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MicrobiologyOpen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334190/the-effects-of-low-levels-of-trivalent-ions-on-a-standard-strain-of-escherichia-coli-atcc-11775-in-aqueous-solutions
#1
Can Deng, Xinpeng Li, Xinkai Xue, Richard M Pashley
Considering the ever-growing usage of trivalent salts in water treatment, for example, lanthanum salts in rare earth, AlCl3 and FeCl3 , the effects of different trivalent cations on the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 11775 strain have been studied in aqueous solutions. From colony incubation studies, the colony-forming unit (CFU) densities were found to decrease significantly in the presence of even low levels (10-5  mol/L) of lanthanum chloride. This level of reduction in CFU number is comparable to the results obtained using the known bacteriocidal cationic surfactant, C14 TAB...
January 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314743/sensor-kinase-kinb-and-its-pathway-associated-key-factors-sense-the-signal-of-nutrition-starvation-in-sporulation-of-bacillus%C3%A2-subtilis
#2
Weipeng Liu, Zeying He, Feng Gao, Jinyuan Yan, Xiaowei Huang
Bacillus subtilis responds to environmental stress cues and develops endospores for survival. In the process of endospore formation, sporulation initiation is a vital stage and this stage is governed by autophosphorylation of the sensor histidine kinases. The second major sensor kinase KinB perceives the intracellular changes of GTP and ATP during sporulation. However, determination of the environmental signals as well as its related signaling pathway of KinB requires further elucidation. Our current study found that, contrary to the sporulation failure induced by ΔkinA in the nutrient-rich 2× SG medium, the sensor kinase KinB sensed the environmental cues in the nutrient-poor MM medium...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314727/molecular-processes-underlying-synergistic-linuron-mineralization-in-a-triple-species-bacterial-consortium-biofilm-revealed-by-differential-transcriptomics
#3
Pieter Albers, Bram Weytjens, René De Mot, Kathleen Marchal, Dirk Springael
The proteobacteria Variovorax sp. WDL1, Comamonas testosteroni WDL7, and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans WDL6 compose a triple-species consortium that synergistically degrades and grows on the phenylurea herbicide linuron. To acquire a better insight into the interactions between the consortium members and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we compared the transcriptomes of the key biodegrading strains WDL7 and WDL1 grown as biofilms in either isolation or consortium conditions by differential RNAseq analysis...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314726/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-vibrio-aestuarianus-w-40-reveals-virulence-factor-genes
#4
Xiaojin Xu, Lixing Huang, Yongquan Su, Qingpi Yan
Vibrio aestuarianus is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that has been associated with epidemics in cultured shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Hepatopancreas microsporidian (HPM) and monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) have been reported in cultured P. vannamei. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40, a strain that was originally isolated from the intestines of an infected P. vannamei. The genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40 contains two circular chromosomes of 483,7307 bp with a 46...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285891/high-throughput-analysis-of-anammox-bacteria-in-wetland-and-dryland-soils-along-the-altitudinal-gradient-in-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#5
Siyan Zhao, Linjie Zhuang, Cheng Wang, Yifei Li, Shanyun Wang, Guibing Zhu
This study investigated the diversity, community composition, and abundance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria along the altitudinal gradient in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Two types of soil samples (wetland and dryland soils, n = 123) were collected from 641 m to 5,033 m altitudes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening showed that anammox were not widespread, and were only detected in 9 sampling sites of the 50 sites tested by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes. Then, only samples collected from Linzhi (2,715 m), Rikaze (4,030 m), and Naqu (5,011 m), which were positive for the presence of anammox, were further processed to explore the biogeography of anammox bacteria in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau...
December 29, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282889/comparison-of-reverse-hybridization-and-ompa-sequencing-methods-applied-on-chlamydia-trachomatis-strains-from-tunisia
#6
Houda Gharsallah, Olfa Frikha-Gargouri, Reinier J Bom, Adnene Hammami, Sylvia M Bruisten
Two techniques based on ompA amplification of Chlamydia trachomatis were compared, being reverse hybridization (RHM) and ompA sequencing (OSA), to investigate the concordance between them and to study the epidemiological relevance of each method. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was performed on the ompA sequences. One hundred and seven C. trachomatis positive samples from Tunisian patients and female sex workers were analyzed using both the RHM and ompA sequencing. The overall genovar distribution obtained with both techniques was very similar...
December 28, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280343/the-ropae-gene-encodes-a-porin-like-protein-involved-in-copper-transit-in-rhizobium-etli-cfn42
#7
Antonio González-Sánchez, Ciro A Cubillas, Fabiola Miranda, Araceli Dávalos, Alejandro García-de Los Santos
Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for all aerobic forms of life. Its oxidation states (Cu+ /Cu2+ ) make this metal an important cofactor of enzymes catalyzing redox reactions in essential biological processes. In gram-negative bacteria, Cu uptake is an unexplored component of a finely regulated trafficking network, mediated by protein-protein interactions that deliver Cu to target proteins and efflux surplus metal to avoid toxicity. Rhizobium etliCFN42 is a facultative symbiotic diazotroph that must ensure its appropriate Cu supply for living either free in the soil or as an intracellular symbiont of leguminous plants...
