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Scientifica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#1
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299233/phragmites-australis-typha-latifolia-community-enhanced-the-enrichment-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-in-the-soil-of-qin-lake-wetland
#2
Zhiwei Ge, Ran An, Shuiyuan Fang, Pengpeng Lin, Chuan Li, Jianhui Xue, Shuiqiang Yu
Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1) the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299232/concentration-and-separation-of-active-proteins-from-potato-industry-waste-based-on-low-temperature-evaporation-and-ethanol-precipitation
#3
Sanna Taskila, Mikko Ahokas, Juho Järvinen, Juho Toivanen, Juha P Tanskanen
Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286691/spina-bifida-pathogenesis-mechanisms-and-genes-in-mice-and-humans
#4
REVIEW
Siti W Mohd-Zin, Ahmed I Marwan, Mohamad K Abou Chaar, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah M Abdul-Aziz
Spina bifida is among the phenotypes of the larger condition known as neural tube defects (NTDs). It is the most common central nervous system malformation compatible with life and the second leading cause of birth defects after congenital heart defects. In this review paper, we define spina bifida and discuss the phenotypes seen in humans as described by both surgeons and embryologists in order to compare and ultimately contrast it to the leading animal model, the mouse. Our understanding of spina bifida is currently limited to the observations we make in mouse models, which reflect complete or targeted knockouts of genes, which perturb the whole gene(s) without taking into account the issue of haploinsufficiency, which is most prominent in the human spina bifida condition...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286690/a-carbon-cycle-model-for-the-social-ecological-process-in-coastal-wetland-a-case-study-on-gouqi-island-east-china
#5
Yanxia Li, Lihu Xiong, Wenjia Zhu
Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280648/composition-and-biomass-of-aquatic-vegetation-in-the-poyang-lake-china
#6
Wei Du, Ziqi Li, Zengxin Zhang, Qiu Jin, Xi Chen, Shanshan Jiang
The distribution of aquatic vegetation and associated community diversity and biomass in the Poyang Lake were investigated. The results showed that (1) 43 species of aquatic vascular plants were found in the Poyang Lake watershed which belonged to 22 families; (2) the vegetation of the Poyang Lake scattered in different areas which could be divided into 31 major plant communities and 5 plant zones including amphibian, emergent, floating-leaved, submerged, and floating input; (3) there were 67 aquatic plants in the lake area, and the standing stock (fresh weight) was 1519...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261516/long-term-study-of-the-relationship-between-precipitation-and-aquatic-vegetation-succession-in-east-taihu-lake-china
#7
Yehui Zhang, Na Yang, Jiawei Xu, Yixing Yin
Based on long-term rainfall measurements (1956-2012), water level records (1956-2006), and aquatic plants field survey data (1960-2014), the relationship between precipitation and aquatic vegetation succession in east Taihu Lake, China, is studied. Neither abrupt changes nor any trends were found in the annual rainfall series in Taihu Lake during the studied period (1956-2012). However, for seasonal variations, statistically significant decreases are found in spring and autumn, while the rainfall in winter exhibits statistically significant increase...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168084/issr-marker-based-population-genetic-study-of-melocanna-baccifera-roxb-kurz-a-commercially-important-bamboo-of-manipur-north-east-india
#8
Heikrujam Nilkanta, Thoungamba Amom, Leimapokpam Tikendra, Hamidur Rahaman, Potshangbam Nongdam
Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154770/physicochemical-process-crustacean-and-microcystis-biomass-changes-in-situ-enclosure-after-introduction-of-silver-carp-at-meiliang-bay-lake-taihu
#9
Chengjie Yin, Longgen Guo, Chunlong Yi, Congqiang Luo, Leyi Ni
In order to control cyanobacteria blooms with silver carp in Lake Taihu, an in situ experiment was carried out by stocking silver carp at a biomass of 35, 70, and 150 g m(-3) and no carp control in waterproof enclosures. Physicochemical water parameters and biomass of plankton were measured in enclosures to evaluate the suitable stocking density of silver carp for relieving internal nutrients and constraining cyanobacteria growth in Lake Taihu. It is found that the 35 g m(-3) silver carp group and 70 g m(-3) silver carp group presented lower total phosphorus, lower chlorophyll-a, and higher water transparency...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127494/photomediated-larvicidal-activity-of-pheophorbide-a-against-cercaria-larvae-of-fasciola-gigantica
#10
Divya Jyoti Singh, Vinay Kumar Singh, D K Singh
Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola gigantica. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of F. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of India. To investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (Pa) against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. Photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (Pa) caused time and concentration dependent larvicidal activity against cercaria larvae of F...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127493/effect-of-hydrologic-alteration-on-the-community-succession-of-macrophytes-at-xiangyang-site-hanjiang-river-china
#11
Na Yang, Yehui Zhang, Kai Duan
With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997-2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116220/comparison-of-proposed-modified-and-original-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-scores-in-predicting-icu-mortality-a-prospective-observational-follow-up-study
#12
Afshin Gholipour Baradari, Hassan Sharifi, Abolfazl Firouzian, Maryam Daneshiyan, Mohsen Aarabi, Yaser Talebiyan Kiakolaye, Seyed Mahmood Nouraei, Alieh Zamani Kiasari, Mohammad Reza Habibi, Amir Emami Zeydi, Faegheh Sadeghi
