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Da Ou, Li-He Zhang, Chang-Fei Guo, Xiao-Sheng Chen, Shaukat Ali, Bao-Li Qiu
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the most serious pest of citrus worldwide. It acts as a vector for a group of phloem-limited bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) that causes Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Thus, D. citri management is an important strategy against HLB, and biological control is currently considered as the most effective method because of the unsustainable and negative side effects of chemical control. Here, we isolated a new strain of entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps javanica (GZQ-1), from one cadaver of D...
November 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Matjuda Dikonketso Shirley-May, Aiyegoro Olayinka Ayobami
Management and disposal of pig farm seepage constitute a serious environmental challenge, and seepage discharge from agricultural waste-water is considered to be one of the greatest contributors of organic substances, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of bacteriological pollution and to identify the resident antibiotic-resistant genes of culturable bacteria from a studied pig farm seepage. Enumeration of the viable bacterial cell of plated bacteria suspensions (10-1 to 10-8  cfu/mL) was performed; also, identification of pure bacterial colonies was done using an API 20E bacterial identification kit...
November 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Lucas W E Tessaro, Blake T Dotta, Michael A Persinger
Studies by Alexander Gurwitsch in the 1920' s with onion root cells revealed the phenomenon of mitogenetic radiation. Subsequent works by Popp, Van Wijk, Quickenden, Tillbury, and Trushin have demonstrated a link between Gurwitsch's mitogenetic radiation and the biophoton, emissions of light correlated with biological processes. The present study seeks to expand upon these and other works to explore whether biophoton emissions of bacterial cultures is used as an information carrier of environmental stress...
October 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Emily Schifano, Massimiliano Marazzato, Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Elena Zanni, Marta Ricci, Antonella Comanducci, Paola Goldoni, Maria Pia Conte, Daniela Uccelletti, Catia Longhi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although a number of bacteria can cause UTIs, most cases are due to infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC are a genetically heterogeneous group that exhibit several virulence factors associated with colonization and persistence of bacteria in the urinary tract. Caenorhabditis elegans is a tiny, free-living nematode found worldwide. Because many biological pathways are conserved in C. elegans and humans, the nematode has been increasingly used as a model organism to study virulence mechanisms of microbial infections and innate immunity...
October 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Xian Zhao, Yi Yu, Xuelin Zhang, Bing Huang, Po Bai, Chou Xu, Diangeng Li, Bin Zhang, Changting Liu
China has prepared for construction of a space station by the early 2020s. The mission will require astronauts to stay on the space station for at least 180 days. Microbes isolated from the International Space Station (ISS) have shown profound resistance to clinical antibiotics and environmental stresses. Previous studies have demonstrated that the space environment could affect microbial survival, growth, virulence, biofilms, metabolism, as well as their antibiotic-resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, several studies have reported that astronauts experience a decline in their immunity during long-duration spaceflights...
October 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Małgorzata Ryngajłło, Katarzyna Kubiak, Marzena Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Paulina Jacek, Stanisław Bielecki
Komagataeibacter species are well-recognized bionanocellulose (BNC) producers. This bacterial genus, formerly assigned to Gluconacetobacter, is known for its phenotypic diversity manifested by strain-dependent carbon source preference, BNC production rate, pellicle structure, and strain stability. Here, we performed a comparative study of nineteen Komagataeibacter genomes, three of which were newly contributed in this work. We defined the core genome of the genus, clarified phylogenetic relationships among strains, and provided genetic evidence for the distinction between the two major clades, the K...
October 26, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Christian Sonnendecker, Susanne Melzer, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases) synthesize cyclic oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, CD) from starch. A CGTase from Bacillus sp. G-825-6 was engineered by site-directed mutagenesis at two positions by the construction of the variants Y183W, Y183R, D358R, Y183W/D358R, and Y183R/D358R. Among CD composed of 7-12 glucose units (CD7-CD12), Y183W mainly produced CD8. Y183R had completely lost its ability to synthesize CD7, and CD8 and the larger CD were the only cyclic oligosaccharides produced. D358R also formed mainly CD8-CD12 during a reaction time of 24 hr...
October 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Maryam Bahadori, Mohammad Motamedifar, Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Roya Firouzi, Azar Motamedi Boroojeni, Mohsen Alinejad, Zahra Naziri
It is common knowledge that fecal microbiota is a primary source of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) via the fecal-perineal-urethral route. But, it is still unknown whether E. coli UTI is mainly caused by dominant fecal E. coli isolates (prevalence hypothesis) or the isolates that possess more virulence factors (special pathogenicity hypothesis). In the present study, the urine E. coli isolates of 30 women with UTI were compared with the fecal E. coli isolates of the same patients and healthy control individuals according to the phylogenetic group, virulence genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility pattern...
October 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Adetomiwa Ayodele Adeniji, Oluwole Samuel Aremu, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
The results of this study indicate that the maize rhizosphere remains a reservoir for microbial strains with unique beneficial properties. The study sought to provide an indigenous Bacillus strain with a bioprotective potential to alleviate maize fusariosis in South Africa. We selected seven Bacillus isolates (MORWBS1.1, MARBS2.7, VERBS5.5, MOREBS6.3, MOLBS8.5, MOLBS8.6, and NWUMFkBS10.5) with biosuppressive effects against two maize fungal pathogens (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum) based on 16S rDNA gene characterization and lipopeptide gene analysis...