December 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280327/effect-of-hay-supplementation-timing-on-rumen-microbiota-in-suckling-calves
#8
Xueyan Lin, Jian Wang, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhiyong Hu, Kerong Shi, Zhengui Yan, Zhonghua Wang
An animal feeding trial was conducted on 18 seven-day-old Holstein dairy bull calves weighing 42 ± 3 kg each. Calves were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6 each). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) milk and starter for the control group (MS), (2) supplementation of oat hay from week 2 on the basis of milk and starter (MSO2), and (3) supplementation of oat hay from week 6 on the basis of milk and starter (MSO6). All animals were fed starter and oat hay ad libitum. The major phyla in the different groups of rumen fluid included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota...
December 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277980/investigating-cross-contamination-by-yeast-strains-from-dental-solid-waste-to-waste-handling-workers-by-dna-sequencing
#9
Cristina Dutra Vieira, Thaysa Leite Tagliaferri, Maria Auxiliadora Roque de Carvalho, Maria Aparecida de Resende-Stoianoff, Rodrigo Assuncao Holanda, Thais Furtado Ferreira de Magalhães, Paula Prazeres Magalhães, Simone Gonçalves Dos Santos, Luiz de Macêdo Farias
Trying to widen the discussion on the risks associated with dental waste, this study proposed to investigate and genetically compare yeast isolates recovered from dental solid waste and waste workers. Three samples were collected from workers' hands, nasal mucosa, and professional clothing (days 0, 30, and 180), and two from dental waste (days 0 and 180). Slide culture, microscopy, antifungal drug susceptibility, intersimple sequence repeat analysis, and amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions were performed...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277965/novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-sepl-mediated-control-of-effector-secretion-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Meztlli O Gaytán, Julia Monjarás Feria, Eduardo Soto, Norma Espinosa, Julia M Benítez, Dimitris Georgellis, Bertha González-Pedrajo
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) are virulence determinants employed by several pathogenic bacteria as molecular syringes to inject effector proteins into host cells. Diarrhea-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract. T3S is a highly coordinated process that ensures hierarchical delivery of three classes of substrates: early (inner rod and needle subunits), middle (translocators), and late (effectors). Translocation of effectors is triggered upon host-cell contact in response to different environmental cues, such as calcium levels...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277964/potential-characterization-of-yeasts-isolated-from-kazak-artisanal-cheese-to-produce-flavoring-compounds
#11
Xiaoji Zheng, Kaixiong Li, Xuewei Shi, Yongqing Ni, Baokun Li, Bin Zhuge
Cheese is a typical handcrafted fermented food in Kazak minority from the Uighur Autonomy Region in China and Central Asia. Among the microbial community that is responsible for Kazak cheese fermentation, yeasts play important role in flavor formation during ripening. To develop ripening cultures, we isolated 123 yeasts from 25 cheese products in Kazak, and identified 87 isolates by the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene sequence. Pichia kudriavzevii was the dominant yeast in Kazak cheese, followed by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Kluyveromyces lactis...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250936/expression-of-the-arsenite-oxidation-regulatory-operon-in-rhizobium-sp-str-nt-26-is-under-the-control-of-two-promoters-that-respond-to-different-environmental-cues
#12
Paula M Corsini, Kenneth T Walker, Joanne M Santini
Rhizobium sp. str. NT-26 is a Gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizer that has been used as a model organism to study various aspects of arsenite oxidation including the regulation of arsenite oxidation. The three regulatory genes, aioX, aioS, and aioR, are cotranscribed when NT-26 was grown in the presence or absence of arsenite. The aioXSR operon is upregulated in stationary phase but not by the presence of arsenite in the growth medium. The two transcription start sites upstream of aioX were determined which led to the identification of two promoters, the housekeeping promoter RpoD and the growth-phase-dependent promoter RpoE2...
December 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250931/cis-acting-dna-elements-flanking-the-variable-major-protein-expression-site-of-borrelia-hermsii-are-required-for-murine-persistence
#13
Allison E James, Artem S Rogovskyy, Michael A Crowley, Troy Bankhead
In Borrelia hermsii, antigenic variation occurs as a result of a nonreciprocal gene conversion event that places one of ~60 silent variable major protein genes downstream of a single, transcriptionally active promoter. The upstream homology sequence (UHS) and downstream homology sequence (DHS) are two putative cis-acting DNA elements that have been predicted to serve as crossover points for homologous recombination. In this report, a targeted deletion/in cis complementation technique was used to directly evaluate the role for these elements in antigenic switching...
