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Karsten Karczewski, Patricia Göbel, Elisabeth I Meyer
Modern agricultural practices have undeniably increased global food production. On the other hand, agricultural practices not only lead to a degradation of natural ecosystems but also affect the functioning of ecosystems and the related services they provide. Even though impacts of anthropogenic activities vary across ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems are among those affected to a higher degree. In comparison to surface water ecosystems, groundwater ecosystems are less affected by anthropogenic pollutants, as the overlaying soil retains organic and inorganic substances...
July 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Dana E Harmon, Osvaldo A Miranda, Ashley McCarley, Michelle Eshaghian, Natasha Carlson, Cristian Ruiz
Carbapenems are β-lactam antibiotics used in healthcare settings as last resort drugs to treat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria are increasingly being isolated from healthcare facilities; however, little is known about their distribution or prevalence in the environment, especially in the United States, where their distribution in water environments from the West Coast has not been studied before. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria and carbapenemase genes in water bodies from the Los Angeles area (California, USA)...
July 10, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yin Yin Lau, Kah Yan How, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
In gram-negative bacteria, bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved using common signaling molecules known as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL). We have previously reported the genome of AHL-producing bacterium, Enterobacter asburiae strain L1. In silico analysis of the strain L1 genome revealed the presence of a pair of luxI/R genes responsible for AHL-type QS, designated as easIR. In this work, the 639 bp luxI homolog, encoding 212 amino acids, have been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS...
July 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Feng Liao, Wenpeng Gu, Duo Li, Junrong Liang, Xiaoqing Fu, Wen Xu, Ran Duan, Xin Wang, Huaiqi Jing, Jiejie Dai
Larus ridibundus, a migratory wild bird, has become one of the most popular gull species in southwest China in recent years. There has been no information on the gut microbiota and intestinal pathogenic bacteria configuration in wild L. ridibundus, even though the public are in close contact with this bird. In this study, 16S rRNA amplicon-sequencing methods were used to describe the microbial community structure and intestinal pathogenic bacteria were isolated to identify their characteristics. The taxonomic results revealed that Firmicutes (86%), Proteobacteria (10%), and Tenericutes (3%) were the three most abundant phyla in the gut of L...
July 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Takashi Shimizu, Shiho Otonari, Jin Suzuki, Akihiko Uda, Kenta Watanabe, Masahisa Watarai
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of the infectious disease tularemia and is designated a category A bioterrorism agent. The type VI secretion system encoded by the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is necessary for intracellular growth; however, the functions of FPI proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the FPI protein intracellular growth locus E (IglE) showed a unique localization pattern compared to other FPI proteins. Deleting iglE from Francisella tularensis subsp...
July 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
John Osei Sekyere
Resistance to colistin, mediated by chromosomal mutations and more recently, by plasmid-borne mcr genes, is increasingly being reported in bacterial isolates taken from humans, animals, farms, foods, and the environment. To easily identify and contain this quickly spreading menace, efficient diagnostics that are cheaper, faster, simpler, sensitive, and specific have become indispensable and urgently necessary. A thorough and systematic review of the literature available at Pubmed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science was thus undertaken to identify articles describing novel and efficient colistin resistance- and mcr gene-detecting methods...
July 4, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Haonan Wu, Yutong Xing, Haijian Sun, Xiuguang Mao
The gut microbiota is now known as a key factor in mammalian physiology and health. Our understanding of the gut microbial communities and their effects on ecology and evolution of their hosts is extremely limited in bats which represent the second largest mammalian order. In the current study, gut microbiota of three sampling sources (small intestine, large intestine, and feces) were characterized in two sympatric and insectivorous bats (Rhinolophus sinicus and Myotis altarium) by high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
July 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Eunna Choi, Daesil Nam, Jeongjoon Choi, Shinae Park, Jung-Shin Lee, Eun-Jin Lee
Ribosome often stalls on mRNA sequences harboring consecutive proline codons. Elongation factor P (EF-P) is required for the stalled ribosome to continue translation and thus the absence of EF-P affects translation of the associated open reading frame. Here we report that EF-P controls translation of the mgtA gene encoding a Mg2+ -transporting ATPase from the intracellualr pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. EF-P's effect on mgtA translation is dependent on the 550th and 551st proline codons in the coding region and thus substitution of those proline codons eliminates EF-P-mediated control of MgtA protein without affecting the Mg2+ -transporting activity of the mgtA gene...
