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Geetha Kannan, Emese Prandovszky, Emily Severance, Robert H Yolken, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ), was linked to several psychiatric disorders. The exact mechanisms of a hypothesized contribution of T. gondii infection are poorly understood, and it appears that only a subset of seropositive individuals go on to develop a mental illness, suggesting genetic vulnerability. In order to stimulate mechanistic studies of how exposure to T. gondii could interact with genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders, we have generated and characterized a mouse model of chronic T...
2018: Scientifica
Casper Mutengu, Wilson Mhlanga
Mashoko Dam is in Ago-ecological Region 4 in Zimbabwe. Five sampling sites were randomly selected and each site was sampled twice per month, for six months. A total of 180 Oreochromis mossambicus fish (101 females and 79 males) were caught. The fish were examined for Clinostomum metacercariae by cutting the ventral side from the anal opening to the lower jaw. The gill chambers were examined and inspected visually to detect macroscopic parasites. Of the 180 fish collected during the study, 113 (62.8%) were infected by 284 Clinostomum larvae in the cranial cavity while 67 fish were not infected...
2018: Scientifica
Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
Emese Prandovszky, Ye Li, Sarven Sabunciyan, Curtis B Steinfeldt, Lauro Nathaniel Avalos, Kristin L Gressitt, James R White, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Robert H Yolken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of T. gondii. However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. While it is known that T. gondii infection in rodents is associated with behavioral changes, the mechanisms behind these changes remain unclear...
2018: Scientifica
Edward Mufandaedza, Doreen Z Moyo, Paul Makoni
The aims of this study were to find out whether soil parameters (i.e., soil texture, soil pH, and available nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and level of tannins in the bark of tree as measured by total amount of N & P in the droppings significantly influenced Imbrasia belina distribution in the Southeastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The samples were collected in February-March 2013. Standard methods were employed on 80 samples across the four tenure regimes studied. Soil pH, percentage clay, silt, and sand were randomly measured across the four tenure regimes...
2018: Scientifica
Lawrence Duffy, La'Ona De Wilde, Katie Spellman, Kriya Dunlap, Bonita Dainowski, Susan McCullough, Bret Luick, Mary van Muelken
River watersheds are among the most complex terrestrial features in Alaska, performing valuable ecosystem functions and providing services for human society. Rivers are vital to both estuarine and aquatic biota and play important roles in biogeochemical cycles and physical processes. The functions of watersheds have been used as vulnerability indicators for ecosystem and socioeconomic resilience. Despite a long history of human activity, the Yukon River has not received the holistic and interdisciplinary attention given to the other great American river systems...
2018: Scientifica
Hoang-Yen Thi Nguyen, Gia-Buu Tran
Glucose isomerase is an enzyme widely used in food industry for producing high-fructose corn syrup. Many microbes, including Bacillus megaterium , have been found to be able to produce glucose isomerase. However, the number of studies of glucose isomerase production from Bacillus megaterium is limited. In this study, we establish the optimal medium components and culture conditions for Bacillus megaterium glucose isomerase production by evaluating the combined influence of multiple factors and different parameters via Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology in Modde 5...
2018: Scientifica
Given Matseketsa, Gladman Chibememe, Never Muboko, Edson Gandiwa, Kudakwashe Takarinda
Communities juxtaposed to protected areas (PAs) often disproportionally accrue the costs of conservation, but they can also receive benefits from the existence of a PA. The extent to which local communities benefit or incur costs as a result of residing next to PAs is of interest to conservationists and policy-makers. This study sought to understand the costs, benefits, and attitudes of local people living adjacent to Save Valley Conservancy (SVC), Zimbabwe. The purpose was to determine whether benefit and loss accrual has a bearing on the levels of illicit wildlife-based activities experienced in the SVC...
2018: Scientifica
Saud Alsanad, Tamer Aboushanab, Mohammed Khalil, Osama A Alkhamees
Diabetes mellitus represents a major burden in Saudi Arabia where seven million (20% of population) are living with diabetes. This article reviews the literature on usage of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) therapies among Saudi diabetic patients, focusing in particular on identifying the prevalence as well as discussing their safety and efficacy. Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect) were searched prior to December 10, 2017, for articles published in peer-reviewed journals that reported primary data on the use of traditional and complementary medicine therapies among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia...
2018: Scientifica
Tanyaradzwa Chigonda
Access to natural resources has changed over the years in Zimbabwe. At least three broad periods of biodiversity conservation, utilisation, and access can be identified in the country, namely, the precolonial, colonial, and postindependence periods. This paper reviews the relationships between human livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the rural areas of Zimbabwe during these periods and is informed by an extensive review of the relevant literature. A combination of historical narrative, thematic, and content analysis was used in analysing the various documents into meaningful information addressing the objective of the study...
