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Santosh Thapa, Yan Zhang, Michael S Allen
Ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged deer tick, is the principal vector of Lyme disease in North America. Environmental factors are known to influence regional and seasonal incidence of Lyme disease and possibly the endemicity of the disease to the northeastern and upper mid-western regions of the United States. With a goal to understand the impact of environmental temperature on microbial communities within the tick, we investigated the bacterial microbiome of colony-reared I. scapularis ticks statically incubated at different temperatures (4, 20, 30, and 37°C) at a constant humidity in a controlled laboratory setting by comparison of sequenced amplicons of the bacterial 16S V4 rRNA gene to that of the untreated baseline controls...
September 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Patrick Jung, Laura Briegel-Williams, Michael Schermer, Burkhard Büdel
Cyanobacteria of biological soil crusts (BSCs) represent an important part of circumpolar and Alpine ecosystems, serve as indicators for ecological condition and climate change, and function as ecosystem engineers by soil stabilization or carbon and nitrogen input. The characterization of cyanobacteria from both polar regions remains extremely important to understand geographic distribution patterns and community compositions. This study is the first of its kind revealing the efficiency of combining denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), light microscopy and culture-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing, applied to polar and Alpine cyanobacteria dominated BSCs...
September 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Buddhika Gayani, Ayomi Dilhari, Gayan Kanchana Wijesinghe, Sajeewani Kumarage, Gayani Abayaweera, Sameera R Samarakoon, Inoka C Perera, Nilwala Kottegoda, Manjula M Weerasekera
The study aimed to determine the antibacterial/antibiofilm effect and mechanism of interaction of curcuminoids-intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (curcuminoids-LDH) against three different bacteria. Antimicrobial effect of curcuminoids-LDH nanohybrid was investigated against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and E. faecalis (for both standard strains and clinical isolates), using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of planktonic bacteria were determined using the broth microdilution method...
September 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Pengfei She, Zhen Luo, Lihua Chen, Yong Wu
Microbial biofilms are formed in a variety of clinical situations and increase antibiotic resistance of the pathogen by almost ~1,000 times. The effect of levofloxacin (OFLX) on the biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 and the clinical isolates was investigated by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscope. The transcriptional alteration in the PAO1 biofilms upon OFLX treatment was also analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). We found that while OFLX significantly inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, it could not completely eradicate preformed biofilms even at higher concentrations...
September 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xinxi Gu, Jilu Sun, Yuqi Cui, Xianghong Wang, Yaxin Sang
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a potent mycotoxin which causes serious health concerns in developing countries, where it is mainly found in milk, meat, and other foods. Biological detoxification is a promising method for eliminating AFM1 . The aim of this work was to search for AFM1 -degrading bacterial strains from animal waste, soil, and activated sludge. High-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the AFM1 degradation products. A strain designated E-1-1-1 was obtained from African elephants feces, with the degradation ratio of AFM1 reaching 89...
August 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jeremiah J Minich, Qiyun Zhu, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Amnon Amir, Maxon Ngochera, Moses Simwaka, Eric E Allen, Hastings Zidana, Rob Knight
The majority of seafood is farmed, with most finfish coming from freshwater ponds. Ponds are often fertilized to promote microbial productivity as a natural feed source to fish. To understand if pond fertilization with livestock manure induces a probiotic or prebiotic effect, we communally reared tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus), and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), for 4 weeks under seven manure treatments including layer chicken, broiler chicken, guinea fowl, quail, pig, cow, vs. commercial feed to evaluate microbial community dynamics of the manure, pond water, and fish feces using 16S and 18S rRNA marker genes along with metagenome sequencing...
August 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Gabriela Magossi, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Steve Dritz, Terry Houser, Jason Woodworth, Cassandra Jones, Valentina Trinetta
Salmonella is a pathogen of public health concern. Each year, Salmonella infections cost to the food industry approximately $2.3 billion and 33% of the reported cases are associated with beef, poultry, or pork. Pathogen presence in feed mills can represent one of the many potential routes for entry and transmission into the food production chain. Nevertheless, little is known about Salmonella incidence and association with these types of environments. The objective of this study was to investigate Salmonella presence in different feed mills across the United States...
