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Christine N Shulse, Brianne Maillot, Craig R Smith, Matthew J Church
Concentrated seabed deposits of polymetallic nodules, which are rich in economically valuable metals (e.g., copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese), occur over vast areas of the abyssal Pacific Ocean floor. Little is currently known about the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting abyssal habitats. In this study, sediment, nodule, and water column samples were collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Eastern North Pacific. The diversities of prokaryote and microeukaryote communities associated with these habitats were examined...
November 21, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Christine L Miller, Tricia A Van Laar, Tsute Chen, S L Rajasekhar Karna, Ping Chen, Tao You, Kai P Leung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus mixed-species biofilm infections are more resilient to biocide attacks compared to their single-species counterparts. Therefore, this study used an in vitro model recapitulating bacterial burdens seen in in vivo infections to investigate the interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in biofilms. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was utilized to identify the entire genomic response, both open reading frames (ORFs) and small RNAs (sRNAs), of each species. Using competitive indexes, transposon mutants validated uncharacterized PA1595 of P...
November 21, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Carlos Campero-Basaldua, Héctor Quezada, Lina Riego-Ruíz, Dariel Márquez, Erendira Rojas, James González, Mohammed El-Hafidi, Alicia González
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScGDH1 and ScGDH3 encoded glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Previous kinetic characterization showed that these enzymes displayed different allosteric properties and respectively high or low rate of α-KG utilization. Accordingly, the coordinated action of ScGdh1 and ScGdh3, regulated balanced α-KG utilization for glutamate biosynthesis under either fermentative or respiratory conditions, safeguarding energy provision...
November 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Dongping Wang, Hakim Boukhalfa, Oana Marina, Doug S Ware, Tim J Goering, Fengjie Sun, Hajnalka E Daligault, Chien-Chi Lo, Momchilo Vuyisich, Shawn R Starkenburg
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high explosive released to the environment as a result of weapons manufacturing and testing worldwide. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Technical Area (TA) 16 260 Outfall discharged high-explosives-bearing water from a high-explosives-machining facility to Cañon de Valle during 1951 through 1996. These discharges served as a primary source of high-explosives and inorganic-element contamination in the area. Data indicate that springs, surface water, alluvial groundwater, and perched-intermediate groundwater contain explosive compounds, including RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine); HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine); and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)...
November 17, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Elke E E Noens, Juke S Lolkema
The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species revealed the presence of 124 arc gene clusters encoding the pathway. About half of the clusters contained the gene encoding the well-studied L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger ArcD, while the other half contained a gene, termed here arcE, encoding a membrane protein that is not a homolog of ArcD...
November 1, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Nhan Tu, Ronan K Carroll, Andy Weiss, Lindsey N Shaw, Gael Nicolas, Sarah Thomas, Amorce Lima, Udoka Okaro, Burt Anderson
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that causes infections in humans including endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been shown to grow as large aggregates and form biofilms in vitro. The aggregative growth and the angiogenic host response requires the trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA. We examined the transcriptome of the Houston-1 strain of B. henselae using RNA-seq revealing nine novel, highly-expressed intergenic transcripts (Bartonella regulatory transcript, Brt1-9)...
October 28, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Antonia Bruno, Anna Sandionigi, Andrea Galimberti, Eleonora Siani, Massimo Labra, Clementina Cocuzza, Emanuele Ferri, Maurizio Casiraghi
We propose an innovative, repeatable, and reliable experimental workflow to concentrate and detect environmental bacteria in drinking water using molecular techniques. We first concentrated bacteria in water samples using tangential flow filtration and then we evaluated two methods of environmental DNA extraction. We performed tests on both artificially contaminated water samples and real drinking water samples. The efficiency of the experimental workflow was measured through qPCR. The successful applicability of the high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) approach was demonstrated on drinking water samples...
October 27, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Diogo N Proença, Gregor Grass, Paula V Morais
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is one of the most destructive diseases in trees of the genus Pinus and is responsible for environmental and economic losses around the world. The only known causal agent of the disease is the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Despite that, bacteria belonging to several different genera have been found associated with PWN and their roles in the development of PWD have been suggested. Molecular methodologies and the new era of genomics have revealed different perspectives to the problem, recognizing the manifold interactions between different organisms involved in the disease...
October 26, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Gwynneth F Matcher, Samantha C Waterworth, Tara A Walmsley, Tendayi Matsatsa, Shirley Parker-Nance, Michael T Davies-Coleman, Rosemary A Dorrington
The Latrunculiidae are a family of cold water sponges known for their production of bioactive pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids. Previously it was shown that the bacterial community associated with a Tsitsikamma sponge species comprises unusual bacterial taxa and is dominated by a novel Betaproteobacterium. Here, we have characterized the bacterial communities associated with six latrunculid species representing three genera (Tsitsikamma, Cyclacanthia, and Latrunculia) as well as a Mycale species, collected from Algoa Bay on the South African southeast coast...
October 26, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Lena Hoffmann, Andreas Schummer, Julia Reimann, Maria F Haurat, Amanda J Wilson, Morgan Beeby, Bettina Warscheid, Sonja-V Albers
Expression of the archaellum, the archaeal-type IV pilus-like rotating motility structure is upregulated under nutrient limitation. This is controlled by a network of regulators, called the archaellum regulatory network (arn). Several of the components of this network in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius can be phosphorylated, and the deletion of the phosphatase PP2A results in strongly increased motility during starvation, indicating a role for phosphorylation in the regulation of motility. Analysis of the motility of different protein kinase deletion strains revealed that deletion of saci_0965, saci_1181, and saci_1193 resulted in reduced motility, whereas the deletion of saci_1694 resulted in hypermotility...
