists by performing a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled, cardiovascular outcomes trials including at least 2000 patient-years' follow-up and 100 composite cardiovascular events were included...
September 17, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Robert J Brosnan, Trung L Pham
BACKGROUND: NMDA receptor modulation by hydrocarbons is associated with a molar water solubility cut-off. Low-affinity phenolic modulation of GABAA receptors is also associated with a cut-off, but at much lower molar solubility values. We hypothesized that other anesthetic-sensitive ion channels exhibit distinct cut-off effects associated with hydrocarbon molar water solubility, and that cut-off values are comparatively similar between related receptors than phylogenetically distant ones...
September 14, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Dumessa Edessa
BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders and/or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for recurrent disease or symptoms. This phenomenon is alarmingly increasing over time despite the occurrence of health-related hazards. This study is, therefore, aimed to quantitatively estimate self-medication practice and possible reasons for it in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were identified from major databases and indexing services including EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), and Google Scholar...
September 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bin Zheng, Na Li, Zhijian Hu, Maobai Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish a new indicator based on the anatomical therapeutic chemical/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) system. METHODS: Utilization data of antibiotics of inpatients in a university hospital were used to calculate the indicators of use rate (UR), use density (UD), and ratio of use density to use rate (UD/UR). According to the professional characteristics, the recommended values of UD/UR in different departments were established respectively...
September 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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