August 29, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Thomas Dzeha, Constance Nyiro, Dimitris Kardasopoulos, David Mburu, Joseph Mwafaida, Michael J Hall, J Grant Burgess
UV resistance of bacteria isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens has not been observed previously, findings which highlight how unsafe germicidal UV irradiation for sterilization of air, food, and water could be. Further, UV resistance of Bacillus licheniformis is being observed for the first time. This study focused on bacteria isolated from the marine cyanobacterium M. producens collected off the Kenyan coast at Shimoni, Wasini, Kilifi, and Mida. UV irradiance of isolates (302 nm, 70 W/m2 , 0-1 hr) established B...
August 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Mónica Garcés-Ruiz, Carolina Senés-Guerrero, Stéphane Declerck, Sylvie Cranenbrouck
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are worldwide distributed plant symbionts. However, their occurrence in hydrocarbon-polluted environments is less investigated, although specific communities may be present with possible interest for remediation strategies. Here, we investigated the AMF community composition associated with the roots of diverse plant species naturally recolonizing a weathered crude oil pond in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Next generation 454 GS-Junior sequencing of an 800 bp LSU rRNA gene PCR amplicon was used...
August 16, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Dongsheng Che, Seidu Adams, Cai Wei, Qin Gui-Xin, Emmanuel M Atiba, Jiang Hailong
Astragalus membranaceus is an herbaceous perennial plant, growing to about 2 feet tall, with sprawling stems and alternate leaves about 12-24 leaflets. In total, 24 cross bred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 4 weeks with an average body weight of 10.84 ± 1.86 kg, were divided into four groups and randomly assigned to dietary treatments containing different AMSLF levels (0.00%, 2.50%, 5.00%, and 7.50%). The piglets in the control group (0.00% AMSLF) were fed basal diet and other treatment groups were fed basal diet in addition to 2...
August 16, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hyun-Ja Han, Min-Jung Kwak, Sung-Min Ha, Seung-Jo Yang, Jin Do Kim, Kyoung-Hee Cho, Tae-Wook Kim, Mi Young Cho, Byung-Yong Kim, Sung-Hee Jung, Jongsik Chun
Members of the genus Nocardia are widespread in diverse environments; a wide range of Nocardia species are known to cause nocardiosis in several animals, including cat, dog, fish, and humans. Of the pathogenic Nocardia species, N. seriolae is known to cause disease in cultured fish, resulting in major economic loss. We isolated two N. seriolae strains, CK-14008 and EM15050, from diseased fish and sequenced their genomes using the PacBio sequencing platform. To identify their genomic features, we compared their genomes with those of other Nocardia species...
August 16, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Lucia M C Werneck, Marcia Leite Baptista, Marize P Miagostovich, Edson Elias da Silva
This study aimed to survey the environmental dissemination of enterovirus (EV) in a site of organic lettuce situated in the mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For this purpose, a total of 96 environmental samples, including water and lettuce samples obtained in different stages of the production chain (e.g., irrigation water, seedlings, lettuces grown, and washed lettuces ready-to-eat), were analyzed. EV genomes were detected in 12.5% (12/96) of the tested samples (eight from irrigation water and 4 from lettuce samples)...
August 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Dewang Kong, Keqiang Zhang, Junfeng Liang, Wenxuan Gao, Lianzhu Du
Three anaerobic reactors using pig manure (PM), maize straw (MS), and a mixture of the two as substrates were compared for archaeal community structure and diversity, and for methanogens response to increased organic loading rate (OLR, expressed in the mass of volatile solid (VS)). Methanogenic archaeal richness during codigestion of pig manure with maize straw (ACE: 2412) was greater than that during the others (ACE: 1225, 1467) at an OLR of 4 g L-1  day-1 , accompanied by high specific methane yield. Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota predominated during overall digestion of different substrates; with relative abundances of 63...