June 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Shaal Ramdial, Anil Madaree
Dehiscence or palatal fistula formation following palatoplasty is a complication that has grave consequences for the patient that include tissue loss, emotional distress to the parents and patient, and further medical costs. Palatal dehiscence or fistula formation is multifactorial following surgery-tension of wound closure, poor patient adherence to postoperative orders and wound infection are the most common causes for this. Oral colonization with pathogenic organisms could play a role in wound healing complications...
June 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Mónika Vörös, László Manczinger, László Kredics, András Szekeres, Kadaikunnan Shine, Naiyf S Alharbi, Jamal M Khaled, Csaba Vágvölgyi
Metal- and pesticide-tolerant biocontrol agents are preferred in integrated pest management, as such strains can be applied in combination with different pesticides. The Bacillus velezensis strain SZMC 6161J proved to be sensitive to copper, nickel, zinc, and cadmium, while manganese elevated its growth. At concentrations higher than 1 mmol L-1 , zinc and iron inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of this strain. In addition, trypsin-like protease and palmitoyl esterase activities were insensitive to all tested heavy metals in the applied concentration range...
June 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Caroline Michelle, Magali Richez, Jaishriram Rathored, Florence Bretelle, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Three previously unidentified Gram-positive anaerobic coccoid bacteria, strains KhD-2T , KHD4T , and Kh-D5T , isolated from a vaginal swab, were characterized using the taxonogenomics concept. The phylogenic analysis, phenotypic characteristics, and genotypic data presented in this report attest that these three bacteria are distinct from previously known bacterial species with standing in nomenclature and represent three new Peptoniphilus species. Strain KhD-2T is most closely related to Peptoniphilus sp. DNF00840 and Peptoniphilus harei (99...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Nitaya Indrawattana, Natapol Pumipuntu, Nawarat Suriyakhun, Arunee Jangsangthong, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Narisara Chantratita, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Shutipen Buranasinsup
Staphylococcus argenteus, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus or a member of the S. aureus complex, is closely related to S. aureus and is usually misidentified. In this study, the presence of S. argenteus in isolated S. aureus was investigated in 67 rabbits with abscess lesions during 2014-2016. Among 19 S. aureus complex isolates, three were confirmed to be S. argenteus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene amplification, and multilocus sequence type...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Edson R Rocha, Hector A Bergonia, Svetlana Gerdes, Charles Jeffrey Smith
The intestinal commensal and opportunistic anaerobic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis has an essential requirement for both heme and free iron to support growth in extraintestinal infections. In the absence of free iron, B. fragilis can utilize heme as the sole source of iron. However, the mechanisms to remove iron from heme are not completely understood. In this study, we show that the inner membrane ferrous iron transporter ∆feoAB mutant strain is no longer able to grow with heme as the sole source of iron...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Li-Juan Mao, Jia-Jie Chen, Chen-Yang Xia, Xiao-Xiao Feng, De-Dong Kong, Zhen-Yu Qi, Feng Liu, Dian Chen, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang
The endophytic fungi Muscodor spp. produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can inhibit and even kill pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Nine endophytic fungal strains, isolated from the shoots of gramineous plants including Arthraxon hispidus, Eleusine indica, Oplismenus undulatifolius, and Oryza granulata, were identified as Muscodor through phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Through an SPSS K-means cluster analysis, the nine Muscodor strains were divided into four groups based on the antifungal activities of the VOCs produced by these fungi determined by a two-section confrontation test...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Guangfeng Kan, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Jiang, Chengsheng Zhang, Minglei Chi, Yun Ju, Cuijuan Shi
