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Richard J Randle-Boggis, Peter D Ashton, Thorunn Helgason
The impacts of increased flooding frequency on soil microbial communities and potential functions, in line with predicted environmental changes, were investigated in a laboratory-controlled environment. More frequent flooding events altered microbial community composition and significantly increased the resolved species alpha-diversity (Shannon index). The Bacteria:Archaea ratio was greater at the end of the experiment than at the start, more-so after only one flood. Significant changes in taxa and functional gene abundances were identified and quantified...
November 7, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
El Hadji Seck, Mamadou Beye, Sory Ibrahima Traore, Saber Khelaifia, Caroline Michelle, Carine Couderc, Souleymane Brah, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Strain SIT6(T) was isolated from the fecal flora of a severely malnourished child as part of a broad "culturomics" study aiming to maximize the culture conditions for the in-depth exploration of the human microbiota. An analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain SIT6(T) shared 94.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans DKP(T) (NR_029151), the phylogenetically closest type species. Colonies are creamy white, circular, 4-5 mm in diameter after cultivation at 37°C for 24 hr on 5% sheep blood-enriched Colombia agar...
October 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Simeng Zhou, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Sacha Grisel, Jean-Claude Sigoillot, Michelle Sergent, Sana Raouche
The purpose of this work was to optimize the pretreatment process of wheat straw by Polyporus brumalis_BRFM985 in order to improve carbohydrate accessibility for more efficient bioconversion. Indeed, there is growing demands to develop sustainable routes for lignocellulosic feedstocks valorization into value-added products in energy, chemicals, materials, and animal feed fields. To be achieved, implementation of cheap and ecofriendly biomass pretreatment processes is necessary. In this frame, white rot basidiomycetes, well known for their ability to degrade lignin efficiently and selectively, are of great interest...
October 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Lina Guo, Lixing Huang, Yongquan Su, Yingxue Qin, Lingmin Zhao, Qingpi Yan
Vibrio alginolyticus caused great losses to aquaculture. Adhesion is an important virulence factor of V. alginolyticus. In this study, the relationship between V. alginolyticus adhesion and type II secretion system genes (secA, secD, secF, yajC, and yidC) was determined using gene silencing, qRT-PCR and in vitro adhesion assay. The results showed that the expression of target genes and the bacterial adhesion exhibited significant decreases after transient gene silencing and stable gene silencing, which indicated that secA, secD, secF, yajC, and yidC played roles in the bacterial adhesion of V...
October 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Hanna Fasca, Livia V A de Castilho, João Fabrício M de Castilho, Ilson P Pasqualino, Vanessa M Alvarez, Diogo de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Lucy Seldin
The effect of pressure and temperature on microbial communities of marine environments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is understudied. This study aims to reveal the responses of marine bacterial communities to low temperature, high pressure, and contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons using seawater samples collected near an offshore Brazilian platform. Microcosms containing only seawater and those containing seawater contaminated with 1% crude oil were subjected to three different treatments of temperature and pressure as follows: (1) 22°C/0...
October 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Giorgia Sinibaldi, Valerio Iebba, Mauro Chinappi
The dynamics of swimming microorganisms is strongly affected by solid-liquid and air-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we characterize the motion of both single bacteria and microcolonies at an air-liquid interface. Both of them follow circular trajectories. Single bacteria preferentially show a counter-clockwise motion, in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical findings. Instead, no preferential rotation direction is observed for microcolonies suggesting that their motion is due to a different physical mechanism...
October 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Chaille T Webb, Dilini Chandrapala, Siti Nurbaya Oslan, Rebecca S Bamert, Rhys D Grinter, Rhys A Dunstan, Rebecca J Gorrell, Jiangning Song, Richard A Strugnell, Trevor Lithgow, Terry Kwok
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that chronically inhabits the human stomach. To survive and maintain advantage, it has evolved unique host-pathogen interactions mediated by Helicobacter-specific proteins in the bacterial outer membrane. These outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are anchored to the cell surface via a C-terminal β-barrel domain, which requires their assembly by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). Here we have assessed the complexity of the OMP C-terminal β-barrel domains employed by H...
October 21, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Showkat A Lone, Abdul Malik, Jasdeep C Padaria
In this study, we present the selection and the characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains with respect to their cry/cyt gene content and toxicity evaluation toward one of the most important polyphagous lepidopteran pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Fifty-six Bt isolates were obtained from 10 different regions of northwestern Himalayas, recording a total B. thuringiensis index of 0.62. Scanning electron microscopy revealed presence of bipyramidal, spherical, flat and irregular crystal shapes; SDS-PAGE analysis of spore-crystal mixtures showed the prominence of 130, 70, and 100 kDa protein bands in majority of the isolates; PCR analysis with primers for eight cry and cyt gene families and 13 cry gene subfamilies resulted in isolates showing different combinations of insecticidal genes...
October 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Donato Antonio Raele, Domenico Galante, Nicola Pugliese, Giovanna La Salandra, Maria Assunta Cafiero
Ixodidae ticks are vectors and reservoirs of several species of rickettsiae, and tick-borne rickettsioses are reported worldwide. This study was aimed to verify the distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ticks in a wild environment, the National Park of Gargano, where there is proximity between wild and domestic animals, and which is within an endemic area for rickettsiosis. Ticks were collected from animals or vegetation, morphologically identified and tested by a PCR targeting the 17kDa gene, and by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting ompB gene...