December 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243409/thermophilic-bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-microbial-mats-of-indifferent-and-chalybeate-iron-rich-thermal-springs-diversity-and-biotechnological-analysis
#14
Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Memory Tekere
Microbial mats are occasionally reported in thermal springs and information on such mats is very scarce. In this study, microbial mats were collected from two hot springs (Brandvlei (BV) and Calitzdorp (CA)), South Africa and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and targeted 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Spring water temperature was 55°C for Brandvlei and 58°C for Calitzdorp while the pH of both springs was slightly acidic, with an almost identical pH range (6...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243387/investigation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-magnesium-transporters-reveals-important-role-of-vacuolar-magnesium-transporter-in-regulating-fungal-virulence-factors
#15
Chen-Hao Suo, Lan-Jing Ma, Hai-Long Li, Jian-Fang Sun, Chao Li, Ming-Hui Lin, Tian-Shu Sun, Wei Du, Yan-Jian Li, Xin-Di Gao, Yang Meng, Si-Xiang Sai, Chen Ding
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that metals are critical factors for the regulation of fungal virulence in hosts. In this study, we systemically investigated the function of C. neoformans magnesium transporters in controlling the intracellular Mg balance and virulence-associated factors. We identified three Mg transporters in C. neoformans: Mgt1, Mgt2, and Mgt3. While we could not detect a Mg2+ -related growth phenotype in mgt1 and mgt3 knockout strains, a GAL7p-Mgt2 strain showed significant Mg-dependent growth defects in the presence of glucose...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230970/the-dnabii-family-of-proteins-is-comprised-of-the-only-nucleoid-associated-proteins-required-for-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-structure
#16
Aishwarya Devaraj, John Buzzo, Christopher J Rocco, Lauren O Bakaletz, Steven D Goodman
Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone-like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI-induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biofilms from the middle ear...
December 12, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230966/transcriptome-analysis-and-anaerobic-c4-dicarboxylate-transport-in-actinobacillus-succinogenes
#17
Mi Na Rhie, Byeonghyeok Park, Hyeok-Jin Ko, In-Geol Choi, Ok Bin Kim
A global transcriptome analysis of the natural succinate producer Actinobacillus succinogenes revealed that 353 genes were differentially expressed when grown on various carbon and energy sources, which were categorized into six functional groups. We then analyzed the expression pattern of 37 potential C4 -dicarboxylate transporters in detail. A total of six transporters were considered potential fumarate transporters: three transporters, Asuc_1999 (Dcu), Asuc_0304 (DASS), and Asuc_0270-0273 (TRAP), were constitutively expressed, whereas three others, Asuc_1568 (DASS), Asuc_1482 (DASS), and Asuc_0142 (Dcu), were differentially expressed during growth on fumarate...
December 12, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205951/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-involved-in-spore-germination-of-penicillium-expansum-by-comparative-transcriptome-and-proteome-approaches
#18
Ting Zhou, Xiaohong Wang, Jin Luo, Bishun Ye, Yingying Zhou, Liwan Zhou, Tongfei Lai
In this study, Penicillium expansum, a common destructive phytopathogen and patulin producer was isolated from naturally infected apple fruits and identified by morphological observation and rDNA-internal transcribed spacer analysis. Subsequently, a global view of the transcriptome and proteome alteration of P. expansum spores during germination was evaluated by RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) and iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) approaches. A total of 3,026 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 77 differentially expressed predicted transcription factors and 489 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified...
December 5, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195013/effect-of-bacterial-growth-rate-on-bacteriophage-population-growth-rate
#19
Dominik Nabergoj, Petra Modic, Aleš Podgornik
It is important to understand how physiological state of the host influence propagation of bacteriophages (phages), due to the potential higher phage production needs in the future. In our study, we tried to elucidate the effect of bacterial growth rate on adsorption constant (δ), latent period (L), burst size (b), and bacteriophage population growth rate (λ). As a model system, a well-studied phage T4 and Escherichia coli K-12 as a host was used. Bacteria were grown in a continuous culture operating at dilution rates in the range between 0...
December 1, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194994/the-inner-rod-component-of-shigella-flexneri-type-3-secretion-system-mxii-is-involved-in-the-transmission-of-the-secretion-activation-signal-by-its-interaction-with-mxic
#20
Nargisse El Hajjami, Simon Moussa, Jonathan Houssa, Daniel Monteyne, David Perez-Morga, Anne Botteaux
The virulence of Shigella mainly resides in the use of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) to inject several proteins inside the host cell. Three categories of proteins are hierarchically secreted: (1) the needle components (MxiH and MxiI), (2) the translocator proteins which form a pore (translocon) inside the host cell membrane, and (3) the effectors interfering with the host cell signaling pathways. In the absence of host cell contact, the T3SS is maintained in an "off" state by the presence of a tip complex...
December 1, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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