Heavy metal pollution in Antarctic is serious by anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric transport. To dissect the heavy metal adaptation mechanisms of sea-ice organisms, a basidiomycetous yeast strain AN5 was isolated and its cellular changes were analyzed. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization indicated that this yeast strain belonged to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5. Heavy metal resistance pattern of Cd > Pb = Mn > Cu > Cr > Hg was observed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited altered cell surface morphology under the influence of copper metal compared to that with control...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Andrei V Gannesen, Valerie Borrel, Luc Lefeuvre, Alexander I Netrusov, Vladimir K Plakunov, Marc G J Feuilloley
Increasing popularity of preservative-free cosmetics necessitates in-depth research, specifically as bacteria can react to local factors by important metabolic changes. In this respect, investigating the effect of cosmetic preparations on pathogenic strains of commensal species such as acneic forms of Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes) and bacteria behaving both as commensals and opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus is of major interest. In this study, we studied the effect of commonly used cosmetics, Uriage™ thermal water (UTW) and a rhamnose-rich polysaccharide (PS291® ) on RT4 and RT5 acneic strains of C...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Christina D Moon, Wayne Young, Paul H Maclean, Adrian L Cookson, Emma N Bermingham
Interests in the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on health and wellbeing have extended from humans to that of companion animals. While relatively fewer studies to date have examined canine and feline gut microbiomes, analysis of the metagenomic DNA from fecal communities using next-generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the microbes that are present, their function, and potential to contribute to overall host nutrition and health. As carnivores, healthy dogs and cats possess fecal microbiomes that reflect the generally higher concentrations of protein and fat in their diets, relative to omnivores and herbivores...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Melhem Bilen, Maxime Descartes Mbogning Fonkou, Enora Tomei, Nicholas Armstrong, Fadi Bittar, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Ziad Daoud, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Frédéric Cadoret
Eggerthella timonensis strain Marseille-P3135 is a new bacterial species, isolated from the stool sample of a healthy 8-year-old pygmy female. This strain (LT598568) showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 96.95% with its phylogenetically closest species with standing in nomenclature Eggerthella lenta strain DSM 2243 (AF292375). This bacterium is a nonspore forming, Gram-positive, nonmotile rod with catalase but no oxidase activity. Its genome is 3,916,897 bp long with 65.17 mol% of G + C content. Of the 3,371 predicted genes, 57 were RNAs and 3,314 were protein-coding genes...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhiyun Chen, Rahul Raghavan, Fengxia Qi, Justin Merritt, Jens Kreth
RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease in Group A streptococcus (GAS) and other Gram-positive bacteria. Our previous study showed that RNase Y was involved in mRNA degradation and processing in GAS. We hypothesized that mRNA processing regulated the expression of important GAS virulence factors via altering their mRNA stabilities and that RNase Y mediated at least some of the mRNA-processing events. The aims of this study were to (1) identify mRNAs that were processed by RNase Y and (2) confirm the mRNA-processing events...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Melhem Bilen, Mamadou Beye, Maxime Descartes Mbogning Fonkou, Saber Khelaifia, Frédéric Cadoret, Nicholas Armstrong, Thi Tien Nguyen, Jérémy Delerce, Ziad Daoud, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Using culturomics, a recently developed strategy based on diversified culture conditions for the isolation of previously uncultured bacteria, we isolated strain Marseille-P3296T from a fecal sample of a healthy pygmy female. A multiphasic approach, taxono-genomics, was used to describe the major characteristics of this anaerobic and gram-positive bacillus that is unable to sporulate and is not motile. The genome of this bacterium is 1,878,572 bp-long with a 57.94 mol% G + C content. On the basis of these characteristics and after comparison with its closest phylogenetic neighbors, we are confident that strain Marseille-P3296T (=CCUG 70328 =  CSUR P3296) is the type strain of a novel species for which we propose the name Collinsella bouchesdurhonensis sp...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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