October 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Emanuel Y C Ron, Merichel Plaza, Thordis Kristjansdottir, Roya R R Sardari, Snaedis H Bjornsdottir, Steinn Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson, Charlotta Turner, Ed W J van Niel, Eva Nordberg-Karlsson
Rhodothermus marinus, a marine aerobic thermophile, was first isolated from an intertidal hot spring in Iceland. In recent years, the R. marinus strain PRI 493 has been genetically modified, which opens up possibilities for targeted metabolic engineering of the species, such as of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the carotenoids of the R. marinus type-strain DSM 4252(T) , strain DSM 4253, and strain PRI 493 were characterized. Bioreactor cultivations were used for pressurized liquid extraction and analyzed by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography with diode array and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (UHPSFC-DAD-QTOF/MS)...
October 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Zhichang Qiu, Xiaoming Lu, Ningyang Li, Mingjie Zhang, Xuguang Qiao
The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify garlic endophytes, and explore the characteristics of dominant strains. Garlic endophytes were studied through phenotypical characterization and comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA based on culture-dependent approaches. Representative strains inferred from 16S rDNA sequencing were selected for further identification by gyrA and rpoB gene loci and phylogenetic analysis based on concateneted house-keeping sequences. Seven kinds of Bacillus were found from garlic and black garlic, respectively...
October 9, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zanming Shen
We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the posteffects of antibiotic treatment on the structure and metabolism of rumen microbiota. Twelve goats were randomly assigned into two groups, with one group receiving intramuscular streptomycin injection at 40 mg/kg bodyweight daily for 10 days. At 4 weeks after treatment with antibiotic, three goats were randomly selected from each group and switched to a 35% concentrate diet. The remaining six goats continued with the 10% concentrate diet. At 4 weeks after dietary shift, ruminal fluid and epithelium were collected to analyze the microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations of the rumen...
October 5, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Pia I Scherer, Carolin Absmeier, Maria Urban, Uta Raeder, Juergen Geist, Katrin Zwirglmaier
Toxic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa are a worldwide concern in freshwater reservoirs. Problems associated with their mass occurrence are predicted to increase in the future due to global warming. The hepatotoxic secondary metabolite microcystin is of particular concern in this context. This study aimed to determine whether co-occurring microorganisms influence the expression of microcystin biosynthesis genes. To this end, we performed cocultivation experiments and measured mcyB and mcyD transcripts in M...
September 25, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Ana L Diéguez, Phillip Pichon, Sabela Balboa, Thorolf Magnesen, Jesús L Romalde
Five strains were isolated from gonad of Great scallop (Pecten maximus) broodstock in a Norwegian hatchery. The study of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates belong to Neptunomonas phycophila, a bacterium originally isolated from a symbiont of the anemone Aiptasia tagetes from Puerto Rico. The gyrB and rpoB genes sequences confirmed the affiliation of the scallop isolates to this species. Phenotypic characterization was performed and some differences between the Norwegian isolates and the type strain of N...
September 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Benjamin L Golomb, Annabelle O Yu, Laurynne C Coates, Maria L Marco
Strains of Lactococcus lactis isolated from plant tissues possess adaptations that support their survival and growth in plant-associated microbial habitats. We previously demonstrated that genes coding for a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase (NRPS/PKS) system involved in production of an uncharacterized secondary metabolite are specifically induced in L. lactis KF147 during growth on plant tissues. Notably, this NRPS/PKS has only been identified in plant-isolated strains of L. lactis...
September 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Nimerta Kumari, Friedrich Götz, Minh-Thu Nguyen
In gram-negative bacteria, the ABC transporter LolCDE complex translocates outer membrane-specific lipoproteins (Lpp) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Lpp possessing aspartate (Asp) at position +2 are not translocated because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal. In gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and the Lol system, Lpp are only anchored at the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the release of Lpp particularly in pathogenic or commensal species is crucial for immune modulation...
September 13, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Karel A van Laarhoven, Loes H M Peeters, Mirjam Bekker, Hendrik P Huinink, Olaf C G Adan
To address the problem of indoor fungal growth, understanding the influence of moisture conditions on the fungal colonization process is crucial. This paper explores the influence of past moisture conditions on current processes. Specifically, it studies the growth and water sorption of conidia of Penicillium rubens formed at lower water activities (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99). For the first time, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is applied as a tool to quantify the water sorption of conidia as a function of the water activity at conidiation...
September 4, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Yajun Zhou, Tao Jiang, Shaohua Hu, Mingxi Wang, Desong Ming, Shicheng Chen
Pannonibacter phragmitetus is a bioremediation reagent for the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) while it rarely infects healthy populations. However, infection by the opportunistic pathogen P. phragmitetus complicates diagnosis and treatments, and poses a serious threat to immunocompromised patients owing to its multidrug resistance. Unfortunately, genome features, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence potentials in P. phragmitetus have not been reported before. A predominant colony (31801) was isolated from a liver abscess patient, indicating that it accounted for the infection...
August 30, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Annika Cimdins, Roger Simm, Fengyang Li, Petra Lüthje, Kaisa Thorell, Åsa Sjöling, Annelie Brauner, Ute Römling
Agar plate-based biofilm of enterobacteria like Escherichia coli is characterized by expression of the extracellular matrix components amyloid curli and cellulose exopolysaccharide, which can be visually enhanced upon addition of the dye Congo Red, resulting in a red, dry, and rough (rdar) colony morphology. Expression of the rdar morphotype depends on the transcriptional regulator CsgD and occurs predominantly at ambient temperature in model strains. In contrast, commensal and pathogenic isolates frequently express the csgD-dependent rdar morphotype semi-constitutively, also at human host body temperature...
October 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Wei Huang, Xing Chen, Xia Jiang, Binghui Zheng
Sediment microbial communities play an important role in lake trophic status. This study determined millions of Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to compare the bacterial communities in moderately eutrophic, lightly eutrophic, and moderately trophic regions using a technically consistent approach. The results indicated that the sediments from moderately eutrophic and trophic lake had the higher bacterial diversity than lightly eutrophic lake. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (22.7%-86.2%) across samples from three regions...
October 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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