October 22, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Kyle A Tipton, Marjan Farokhyfar, Philip N Rather
Colony opacity phase variation in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075 is regulated by a reversible high-frequency switch. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutations that decreased the opaque to translucent switch and a gene encoding a predicted periplasmic membrane fusion component of a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux system was isolated. This gene was designated arpA and immediately downstream was a gene designated arpB that encodes a predicted membrane transporter of RND-type systems...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Siavash Isazadeh, Shameem Jauffur, Dominic Frigon
Effect of ecological variables on community assembly of heterotrophic bacteria at eight full-scale and two pilot-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (AS-WWTPs) were explored by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In total, 39 samples covering a range of abiotic factors spread over space and time were analyzed. A core bacterial community of 24 families detected in at least six of the eight AS-WWTPs was defined. In addition to the core families, plant-specific families (observed at <50% AS-WWTPs) were found to be also important in the community structure...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Adam P Rofe, Luther J Davis, Jean L Whittingham, Elizabeth C Latimer-Bowman, Anthony J Wilkinson, Paul R Pryor
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an important pulmonary pathogen in foals that often leads to the death of the horse. The bacterium harbors a virulence plasmid that encodes numerous virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) including VapA that is essential for intracellular survival inside macrophages. However, little is known about the precise function of VapA. Here, we demonstrate that VapA causes perturbation to late endocytic organelles with swollen endolysosome organelles having reduced Cathepsin B activity and an accumulation of LBPA, LC3 and Rab7...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Thomas V Vezeteu, Otilia Bobiş, Robin F A Moritz, Anja Buttstedt
Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases...
October 14, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Joelie V Zwick, Sarah Noble, Yasser K Ellaicy, Gabrielle Dierker Coe, Dylan J Hakey, Alyssa N King, Alex J Sadauskas, Melinda J Faulkner
Organisms growing aerobically generate reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. These reactive oxygen molecules damage enzymes and DNA, potentially causing cell death. In response, Bacillus subtilis produces at least nine potential peroxide-scavenging enzymes; two belong to the alkylhydroperoxide reductase (Ahp) class of peroxidases. Here, we explore the role of one of these Ahp homologs, AhpA. While previous studies demonstrated that AhpA can scavenge peroxides and thus defend cells against peroxides, they did not clarify when during growth the cell produces AhpA...
September 28, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Ken Meerbergen, Maarten Van Geel, Michael Waud, Kris A Willems, Raf Dewil, Jan Van Impe, Lise Appels, Bart Lievens
It is assumed that microbial communities involved in the biological treatment of different wastewaters having a different chemical composition harbor different microbial populations which are specifically adapted to the environmental stresses encountered in these systems. Yet, little is known about the composition of these microbial communities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the microbial community composition over two seasons (winter and summer) in activated sludge from well-operating textile wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in comparison with municipal WWTPs, and to explain observed differences by environmental variables...
September 25, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Chongsi Sun, Lili Geng, Meiling Wang, Gaoxiang Shao, Yongfeng Liu, Changlong Shu, Jie Zhang
Endophytic bacterial communities play a key role in promoting plant growth and combating plant diseases. However, little is known about their population dynamics in plant tissues and bulk soil, especially in transgenic crops. This study investigated the colonization of transgenic maize harboring the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ah gene by Bacillus subtilis strain B916-gfp present in plant tissues and soil. Bt and nontransgenic maize were inoculated with B916-gfp by seed soaking, or root irrigation under both laboratory greenhouse and field conditions...
September 25, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Yujie Xiao, Huizhong Liu, Hailing Nie, Shan Xie, Xuesong Luo, Wenli Chen, Qiaoyun Huang
Flagella-mediated motility is an important capability of many bacteria to survive in nutrient-depleted and harsh environments. Decreasing the intracellular cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) level by overexpression of phosphodiesterase BifA promotes flagellar-mediated motility and induces planktonic lifestyle in Pseudomonas. The mechanism that regulates expression of bifA gene was poorly studied. Here we showed that expression of BifA was partly controlled by flagellar sigma factor FliA (σ(28) ) in Pseudomonas putidaKT2440...
September 23, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Donatella Ottaviani, Francesco Mosca, Serena Chierichetti, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Francesca Leoni
The human food-borne pathogens Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus have been frequently isolated from the intestinal tracts and fecal samples of different farm animals and, after excretion, these microorganisms can contaminate the environment, including the aquatic one. In this regard, A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus have been detected in seawater and bivalves of coastal areas which are affected by fecal contamination. The capability of bivalve hemocytes to interact with bacteria has been proposed as the main factor inversely conditioning their persistence in the bivalve...
September 20, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Daniela Numberger, Daniel P R Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt, Heide Schulz-Vogt
The gut microbiota has many beneficial effects on host metabolism and health, and its composition is determined by numerous factors. It is also assumed that there was a co-evolution of mammals and the bacteria inhabiting their gut. Current knowledge of the mammalian gut microbiota mainly derives from studies on humans and terrestrial animals, whereas those on marine mammals are sparse. However, they could provide additional information on influencing factors, such as the role of diet and co-evolution with the host...
October 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
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