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Torbjörn Bengtsson, Johanna Lönn, Hazem Khalaf, Eleonor Palm
Antimicrobial resistance needs to be tackled from new angles, and antimicrobial peptides could be future candidates for combating bacterial infections. This study aims to investigate in vitro the bactericidal effects of the lantibiotic gallidermin on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, possible cytotoxic effects and its impact on host-microbe interactions. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gallidermin were determined, and cytotoxicity and proinflammatory effects of gallidermin on fibroblasts, red blood cells (RBCs) and in whole blood were investigated...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Luz I Valenzuela-García, Víctor M Ayala-García, Ana G Regalado-García, Peter Setlow, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
The absence of base excision repair (BER) proteins involved in processing ROS-promoted genetic insults activates a DNA damage scanning (DisA)-dependent checkpoint event in outgrowing Bacillus subtilis spores. Here, we report that genetic disabling of transcription-coupled repair (TCR) or nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways severely affected outgrowth of ΔdisA spores, and much more so than the effects of these mutations on log phase growth. This defect delayed the first division of spore's nucleoid suggesting that unrepaired lesions affected transcription and/or replication during outgrowth...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Meng-Meng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan-Bo Hu, Guang-Yu Sun
A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Loes H M Peeters, Hendrik P Huinink, Benjamin Voogt, Olaf C G Adan
Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol...
March 12, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xin Liu, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Xuliang Zhuang
Mercury can be a serious hazard to human health, especially in paddy soils surrounding mining areas. In this study, mercury (Hg)-methylating microbes with the potential biomarker gene hgcA were obtained from 45 paddy soil samples in mercury mining areas in Fenghuang, Wanshan, and Xunyang. In different areas, the abundance of the hgcA gene was affected by different environmental factors, including organic matter, pH, total carbon content, total nitrogen content, and total mercury content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that hgcA microbes in paddy soils were potentially members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Chloroflexi, and two unnamed groups...
March 12, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Songlin Liu, Zhijian Jiang, Yiqin Deng, Yunchao Wu, Jingping Zhang, Chunyu Zhao, Delian Huang, Xiaoping Huang, Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett
Eutrophication can play a significant role in seagrass decline and habitat loss. Microorganisms in seagrass sediments are essential to many important ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling and seagrass ecosystem health. However, current knowledge of the bacterial communities, both beneficial and detrimental, within seagrass meadows in response to nutrient loading is limited. We studied the response of sediment bacterial and pathogen communities to nutrient enrichment on a tropical seagrass meadow in Xincun Bay, South China Sea...
March 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Anna Kowalska, Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojć
The application of microparticle-enhanced cultivation (MPEC) is an attractive method to control mycelial morphology, and thus enhance the production of metabolites and enzymes in the submerged cultivations of filamentous fungi. Unfortunately, most literature data deals with the spore-agglomerating species like aspergilli. Therefore, the detailed quantitative study of the morphological evolution of four different fungal species (Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium rubens, Chaetomium globosum, and Mucor racemosus) based on the digital analysis of microscopic images was presented in this paper...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yihua Sun, Paul De Vos, Anne Willems
Until now, the exact mechanisms for N2 O production in dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA) remain underexplored. Previously, we investigated this mechanism in Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis, ubiquitous gram-positive bacteria with many industrial applications, and observed significant strain dependency and media dependency in N2 O production which was thought to correlate with high residual NO2 - . Here, we further studied the influence of several physicochemical factors on NO3 - (or NO2 - ) partitioning and N2 O production in DNRA to shed light on the possible mechanisms of N2 O production...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Manuela Murgia, Maura Fiamma, Aleksandra Barac, Massimo Deligios, Vittorio Mazzarello, Bianca Paglietti, Pietro Cappuccinelli, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Andrea Squartini, Salvatore Rubino, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
The fungal community of six sand samples from Saudi Arabia and Jordan deserts was characterized by culture-independent analysis via next generation sequencing of the 18S rRNA genes and by culture-dependent methods followed by sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. By 18S sequencing were identified from 163 to 507 OTUs per sample, with a percentage of fungi ranging from 3.5% to 82.7%. The identified fungal Phyla were Ascomycota, Basal fungi, and Basidiomycota and the most abundant detected classes were Dothideomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xinwei Yang, Lianzuan Wu, Ying Xu, Chongrong Ke, Fangfang Hu, Xiang Xiao, Jianzhong Huang
A novel esterase gene selected from metagenomic sequences of deep-sea hydrothermal vents was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (est-OKK), which belongs to the lipolytic enzyme family V, exhibited high activity toward pNP-esters with short acyl chains and especially p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Site-mutagenesis results confirmed that est-OKK contains the nonclassical catalytic tetrad predicted by alignment and computational modeling. The est-OKK protein is a moderately thermophilic enzyme that is relatively thermostable, and highly salt-tolerant, which remained stable in 3 mol/L NaCl for 6 hr...
