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Scientifica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209556/chinese-herbal-medicines-as-potential-agents-for-alleviation-of-heat-stress-in-poultry
#1
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Salwani Md Saadand, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Zulkifli Idrus, Hailong Zhou, Xiao Ping Diao, Juan Boo Liang
Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201493/analysis-of-microbial-diversity-in-soil-under-ginger-cultivation
#2
Yiqing Liu, Lin Wu, Xingwen Wu, Honghai Li, Qinhong Liao, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhiqiang Sun, Wenhua Li
Ginger is a perennial monocotyledonous herb, which can be used as both a vegetable and a medicinal plant. However, it is susceptible to various plant pathogens. Microbial diversity in soil is related closely to the health and productivity of plant crops including ginger. In the current study, we compared microbial diversity from soil samples under ginger cultivation (disease incidence of >50% [relatively unhealthy sample] versus disease incidence of <10% [relatively healthy sample]). The bacterial and fungal taxa were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing, with 16S and ITS identification, respectively...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#3
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181225/assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-home-remedial-methods-to-improve-drinking-water-quality-in-two-major-aquifer-systems-in-jaffna-peninsula-sri-lanka
#4
W M Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Suvendran Subanky
Chunnakam and Vadamaradchi are two major aquifer systems in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka. This study was performed to compare water quality in the domestic wells in these aquifers and to assess the efficacy of household water treatments for treating contaminated water. Replicate well water samples were collected from each aquifer and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, temperature, total solids (TS), total hardness (TH), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease (OG), nitrate N (N), and total phosphate (TP) were measured...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#5
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130018/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-campylobacter-spp-from-a-peruvian-pediatric-cohort
#6
Angela Lluque, Maribel Riveros, Ana Prada, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
The presence of virulence factors (VFs) and mechanisms of quinolones and macrolide resistance was analyzed in Campylobacter spp. from a pediatric cohort study in Lima. In 149 isolates (39 Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli from diarrheic cases; 57 C. jejuni and 29 C. coli from controls), the presence of the cdtABC and cadF genes and iam marker was established. Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin susceptibilities were established in 115 isolates and tetracycline-susceptibility was established in 100 isolates...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098110/sex-related-differences-in-hematological-parameters-and-organosomatic-indices-of-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b1-diet
#7
Esther Marijani, Johnson Nasimolo, Emmanuel Kigadye, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit Gnonlonfin, Sheila Okoth
A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g) were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4) containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000 μg AFB1 kg(-1). A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), and hematocrit (Hct) was observed in AFB1 exposure groups, with the lowest levels recorded in the 2000 μg AFB1 kg(-1) treatment...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093983/the-importance-of-magnesium-in-clinical-healthcare
#8
REVIEW
Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis
The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways. Inadequate magnesium status may impair biochemical processes dependent on sufficiency of this element. Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948060/lycopene-inhibits-propagation-of-chlamydia-infection
#9
Naylia A Zigangirova, Elena Y Morgunova, Elena D Fedina, Natalia V Shevyagina, Tatiana G Borovaya, Vladimir G Zhukhovitsky, Nigel H Kyle, Ivan M Petyaev
Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria with similar developmental cycles and cell biology responsible for a wide range of diseases in different hosts including genital and eye inflammatory diseases, arthritis, and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In the present paper, we report that lycopene, one of the main dietary carotenoids, which is present in tomato and some other fruits, has a strong inhibitory effect on C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections in alveolar macrophages...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503339/restoration-and-management-of-healthy-wetland-ecosystems
#10
EDITORIAL
Dong Xie, Qiang Wang, Zhongqiang Li, Roger Paulo Mormul, Liangdong Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473942/an-investigation-on-the-aggregation-and-rheodynamics-of-human-red-blood-cells-using-high-performance-computations
#11
Dong Xu, Chunning Ji, Eldad Avital, Efstathios Kaliviotis, Ante Munjiza, John Williams
Studies on the haemodynamics of human circulation are clinically and scientifically important. In order to investigate the effect of deformation and aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood flow, a computational technique has been developed by coupling the interaction between the fluid and the deformable RBCs. Parallelization was carried out for the coupled code and a high speedup was achieved based on a spatial decomposition. In order to verify the code's capability of simulating RBC deformation and transport, simulations were carried out for a spherical capsule in a microchannel and multiple RBC transport in a Poiseuille flow...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409052/job-satisfaction-analysis-in-rural-china-a-qualitative-study-of-doctors-in-a-township-hospital
#12
Qiwei Chen, Lan Yang, Qiming Feng, Scott S Tighe
Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386514/improving-urban-water-environment-in-eastern-china-by-blending-traditional-with-modern-landscape-planning
#13
Jiajie Cao, Junjun Yu, Yuan Tian, Cai Zhao, Hao Wang
As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386513/winter-waterbird-community-composition-and-use-at-created-wetlands-in-west-virginia-usa
#14
Hannah L Clipp, Michael L Peters, James T Anderson
Information on nonbreeding waterbirds using created wetlands in the Central Appalachian region of the United States is limited. We compared waterbird communities of two managed wetlands, created in 2013 and 2001, in West Virginia. We observed 27 species of waterbirds. Species richness and diversity were generally similar between the wetlands, but species composition and use differed. Branta canadensis (Canada Geese), Anas strepera (Gadwall), Bucephala albeola (Buffleheads), Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup), and Aythya collaris (Ring-Necked Ducks) used the older wetland most frequently...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377830/methods-to-reduce-forest-residue-volume-after-timber-harvesting-and-produce-black-carbon
#15
Deborah S Page-Dumroese, Matt D Busse, James G Archuleta, Darren McAvoy, Eric Roussel
Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348922/simulation-of-the-effect-of-artificial-water-transfer-on-carbon-stock-of-phragmites-australis-in-the-baiyangdian-wetland-china
#16
Xinyong Chen, Fengyi Wang, Jianjian Lu, Hongbo Li, Jing Zhu, Xiaotong Lv
How to explain the effect of seasonal water transfer on the carbon stocks of Baiyangdian wetland is studied. The ecological model of the relationship between the carbon stocks and water depth fluctuation of the reed was established by using STELLA software. For the first time the Michaelis-Menten equation (1) introduced the relation function between the water depth and reed environmental carrying capacity, (2) introduced the concept of suitable growth water depth, and (3) simulated the variation rules of water and reed carbon stocks of artificial adjustment...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348921/the-effect-of-artificial-mowing-on-the-competition-of-phragmites-australis-and-spartina-alterniflora-in-the-yangtze-estuary
#17
Yue Yuan, Chao Zhang, Dezhi Li
Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is one of the most invasive species in the world. However, little is known about the role of artificial mowing in its invasiveness and competiveness. In this work, we studied the effect of mowing on its interspecific interactions with native species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud of the Yangtze Estuary, China. We calculated their relative neighbor effect (RNE) index, effect of relative crowding (Dr ) index, and interaction strength (I) index. The results showed that the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora was 0...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#18
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299233/phragmites-australis-typha-latifolia-community-enhanced-the-enrichment-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-in-the-soil-of-qin-lake-wetland
#19
Zhiwei Ge, Ran An, Shuiyuan Fang, Pengpeng Lin, Chuan Li, Jianhui Xue, Shuiqiang Yu
Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1) the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299232/concentration-and-separation-of-active-proteins-from-potato-industry-waste-based-on-low-temperature-evaporation-and-ethanol-precipitation
#20
Sanna Taskila, Mikko Ahokas, Juho Järvinen, Juho Toivanen, Juha P Tanskanen
Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins...
2017: Scientifica
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