2018: Scientifica
Michael N K Babayara, Bright Addo
Child mortality continues to be a major public health problem in Ghana, especially in northern Ghana where child survival rates are among the lowest. Though strategies are in place to address it, progress made is unsatisfactory and the Sustainable Development Goal 3 risks being missed. This makes the reexamination of the risk factors for child mortality crucial as results will aid in the modification of existing strategies aimed at addressing the problem. This study was a population-based case control study utilizing data (2007-2011) from the Demographic Surveillance System database of the Navrongo Health Research Center...
2018: Scientifica
Costantino Schiavi, Valentina Di Croce, Laura Primavera, Filippo Tassi
Purpose: To investigate the relationships between angle of deviation, fusional convergence and divergence amplitude, AC/A ratio, near point of convergence (NPC), and myopia-phoria in intermittent exotropia (IXT). Methods: 93 patients with IXT, divided into two groups, were recruited in the study. In Group A (73 patients), fusional convergence and divergence amplitudes, NPC, and AC/A ratio were studied and compared with a control group. In Group B (in 20 patients), myopia-phoria while switching from monocular to binocular view was studied with an infrared video retinoscopy and compared with a control group...
2018: Scientifica
Takunda V Munyaka, Edson Gandiwa
Giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) is one of the flagship herbivore species in the savanna ecosystem and is of high conservation value. Management of the species under diversified ecosystems, particularly, their introduction in new ecosystems is of great concern, given that limited information is available of how the species acclimatizes to new ecosystems and which forage species it selects. The objectives of the present study were to (i) identify woody plant species selected by the recently introduced giraffes and (ii) determine whether there were differences in woody plant diversity between the dry and wet seasons in Umfurudzi Park, northern Zimbabwe...
2018: Scientifica
Bernard C K Choi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.6064/2012/875253.].
2018: Scientifica
John George, Shyan Ch'ng Li, Zulkarnain Jaafar, Mohamad Shariff A Hamid
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy injection for focal supraspinatus rotator cuff tendinosis via outcomes such as functional score, range of movement, and real-time ultrasound parameters. Materials and Methods: 12 adult patients with focal supraspinatus tendinosis recruited after they had less than 30% improvement in functional (DASH) scores after one month of physiotherapy following initial presentation. Seven patients had 0.5-1.0 ml of prolotherapy injection (12...
2018: Scientifica
Yathisha Neeragunda Shivaraj, Plancot Barbara, Bruno Gugi, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich, Sharatchandra Ramasandra Govind, Akash Devaraja, Yogendra Kambalagere
Resurrection plants possess a unique ability to counteract desiccation stress. Desiccation tolerance (DT) is a very complex multigenic and multifactorial process comprising a combination of physiological, morphological, cellular, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic processes. Modification in the sugar composition of the hemicellulosic fraction of the cell wall is detected during dehydration. An important change is a decrease of glucose in the hemicellulosic fraction during dehydration that can reflect a modification of the xyloglucan structure...
2018: Scientifica
Xiaojian Zhou, Jie Meng, Zhaowei Yu, Li Miao, Cuili Jin
A sponge-associated bacterium, which was identified as Psychrobacter sp. in this study, was found with high activity against biofilm formation of benthic diatoms, including Amphora sp., Nitzschia closterium , Nitzschia frustulum , and Stauroneis sp. The activity against diatom biofilm formation by the tested strain was confirmed mostly in the culture supernatant and could be extracted using organic solvents. Treatment with its supernatant crude extract significantly reduced the cells of Stauroneis sp. forming biofilm and slightly increased the cells floating in the culture medium, which results in the ratio of biofilm cell/floating cell altering from 0...
2018: Scientifica
Manoochehr Ghorbanpoor, Behzad Dehvan, Siavash Rahimi, Azar Pirdehghan
Background: Fecal incontinence is one of the worst functional complications of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for treatment of anorectal malformation. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to identify the prevalence of fecal incontinence in patients with the diagnosis of high or low anorectal malformation who underwent three-stage posterior sagittal anorectoplasty surgery in our center. Patients and Methods: Children with the diagnosis of anorectal malformation who underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from 2012 to 2016 were enrolled in the study...
2018: Scientifica
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/4381067.].
2018: Scientifica
Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda, Thamudi Sundarapperuma, Diroshi Fonseka, Sachinthi Amarasiri, Prabath Gunaratna
The application of traditional medicinal plants as anti-inflammatory remedies has been practiced in Sri Lanka for thousands of years. Although there is a rich reserve of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants, the preservation and the scientific validation of these claims are still in its infancy. Thus, the study was carried out in one of the administrative areas of Sri Lanka known as Gampaha District to assess the significance and contribution of medicinal plants in inflammatory conditions. The data were collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews from 458 volunteers...
2018: Scientifica
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