March 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Flavio Guidi, Laura Pezzolesi, Silvana Vanucci
Algal-bacterial interactions play a major role in shaping diversity of algal associated bacterial communities. Temporal variation in bacterial phylogenetic composition reflects changes of these complex interactions which occur during the algal growth cycle as well as throughout the lifetime of algal blooms. Viruses are also known to cause shifts in bacterial community diversity which could affect algal bloom phases. This study investigated on changes of bacterial and viral abundances, bacterial physiological status, and on bacterial successional pattern associated with the harmful benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Kiriaki Karakasidou, Katerina Nikolouli, Grigoris D Amoutzias, Anastasia Pournou, Christos Manassis, George Tsiamis, Dimitris Mossialos
Paper documents in archives, libraries, and museums often undergo biodeterioration by microorganisms. Fungi and less often bacteria have been described to advance paper staining, so called "foxing" and degradation of paper substrates. In this study, for the first time, the fungal and bacterial diversity in biodeteriorated paper documents of Hellenic General State Archives dating back to the 19th and 20th century has been assessed by culture-dependent and independent methods. The internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 16S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR from fungal and bacterial isolates and amplicons were sequenced...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Antoni P A Hendrickx, Denise van de Kamer, Rob J L Willems
Hospitalized patients are often administered antibiotics that perturb the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota, leading to outgrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, like multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium, subsequent spread, and eventually infections. However, the events that occur at the initial stage of intestinal colonization and outgrowth by multidrug-resistant E. faecium within the antibiotic-treated host have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we describe and visualize that only 6 hr after cephalosporin treatment of mice, the Muc-2 mucus layer is reduced and E-cadherin junctions were altered...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Deisy Carolina Rodriguez, Marisol Ocampo, Luz Mary Salazar, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
Many studies about intracellular microorganisms which are important regarding diseases affecting public health have been focused on the recognition of host-pathogen interactions, thereby ascertaining the mechanisms by which the pathogen invades a cell and makes it become its host. Such knowledge enables understanding the immunological response triggered by these interactions for obtaining useful information for developing vaccines and drugs. Quantitative cell infection assay protocols are indispensable regarding studies involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which takes the lives of more than 2 million people worldwide every year; however, sometimes these are limited by the pathogen's slow growth...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Amir H Tehrani, Kimberley A Gilbride
The conventional biological treatment process can provide a favorable environment for the maintenance and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) they carry. This study investigated the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to determine the role they play in the dissemination of ARGs. Bacterial isolates resistant to tetracycline were collected, and tested against eight antibiotics to determine their resistance profiles and the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Wenjing Zhong, Guanghui Li, Xiaolu Yu, Min Zhu, Likun Gong, Yakun Wan
Bt Cry1B toxin, a residue in insect-resistant transgenic plants, has been identified to be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is urgent to detect the Cry1B toxin level in each kind of transgenic plant. Nbs, with prominently unique physiochemical properties, are becoming more and more promising tools in the detection of target antigens. In this study, an immune phage display library that was of high quality was successfully constructed for the screening of Cry1B-specific Nbs with excellent specificity, affinity, and thermostable...
February 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Caetanie F Tchagang, Renlin Xu, Cyr Lézin Doumbou, James T Tambong
Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of two new biological control strains (S1E40 and S3E12) of Pseudomonas was performed to assess their taxonomic position relative to close lineages, and comparative genomics employed to investigate whether these strains differ in key genetic features involved in hypersensitivity responses (HRs). Strain S3E12, at high concentration, incites HRs on tobacco and corn plantlets while S1E40 does not. Phylogenies based on individual genes and 16S rRNA-gyrB-rpoB-rpoD concatenated sequence data show strains S1E40 and S3E12 clustering in distinct groups...
February 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Dongxue Han, Ning Wang, Xue Sun, Yanbo Hu, Fujuan Feng
The broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China is an important component of boreal forest; the area is sensitive to global climate change. To understand spatial distribution patterns of soil bacterial community along elevation, we analyzed the soil bacterial community diversity and composition along an elevational gradient of 699-1177 m in a primitive Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain using the high-throughput sequencing. In total, 149,519 optimized sequences were obtained. Bacterial Shannon index increased along elevation from 699 m to 937 m and started to decrease at the elevation of 1,044 m, showing a humpback curve along elevation...
February 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Anna Nilsson, Astrid Skarp, Cecilia Johansson, René Kaden, Lars Engstrand, Hilpi Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important bacterial enteropathogens. Poultry is the best-known reservoir for Campylobacter infection but natural bodies of water have also been shown to be important pathways for transmission. Campylobacter can survive in cold water but most of the studies have focused on C. jejuni only. In this paper, we take a closer look at the biology and water survival strategies of C. coli. Eight C. coli isolates cultivated from raw (incoming) surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized using whole-genome sequencing and phenotypical assays...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Florian Götz, Krista Longnecker, Melissa C Kido Soule, Kevin W Becker, Jesse McNichol, Elizabeth B Kujawinski, Stefan M Sievert
Chemoautotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Sulfurimonas in the class Campylobacteria are widespread in many marine environments characterized by redox interfaces, yet little is known about their physiological adaptations to different environmental conditions. Here, we used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a targeted metabolomics approach to study the adaptations of Sulfurimonas denitrificans to varying salt concentrations that are found in its natural habitat of tidal mudflats...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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