Background. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score has been recommended to triage critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to compare the performance of our proposed MSOFA and original SOFA scores in predicting ICU mortality. Methods. This prospective observational study was conducted on 250 patients admitted to the ICU. Both tools scores were calculated at the beginning, 24 hours of ICU admission, and 48 hours of ICU admission. Diagnostic odds ratio and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the two scores...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116219/incident-reporting-behaviours-and-associated-factors-among-nurses-working-in-gondar-university-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda
Background. A comprehensive and systematic approach to incident reporting would help learn from errors and adverse events within a healthcare facility. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess incident reporting behaviours and associated factors among nurses. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 14 to 29, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were coded, entered into Epi Info 7, and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083155/impact-of-auxins-on-vegetative-propagation-through-stem-cuttings-of-couroupita-guianensis-aubl-a-conservation-approach
#14
Mahipal S Shekhawat, M Manokari
The present study explores the potential of exogenous auxins in the development of adventitious shoots and roots from shoot cuttings of Couroupita guianensis (Nagalingam), a threatened tree. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of various concentrations of auxins on shoot and root morphological traits of stem cuttings in the greenhouse. Amongst the auxins tested, significant effects on number of shoot buds' induction and their growth were observed with α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) treated nodal cuttings...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078164/effectiveness-of-laser-therapy-in-the-management-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Min Han, Hui Fang, Quan-Li Li, Ying Cao, Rong Xia, Zhi-Hong Zhang
Objectives. Laser therapy is a promising new treatment for patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). However, the clinical effect and security issue of laser therapy remain controversial. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and security of laser treatment in RAS patients. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) to identify all studies that were about randomized controlled clinical trials, involving the effect of laser therapy in RAS patients...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070447/numerical-response-of-migratory-shorebirds-to-prey-distribution-in-a-large-temperate-arid-wetland-china
#16
Yamian Zhang, Yi Zhu, Aojie Zuo, Li Wen, Guangchun Lei
Wuliangsuhai Lake provides important breeding and stopover habitats for shorebirds. The health of this wetland ecosystem is rapidly deteriorating due to eutrophication and water pollution and environmental management is urgently needed. To explore the connections among ecosystem health, prey density, and shorebird populations, we conducted surveys of both the benthic macroinvertebrates and shorebirds in the shorebird habitat of the wetland during the 2011 autumn migration season. The abundance of both shorebirds and benthic macroinvertebrates varied significantly in both space and time...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053804/histogenesis-of-the-oesophagus-of-guinea-fowl-numida-meleagris-at-prehatch-and-posthatch
#17
Innocent Jonah Gosomji, Sulaiman Olawoye Salami, James Oliver Nzalak, Muhammed Umar Kawu, Emmanuel Vandi Tizhe, Yilzem George Gurumyen, Edward Christopher Dung
The histogenesis of the primordial oesophagus was studied to determine the period in which the tunics of the oesophagus developed and became functional in the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Eighteen embryos and nine keets were studied at prehatch and posthatch, respectively. Simple columnar epithelium surrounded by mesenchymal cells was obvious at the 8th day of embryonic development. By the 19th day of embryonic development, the four tunics, tunica mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica adventitia/serosa, were beginning to differentiate from the mesenchymal cells and also the primordial oesophageal glands appeared as clusters of cells that invaginate from the epithelium...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053803/d-amino-acids-in-the-nervous-and-endocrine-systems
#18
REVIEW
Yoshimitsu Kiriyama, Hiromi Nochi
Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003930/the-development-of-criteria-for-the-selection-of-chinese-peer-educators-in-hiv-management-a-delphi-study
#19
Yan Qiu, Jiayin Shen, Hongzhou Lu
To develop an expert consensus opinion of the criteria for selection of peer educator for HIV/AIDS care program, twenty experts were invited to complete a two-round Delphi consultation. Response rates of the panelists for the first and second rounds were both 100%, and the authority coefficient of the experts was 0.75. Experts achieved consensus on a total of nine items (75%) on completion of the study. The Precedence Chart Method was used to calculate the weight of each indicator, and then a priority list was generated accordingly...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980874/plantar-pressure-distribution-among-older-persons-with-different-types-of-foot-and-its-correlation-with-functional-reach-distance
#20
Aisyah Mohd Said, Maria Justine, Haidzir Manaf
Background. Changes in biomechanical structures of human foot are common in the older person, which may lead to alteration of foot type and plantar pressure distribution. We aimed to examine how foot type affects the plantar pressure distribution and to determine the relationship between plantar pressure distribution and functional reach distance in older persons. Methods. Fifty community-dwelling older persons (age: 69.98 ± 5.84) were categorized into three groups based on the Foot Posture Index. The plantar pressure (max⁡P) and contact area were analyzed using Footscan® RSScan platform...
2016: Scientifica
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