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Scientifica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623233/hydrolysis-activity-of-virgin-coconut-oil-using-lipase-from-different-sources
#1
T A V Nguyen, Truong D Le, Hoa N Phan, Lam B Tran
Two types of lipase, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL), were used to hydrolyze virgin coconut oil (VCO). The hydrolysis process was carried out under four parameters, VCO to buffer ratio, lipase concentration, pH, and temperature, which have a significant effect on hydrolysis of lipase. CRL obtained the best hydrolysis condition at 1 : 5 of VCO to buffer ratio, 1.5% of CRL concentration, pH 7, and temperature of 40°C. Meanwhile, PPL gave different results at 1 : 4 of VCO to buffer ratio, 2% of lipase concentration, pH 7...
2018: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623232/advances-in-the-preclinical-study-of-some-flavonoids-as-potential-antidepressant-agents
#2
REVIEW
León Jesús German-Ponciano, Gilberto Uriel Rosas-Sánchez, Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa
Flavonoids are phenolic compounds found commonly in plants that protect them against the negative effects of environmental insults. These secondary metabolites have been widely studied in preclinical research because of their biological effects, particularly as antioxidant agents. Diverse flavonoids have been studied to explore their potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, including anxiety and depression. The present review discusses advances in the study of some flavonoids as potential antidepressant agents...
2018: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623231/african-orphan-crops-under-abiotic-stresses-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348970/genetic-variability-of-exotic-sugarcane-genotypes
#4
M N Alam, Ujjal Kumar Nath, K M R Karim, M M Ahmed, R Y Mitul
Sugarcane is the main sugar producing crop in Bangladesh. However, improvement of this crop through breeding is limited due to lack of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic variability and diversity assessment are necessarily important for the foreign introduced materials. Experiment was conducted with 9 exotic sugarcane genotypes at Regional Station, Bangladesh Sugar Crop Research Institute, Gazipur, during 2012-13, following RCBD. Data were collected on different growth and yield contributing characters. Individual cane weight exhibited high genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348969/smallholder-farmers-livelihood-security-options-amidst-climate-variability-and-change-in-rural-ghana
#5
Sampson Yamba, Divine O Appiah, Lawrencia Pokuaa-Siaw, Felix Asante
Farming as a livelihood activity in the Bosomtwe District is threatened by climate change. This paper ascertained the alternative livelihood options of smallholder farmers against climate variability and change in the Bosomtwe District. Using a cross-sectional survey, 152 smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a multistage sampling procedure. The quantitative data collected were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis, contingency tables, frequencies, and Nagelkerke tests of association, embedded in the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) v...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348968/evaluation-of-root-canal-morphology-of-mandibular-first-and-second-premolars-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-a-defined-group-of-dental-patients-in-iran
#6
Neda Hajihassani, Neda Roohi, Karim Madadi, Mahin Bakhshi, Maryam Tofangchiha
Background: Successful dental root canal treatments require a complete knowledge of dental anatomy and root canal morphology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-five cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were used to assess the anatomy and morphology of mandibular premolars based on Vertucci's classifications in a defined group of dental patients in Iran. The number of roots and root canals, root canal morphology, root and canal shape (curvature), existence of C-shaped canal, and influence of sex on each of these were evaluated...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270328/a-method-for-identifying-pollution-sources-of-heavy-metals-and-pah-for-a-risk-based-management-of-a-mediterranean-harbour
#7
Ombretta Paladino, Arianna Moranda, Mahdi Seyedsalehi
A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA), and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy)...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230347/induction-of-reactive-intermediates-and-autophagy-related-proteins-upon-infection-of-macrophages-with-rhodococcus-equi
#8
Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Mahesh Bhandari, Sarah A Wiechert, Jessica Gilbertie, Douglas E Jones, Brett A Sponseller
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular macrophage-tropic pathogen with potential for causing fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. In this study, we sought to determine whether infection of macrophages with R. equi could lead to the induction of autophagy. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were infected with R. equi for various time intervals and analyzed for upregulation of autophagy proteins and accumulation of autophagosomes relative to uninfected controls...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225995/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-persian-version-of-barkley-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-screening-tool-among-the-elderly
#9
Mostafa Sadeghi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Shahrokh Amiri
Background: The Barkley Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV) was developed, and it demonstrated good psychometric properties. The BAARS-IV includes 27 questions on the symptoms of adult ADHD. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric testing of the Persian version of BAARS-IV among the elderlies in Tabriz City. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tabriz City-in the west of Iran-in 2015 via enrolling of 121 old-aged people...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209556/chinese-herbal-medicines-as-potential-agents-for-alleviation-of-heat-stress-in-poultry
