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Tanyaradzwa Chigonda
Access to natural resources has changed over the years in Zimbabwe. At least three broad periods of biodiversity conservation, utilisation, and access can be identified in the country, namely, the precolonial, colonial, and postindependence periods. This paper reviews the relationships between human livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the rural areas of Zimbabwe during these periods and is informed by an extensive review of the relevant literature. A combination of historical narrative, thematic, and content analysis was used in analysing the various documents into meaningful information addressing the objective of the study...
2018: Scientifica
Michael N K Babayara, Bright Addo
Child mortality continues to be a major public health problem in Ghana, especially in northern Ghana where child survival rates are among the lowest. Though strategies are in place to address it, progress made is unsatisfactory and the Sustainable Development Goal 3 risks being missed. This makes the reexamination of the risk factors for child mortality crucial as results will aid in the modification of existing strategies aimed at addressing the problem. This study was a population-based case control study utilizing data (2007-2011) from the Demographic Surveillance System database of the Navrongo Health Research Center...
2018: Scientifica
Costantino Schiavi, Valentina Di Croce, Laura Primavera, Filippo Tassi
Purpose: To investigate the relationships between angle of deviation, fusional convergence and divergence amplitude, AC/A ratio, near point of convergence (NPC), and myopia-phoria in intermittent exotropia (IXT). Methods: 93 patients with IXT, divided into two groups, were recruited in the study. In Group A (73 patients), fusional convergence and divergence amplitudes, NPC, and AC/A ratio were studied and compared with a control group. In Group B (in 20 patients), myopia-phoria while switching from monocular to binocular view was studied with an infrared video retinoscopy and compared with a control group...
2018: Scientifica
Takunda V Munyaka, Edson Gandiwa
Giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) is one of the flagship herbivore species in the savanna ecosystem and is of high conservation value. Management of the species under diversified ecosystems, particularly, their introduction in new ecosystems is of great concern, given that limited information is available of how the species acclimatizes to new ecosystems and which forage species it selects. The objectives of the present study were to (i) identify woody plant species selected by the recently introduced giraffes and (ii) determine whether there were differences in woody plant diversity between the dry and wet seasons in Umfurudzi Park, northern Zimbabwe...
2018: Scientifica
Bernard C K Choi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.6064/2012/875253.].
2018: Scientifica
John George, Shyan Ch'ng Li, Zulkarnain Jaafar, Mohamad Shariff A Hamid
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy injection for focal supraspinatus rotator cuff tendinosis via outcomes such as functional score, range of movement, and real-time ultrasound parameters. Materials and Methods: 12 adult patients with focal supraspinatus tendinosis recruited after they had less than 30% improvement in functional (DASH) scores after one month of physiotherapy following initial presentation. Seven patients had 0.5-1.0 ml of prolotherapy injection (12...
2018: Scientifica
Yathisha Neeragunda Shivaraj, Plancot Barbara, Bruno Gugi, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich, Sharatchandra Ramasandra Govind, Akash Devaraja, Yogendra Kambalagere
Resurrection plants possess a unique ability to counteract desiccation stress. Desiccation tolerance (DT) is a very complex multigenic and multifactorial process comprising a combination of physiological, morphological, cellular, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic processes. Modification in the sugar composition of the hemicellulosic fraction of the cell wall is detected during dehydration. An important change is a decrease of glucose in the hemicellulosic fraction during dehydration that can reflect a modification of the xyloglucan structure...
2018: Scientifica
Xiaojian Zhou, Jie Meng, Zhaowei Yu, Li Miao, Cuili Jin
A sponge-associated bacterium, which was identified as Psychrobacter sp. in this study, was found with high activity against biofilm formation of benthic diatoms, including Amphora sp., Nitzschia closterium , Nitzschia frustulum , and Stauroneis sp. The activity against diatom biofilm formation by the tested strain was confirmed mostly in the culture supernatant and could be extracted using organic solvents. Treatment with its supernatant crude extract significantly reduced the cells of Stauroneis sp. forming biofilm and slightly increased the cells floating in the culture medium, which results in the ratio of biofilm cell/floating cell altering from 0...
2018: Scientifica
Manoochehr Ghorbanpoor, Behzad Dehvan, Siavash Rahimi, Azar Pirdehghan
Background: Fecal incontinence is one of the worst functional complications of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for treatment of anorectal malformation. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to identify the prevalence of fecal incontinence in patients with the diagnosis of high or low anorectal malformation who underwent three-stage posterior sagittal anorectoplasty surgery in our center. Patients and Methods: Children with the diagnosis of anorectal malformation who underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from 2012 to 2016 were enrolled in the study...
2018: Scientifica
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/4381067.].