August 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Katarzyna Szatraj, Katarzyna Kosiorek
Bacteria can utilize diverse sugars as carbon and energy source, but the regulatory mechanisms directing the choice of the preferred substrate are often poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the role of the YugA protein (now designated GlaR-Galactose-lactose operon Regulatory protein) of the RpiR family as a transcriptional activator of galactose (gal genes) and lactose (lac genes) utilization genes in Lactococcus lactis IL1403. In this bacterium, gal genes forming the Leloir operon are combined with lac genes in a single so-called gal-lac operon...
August 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hengzhong Lun, Weihua Yang, Shuping Zhao, Meijie Jiang, Mingjie Xu, Fenfen Liu, Yunshan Wang
The present study aimed to determine the differences in gut microbiota between patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy controls (HC) and search for better microbial biomarkers associated with CKD. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota between the CKD and HC groups. The study found that 12 phylotypes were overrepresented in the CKD group and 19 in the HC group at the genus level. Furthermore, genera Lachnospira and Ruminococcus_gnavus performed the best in differentiating between HC and CKD populations...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhenyu Wu, Hailiang Zhou, Fuchang Li, Nanbin Zhang, Yanli Zhu
This study investigated the influence of dietary fiber levels on the growth performance, digestion, metabolism, and cecal microbial community of rabbits with different diets at different age. The different levels of dietary natural detergent fiber (NDF) were formulated accordingly: 400(A), 350(B), 300(C), 250(D) g/kg original matter basis, respectively; the different ages were 52, 62, and 72 days. With NDF increasing, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion rate (FCR) were increased, whereas average daily gain (ADG) and mortality were decreased (p < 0...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Malgorzata M Kopacz, André S G Lorenzoni, Carlos R Polaquini, Luis O Regasini, Dirk-Jan Scheffers
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causative agent of citrus canker, a plant disease that significantly impacts citriculture. In earlier work, we showed that alkylated derivatives of gallic acid have antibacterial action against Xac and target both the cell division protein FtsZ and membrane integrity in Bacillus subtilis. Here, we have purified native XacFtsZ and characterized its GTP hydrolysis and polymerization properties. In a surprising manner, inhibition of XacFtsZ activity by alkyl gallates is not as strong as observed earlier with B...
August 7, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
María A Rendón, Beatriz Lona, Mancheong Ma, Magdalene So
Over 20 genes are involved in the biogenesis and function of the Neisseria Type IV pilus (Tfp). In the pathogenic species, RpoD and the integration host factor (IHF) protein regulate expression of pilE, encoding the Tfp structural subunit. We previously reported that in commensal species, pilE transcription is regulated by RpoN, IHF, and activator Npa. Npa has many hallmarks of response regulators in two-component regulatory systems, leading us to search for its response regulator partner. We report that Npa partners with sensor kinase Nps to control pilE transcription...
August 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ayman Elbehiry, Musaad Al-Dubaib, Eman Marzouk, Ihab Moussa
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the prevalent mastitis-inducing pathogens worldwide. The resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics is a common issue for dairy farms. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We therefore aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of silver and gold NPs (AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively) and the resistance developed by S. aureus as well as the toxic effects of both NPs in rats. We used 198 S. aureus strains to determine the antibacterial effects of AgNPs and AuNPs...
August 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Sukhpreet Kaur, Hd Kurtz Jr
Cryptoendolithic bacterial communities in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstones play an important ecological role in this ecosystem. Developing a better understanding of the role of these cryptoendolithic communities required a deeper knowledge of the microbial diversity present. We analyzed the bacterial diversity in eight sandstones samples from several microgeological features associated with a large sandstone dome. Cryptoendolithic bacterial diversity is clustered into three distinct groups which correlated with topography, suggesting the duration of water retention might be a factor...
August 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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