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Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Adriana Mayrel Martha-Paz, Yordanis Pérez-LLano, Elisabet Aranda, Juan Enrique Tacoronte-Morales, María Teresa Pedroso-Cabrera, Katiushka Arévalo-Niño, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
Lignocellulose represents the most abundant source of carbon in the Earth. Thus, fraction technology of the biomass turns up as an emerging technology for the development of biorefineries. Saccharification and fermentation processes require the formulation of enzymatic cocktails or the development of microorganisms (naturally or genetically modified) with the appropriate toolbox to produce a cost-effective fermentation technology. Therefore, the search for microorganisms capable of developing effective cellulose hydrolysis represents one of the main challenges in this era...
May 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Saber Khelaifia, Catherine Robert, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Jérémy Delerce, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Bretelle, Florence Fenollar
Strain Marseille-P2341T , a nonmotile, nonspore-forming, Gram-stain-positive anaerobic coccus, was isolated in the vaginal specimen of a patient with bacterial vaginosis using culturomics. Its growth occurred at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C, with pH between 6.5 and 8.5, and at NaCl concentrations lower than 5%. The major fatty acids were C18:1n9 (27.7%) and C16:0 (24.4%). Its genome is 1,671,491 bp long with 49.48 mol% of G+C content. It is composed of 1,501 genes: 1,446 were protein-coding genes and 55 were RNAs...
May 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Chelsea R Hobby, Joshua L Herndon, Colton A Morrow, Rachel E Peters, Steven J K Symes, David K Giles
Klebsiella pneumoniae represents a major threat to human health due to a combination of its nosocomial emergence and a propensity for acquiring antibiotic resistance. Dissemination of the bacteria from its native intestinal location creates severe, complicated infections that are particularly problematic in healthcare settings. Thus, there is an urgency for identifying novel treatment regimens as the incidence of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria rises. Recent findings have highlighted the ability of some Gram-negative bacteria to utilize exogenous fatty acids in ways that modify membrane phospholipids and influence virulence phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance...
April 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Michelle M Valkanas, Nancy J Trun
A passive remediation system that treats coalmine drainage was sampled to determine the impact seasonal changes had on water quality and microbial diversity. Every quarter for 1 year, water-soil slurries were collected at the influent of the 5 settling ponds and the wetlands, and the effluent of the system. The concentration of 12 metals and sulfate, as well as sequences from the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rrn genes were determined. The water quality analysis revealed high levels of iron and sulfate, and measurable levels of Al, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Sr, and Zn...
April 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Suzanne M Peyer, Natacha Kremer, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The cathepsin L gene of the host squid, Euprymna scolopes, is upregulated during the first hours of colonization by the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. At this time, the symbiotic organ begins cell death-mediated morphogenesis in tissues functional only at the onset of symbiosis. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cathepsin L, a cysteine protease associated with apoptosis in other animals, plays a critical role in symbiont-induced cell death in the host squid. Sequence analysis and biochemical characterization demonstrated that the protein has key residues and domains essential for Cathepsin L function and that it is active within the pH range typical of these proteases...
April 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Gefei Liu, Yali Qiao, Yanjiao Zhang, Cong Leng, Jiahui Sun, Hongyu Chen, Yan Zhang, Aili Li, Zhen Feng
This study aimed to evaluate the profiles of Streptococcus thermophilus nutrient requirements to guide the design of media for high cell density culturing. The growth kinetics, physiological state, and nutrient requirement profiles of S. thermophilus were analyzed in chemically defined media. The results showed that the intracellular ATP concentration, H+ -ATPase activity, NADH/NAD+ , and NH3 concentrations varied with intracellular pH. The nutrient components with the highest amounts required were Leu and Asp; ascorbic acid and p-amino benzoic acid; K+ and PO4 3- ; and guanine and uracil...
April 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Sylvia I Pavlova, Reid V Wilkening, Michael J Federle, Yu Lu, Joel Schwartz, Lin Tao
Both cervical and throat cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection requires cleavage of the minor capsid protein L2 by furin. While furin is present in the vaginal epithelium, it is absent in oral epithelial basal cells where HPV infection occurs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether common oral bacteria express furin-like peptidases. By screening strains representing 12 oral Streptococcus and Enterococcus species, we identified that eight Streptococcus strains displayed high levels of furin-like peptidase activity, with S...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
Temperate phage encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) kills the bacterivorous predator, Tetrahymena thermophila, providing Stx+ Escherichia coli with a survival advantage over Stx- cells. Although bacterial death accompanies Stx release, since bacteria grow clonally the fitness benefits of predator killing accrue to the kin of the sacrificed organism, meaning Stx-mediated protist killing is a form of self-destructive cooperation. We show here that the fitness benefits of Stx production are not restricted to the kin of the phage-encoding bacteria...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Awa Diop, El Hadji Seck, Gregory Dubourg, Nicholas Armstrong, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of the human gut microbiota. By using three culture media containing high salt concentrations (10, 15, and 20% [w/v] NaCl), we attempted an exhaustive exploration of the halophilic microbial diversity of the human gut and isolated strain Marseille-P2481 (= CSUR P2481 =  DSM 103076), a new moderately halophilic bacterium. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, spore-forming rod that is motile by use of a flagellum and exhibits catalase, but not oxidase activity...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhuoran Han, Jingfeng Sun, Aijun Lv, Anli Wang
This study examined the technical bias associated with different DNA extraction methods used in microbiome research. Three methods were used to extract genomic DNA from the same intestinal microbiota sample that was taken from the koi carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi, after which their microbial diversity and community structure were investigated on the basis of a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing analysis. Biased results were observed in relation to the number of reads, alpha diversity indexes and taxonomic composition among the three DNA extraction protocols...