2018: Scientifica
Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda, Thamudi Sundarapperuma, Diroshi Fonseka, Sachinthi Amarasiri, Prabath Gunaratna
The application of traditional medicinal plants as anti-inflammatory remedies has been practiced in Sri Lanka for thousands of years. Although there is a rich reserve of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants, the preservation and the scientific validation of these claims are still in its infancy. Thus, the study was carried out in one of the administrative areas of Sri Lanka known as Gampaha District to assess the significance and contribution of medicinal plants in inflammatory conditions. The data were collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews from 458 volunteers...
2018: Scientifica
E M Ayo, A Matemu, G H Laswai, M E Kimanya
Aflatoxins occurrence in feeds challenges human and animal health. Farmers' awareness status of these toxins has an effect on their level of exposure. The study assessed the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of farmers on their awareness of aflatoxin contamination of feeds. Data were collected from 258 households and analysed by SPSS program for descriptive statistics and association between socioeconomic characteristics and awareness of aflatoxin contamination of feeds. Over seventy percent of the farmers had never heard about aflatoxins...
2018: Scientifica
Salwa Yammine, Edgard Jabbour, Sami El Toum, Antoine Cassia
Objective: Diode lasers have multiple indications in everyday dental practice. They allow carrying out incisions, coagulation of soft tissue, and Low-Level Laser Therapy. The goal of this study is to compare histologically the tissue interaction zones and edges of an induced laser incision on rabbits' tongues with three different wavelengths of 810, 940, and 980 nm in continuous mode. Methods: Fourteen male rabbits were divided into six groups. Each animal underwent three incisions of 10 mm length on the right ventral face of the tongue, carried out in continuous mode with three diode lasers with different wavelengths of 810, 940, and 980 nm...
2018: Scientifica
Ira Sharma, Sampurna Kakchapati
Use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to the demand for rapid cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stock and related factors. This study aims to assess the factors associated with carbon stock in Chure forest of Nepal. The data were obtained from Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) of Nepal. A multiple linear regression model and then sum contrasts were used to observe the association between variables such as stem volume, diameter at breast height, altitude, districts, number of trees per plot, and ownership of the forest...
2018: Scientifica
Mohammed Akibu, Sodere Nurgi, Mesfin Tadese, Wendwesen Dibekulu Tsega
Background: World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend all health professionals to get vaccinated against hepatitis B virus before they start the clinical attachments during their stay in the medical school. However, only 18-39% of healthcare workers in low- and middle-income countries received the vaccine. Therefore, this study aims to determine the attitude and vaccination status of health professionals working at Adama General Hospital and Medical College...
2018: Scientifica
Biji Shibulal, Saif N Al-Bahry, Yahya M Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E Elshafie, Ali S Al-Bemani, Sanket J Joshi
The identification of potential hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria is an essential requirement in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Molecular approaches like proteomic and genomic characterization of the isolates are replacing the traditional method of identification with systemic classification. Genotypic profiling of the isolates includes fingerprint or pattern-based technique and sequence-based technique. Understanding community structure and dynamics is essential for studying diversity profiles and is challenging in the case of microbial analysis...
2018: Scientifica
T A V Nguyen, Truong D Le, Hoa N Phan, Lam B Tran
Two types of lipase, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL), were used to hydrolyze virgin coconut oil (VCO). The hydrolysis process was carried out under four parameters, VCO to buffer ratio, lipase concentration, pH, and temperature, which have a significant effect on hydrolysis of lipase. CRL obtained the best hydrolysis condition at 1 : 5 of VCO to buffer ratio, 1.5% of CRL concentration, pH 7, and temperature of 40°C. Meanwhile, PPL gave different results at 1 : 4 of VCO to buffer ratio, 2% of lipase concentration, pH 7...
2018: Scientifica
León Jesús German-Ponciano, Gilberto Uriel Rosas-Sánchez, Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa
Flavonoids are phenolic compounds found commonly in plants that protect them against the negative effects of environmental insults. These secondary metabolites have been widely studied in preclinical research because of their biological effects, particularly as antioxidant agents. Diverse flavonoids have been studied to explore their potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, including anxiety and depression. The present review discusses advances in the study of some flavonoids as potential antidepressant agents...
2018: Scientifica
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
M N Alam, Ujjal Kumar Nath, K M R Karim, M M Ahmed, R Y Mitul
Sugarcane is the main sugar producing crop in Bangladesh. However, improvement of this crop through breeding is limited due to lack of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic variability and diversity assessment are necessarily important for the foreign introduced materials. Experiment was conducted with 9 exotic sugarcane genotypes at Regional Station, Bangladesh Sugar Crop Research Institute, Gazipur, during 2012-13, following RCBD. Data were collected on different growth and yield contributing characters. Individual cane weight exhibited high genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation...
2017: Scientifica
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