#10
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Salwani Md Saadand, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Zulkifli Idrus, Hailong Zhou, Xiao Ping Diao, Juan Boo Liang
Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201493/analysis-of-microbial-diversity-in-soil-under-ginger-cultivation
#11
Yiqing Liu, Lin Wu, Xingwen Wu, Honghai Li, Qinhong Liao, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhiqiang Sun, Wenhua Li
Ginger is a perennial monocotyledonous herb, which can be used as both a vegetable and a medicinal plant. However, it is susceptible to various plant pathogens. Microbial diversity in soil is related closely to the health and productivity of plant crops including ginger. In the current study, we compared microbial diversity from soil samples under ginger cultivation (disease incidence of >50% [relatively unhealthy sample] versus disease incidence of <10% [relatively healthy sample]). The bacterial and fungal taxa were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing, with 16S and ITS identification, respectively...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#12
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181225/assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-home-remedial-methods-to-improve-drinking-water-quality-in-two-major-aquifer-systems-in-jaffna-peninsula-sri-lanka
#13
W M Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Suvendran Subanky
Chunnakam and Vadamaradchi are two major aquifer systems in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka. This study was performed to compare water quality in the domestic wells in these aquifers and to assess the efficacy of household water treatments for treating contaminated water. Replicate well water samples were collected from each aquifer and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, temperature, total solids (TS), total hardness (TH), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease (OG), nitrate N (N), and total phosphate (TP) were measured...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#14
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130018/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-campylobacter-spp-from-a-peruvian-pediatric-cohort
#15
Angela Lluque, Maribel Riveros, Ana Prada, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
The presence of virulence factors (VFs) and mechanisms of quinolones and macrolide resistance was analyzed in Campylobacter spp. from a pediatric cohort study in Lima. In 149 isolates (39 Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli from diarrheic cases; 57 C. jejuni and 29 C. coli from controls), the presence of the cdtABC and cadF genes and iam marker was established. Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin susceptibilities were established in 115 isolates and tetracycline-susceptibility was established in 100 isolates...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098110/sex-related-differences-in-hematological-parameters-and-organosomatic-indices-of-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b1-diet
#16
Esther Marijani, Johnson Nasimolo, Emmanuel Kigadye, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit Gnonlonfin, Sheila Okoth
A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g) were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4) containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000 μg AFB1 kg(-1). A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), and hematocrit (Hct) was observed in AFB1 exposure groups, with the lowest levels recorded in the 2000 μg AFB1 kg(-1) treatment...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093983/the-importance-of-magnesium-in-clinical-healthcare
#17
REVIEW
Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis
The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways. Inadequate magnesium status may impair biochemical processes dependent on sufficiency of this element. Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948060/lycopene-inhibits-propagation-of-chlamydia-infection
#18
Naylia A Zigangirova, Elena Y Morgunova, Elena D Fedina, Natalia V Shevyagina, Tatiana G Borovaya, Vladimir G Zhukhovitsky, Nigel H Kyle, Ivan M Petyaev
Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria with similar developmental cycles and cell biology responsible for a wide range of diseases in different hosts including genital and eye inflammatory diseases, arthritis, and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In the present paper, we report that lycopene, one of the main dietary carotenoids, which is present in tomato and some other fruits, has a strong inhibitory effect on C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections in alveolar macrophages...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503339/restoration-and-management-of-healthy-wetland-ecosystems
#19
EDITORIAL
Dong Xie, Qiang Wang, Zhongqiang Li, Roger Paulo Mormul, Liangdong Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473942/an-investigation-on-the-aggregation-and-rheodynamics-of-human-red-blood-cells-using-high-performance-computations
#20
Dong Xu, Chunning Ji, Eldad Avital, Efstathios Kaliviotis, Ante Munjiza, John Williams
Studies on the haemodynamics of human circulation are clinically and scientifically important. In order to investigate the effect of deformation and aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood flow, a computational technique has been developed by coupling the interaction between the fluid and the deformable RBCs. Parallelization was carried out for the coupled code and a high speedup was achieved based on a spatial decomposition. In order to verify the code's capability of simulating RBC deformation and transport, simulations were carried out for a spherical capsule in a microchannel and multiple RBC transport in a Poiseuille flow...
2017: Scientifica
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