April 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Narjes Dashti, Nedaa Ali, Samar Salamah, Majida Khanafer, Ghada Al-Shamy, Husain Al-Awadhi, Samir S Radwan
To analyze microbial communities in environmental samples, this study combined Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA-genes in total genomic DNA extracts from those samples with gene sequencing. The environmental samples studied were oily seawater and soil samples, that had been bioaugmented with natural materials rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This molecular approach revealed much more diverse bacterial taxa than the culture-dependent method we had used in an earlier study for the analysis of the same samples...
April 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yuqiu Wei, Jun Sun, Xiaodong Zhang, Jing Wang, Ke Huang
The cellular size and biomass of picophytoplankton were studied by flow cytometer during spring monsoon (March-May of 2015) in equatorial eastern Indian Ocean. We established an empirical relationship between forward scatter and cellular size to address the size and biomass of picophytoplankton. Results indicated that mean cell diameter of Prochlorococcus (0.60 μm) was the smallest, and then followed by Synechococcus (0.98 μm) and picoeukaryotic phytoplankton (1.05 μm). Thereafter, the biomass converted by abundance reached 0...
April 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xiaohui Dai, Ge Gao, Mengmeng Wu, Weiying Wei, Jianmei Qu, Guoqiang Li, Ting Ma
In the industrial production of xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris CGMCC15155, large amounts of ethanol are required to extract xanthan gum from the fermentation broth and remove xanthomonadin impurities. To reduce the amount of ethanol and the overall production cost of xanthan gum, a xanthomonadin-deficient strain of CGMCC15155 was constructed by inserting the Vitreoscilla globin (vgb) gene, under the control of the LacZ promoter, into the region of the pigA gene, which is involved in xanthomonadin synthesis...
April 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Pamela Afouda, Guillaume A Durand, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Noémie Labas, Fréderic Cadoret, Nicholas Armstrong, Didier Raoult, Grégory Dubourg
Intestinimonas massiliensis sp. nov strain GD2T is a new species of the genus Intestinimonas (the second, following Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov). First isolated from the gut microbiota of a healthy subject of French origin using a culturomics approach combined with taxono-genomics, it is strictly anaerobic, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped, with catalase- and oxidase-negative reactions. Its growth was observed after preincubation in an anaerobic blood culture enriched with sheep blood (5%) and rumen fluid (5%), incubated at 37°C...
April 14, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Roberta M Santos, Saveetha Kandasamy, Everlon Cid Rigobelo
Mineral and organic fertilization can be optimized by using rhizobacteria which increases dry matter, yield, and nutrients in the soil and plant, among the other biological inputs. However, the discovery of single microbes or a consortium that can benefit plants has been a challenge. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus combined with mineral fertilization and sugar and alcohol industry by-products in presprouted and the initial growth phase of sugar cane seedlings...
April 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhan-Bin Sun, Jun Zhang, Man-Hong Sun, Shi-Dong Li
Chlamydospores are specific structures that are of great significance to the commercialization of fungal biopesticides. To explore the genes associated with chlamydospore formation, a biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea 67-1 that is capable of producing resistant spores under particular conditions was investigated by transcriptome sequencing and analysis. A total of 549,661,174 clean reads were obtained, and a series of differentially expressed genes potentially involved in fungal chlamydospore formation were identified...
April 10, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xiao-Ting Xie, Andrew M Kropinski, Brian Tapscott, J Scott Weese, Patricia V Turner
Recent viral metagenomic studies have demonstrated the diversity of eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophage shed in the feces of domestic species. Although enteric disease is a major concern in the commercial mink farming industry, few etiologic agents have been well characterized. This study aimed to identify viruses shed in the fecal matter of clinically healthy commercial mink from 40 southern Ontario farms. Viral RNA was extracted from 67 pooled fecal samples (30 adult female mink and 37 kit) and amplified for Illumina sequencing on the NextSeq platform, and the resulting contigs were trimmed and assembled using Trimmomatic 0...
April 10, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Margaret E Wetzel, Robert E Asenstorfer, Max E Tate, Stephen K Farrand
We previously described a plasmid of Agrobacterium spp., pAoF64/95, in which the quorum-sensing system that controls conjugative transfer is induced by the opine mannopine. We also showed that the quorum-sensing regulators TraR, TraM, and TraI function similarly to their counterparts in other repABC plasmids. However, traR, unlike its counterpart on Ti plasmids, is monocistronic and not located in an operon that is inducible by the conjugative opine. Here, we report that both traR and traM are expressed constitutively and not regulated by growth with mannopine...
April 10, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ramkumar B Nair, Rebecca Gmoser, Patrik R Lennartsson, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
The effect of second messenger cAMP on the physiological aspects of fungal cells such as pigmentation has been reported previously. However, their actual role in the cellular biochemical cascade that eventually affects the fungal growth morphology, such as mycelial pellet formation, is unclear. This article intends to open up the detailed study on the possible correlative effect of cAMP on the morphological and physiological growth aspects of filamentous fungi, with special emphasis on the industrial metabolite production...
April 6, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yuemei Lin, Clara Reino, Julián Carrera, Julio Pérez, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
A new type of structural extracellular polymers (EPS) was extracted from aerobic granular sludge dominated by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. It was analyzed by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy to characterize specific amino acids and protein secondary structure, and by SDS-PAGE with different stains to identify different glycoconjugates. Its intrinsic fluorescence was captured to visualize the location of the extracted EPS in the nitrifying granules, and its hydrogel-forming property was studied by rheometry. The extracted EPS is abundant with cross ß-sheet secondary structure, contains glycosylated proteins/polypeptides, and rich in tryptophan...
March 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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