October 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Junhua Liu, Chunxu Xue, Daming Sun, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-grain (HG) diet on the microbial fermentation, the composition of the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota, and the gene expression of tight junction proteins in the small intestine of goats. In the present study, we randomly assigned 10 male goats to either a hay diet (n = 5) or a HG diet (56.5% grain; n = 5) and then examined changes in the bacterial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and the expression of tight junction proteins using qRT-PCR in the mucosa of the small intestine...
October 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Chun K Tan, Natrah F M Ikhsan, Iswan B Suyub, Marilyn J Edward, Nazrien Kaman, Anjas A Samsudin
AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the gut microbial community of wild and captive Tor tambroides through 16S rDNA metagenetic sequencing followed by functions prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The library of 16S rDNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions of gut microbiota was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. The sequencing data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt)...
October 23, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Pierre Raymond, Emmanuelle Houard, Martine Denis, Emilie Esnault
The pig is one of the main reservoirs of Yersinia enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. A description of the Y. enterocolitica population in this reservoir, and accurate discriminatory techniques for typing isolates are needed for prevention, outbreak investigation, and surveillance. This study investigates the genetic diversity of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates obtained from pig tonsils in a French pig slaughterhouse in 2009 (S1) and 2010 (S2). The use of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLVA as typing techniques was also compared and evaluated...
October 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Amal A Aljuraifani, Mahmoud M Berekaa, Azzah A Ghazwani
Twenty-six different bacterial strains were isolated from samples taken from different locations Dammam, Saudi Arabia, for screening of their polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production capability. The initial screening was conducted by staining with Sudan Black B and Nile Red, followed by examination under fluorescence and electron microscopes to characterize PHA granule formation. The PHA-producing bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene analyses; the most potent bacterial strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp...
October 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hyun-Sook Kim, Ke Dong, Jinsoo Kim, Sang-Seob Lee
Crude oil is a major pollutant of marine and coastal ecosystems, and it causes environmental problems more seriously. It is believed ultimate and complete degradation is accomplished mainly by microorganisms. In this study, we aim to search out for bacterial strains with high ability in degrading crude oil. From sediments contaminated by the petroleum spilled in 2007, an accident in Taean, South Korea, we isolated thirty-one bacterial strains in total with potential application in crude oil contamination remediation...
October 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ayodeji O Falade, Leonard V Mabinya, Anthony I Okoh, Uchechukwu U Nwodo
Direct municipal wastewater effluent discharge from treatment plants has been identified as the major source of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) in freshwaters. Consequently, efficient elimination of EDC in wastewater is significant to good water quality. However, conventional wastewater treatment approaches have been deficient in the complete removal of these contaminants. Hence, the exploration of new and more efficient methods for elimination of EDC in wastewater is imperative. Enzymatic treatment approach has been suggested as a suitable option...
October 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Gemeda Abebe, Ketema Abdissa, Kedir Abdella, Mulualem Tadesse, Adane Worku, Gobena Ameni
BACKGROUND: To understand the population dynamics and propose more effective preventive strategies, defining the population structure of the circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is important. METHODS: A total of 177 M. tuberculosis complex isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases in southwest Ethiopia were genotyped by spoligotyping. Of the strains included in this study, 126 were pan-susceptible strains while the remaining 51 isolates were resistant to one or more first-line anti-TB drugs...
October 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ado Van Assche, Sam Crauwels, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Bart Lievens
The quality of drinking water is influenced by its chemical and microbial composition which in turn may be affected by the source water and the different processes applied in drinking water purification systems. In this study, we investigated the bacterial diversity in different water samples from the production and distribution chain of thirteen drinking water production and distribution systems from Flanders (Belgium) that use surface water or groundwater as source water. Water samples were collected over two seasons from the source water, the processed drinking water within the production facility and out of the tap in houses along its distribution network...
October 14, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Juri Kim, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism with two nuclei, a median body, eight flagella, and an adhesive disk. γ-Tubulin is a microtubule (MT)-nucleating protein that functions in the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC) in budding yeast. In this study, G. lamblia γ-tubulin (Glγ-tubulin) was found to bind to another MT-binding protein, namely G. lamblia end-binding protein 1 (GlEB1), via both in vivo and in vitro assays. Hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Glγ-tubulin localized to the basal bodies, axonemes, and median bodies of G...
October 14, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jennifer Breisch, Izabela Waclawska, Beate Averhoff
The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to grow on carnitine. The genes encoding the pathway for carnitine degradation to the intermediate malic acid are known but the transporter mediating carnitine uptake remained to be identified. The open reading frame HMPREF0010_01347 (aci01347) of Acinetobacter baumannii is annotated as a gene encoding a potential transporter of the betaine/choline/carnitine transporter (BCCT) family. To study the physiological function of Aci01347, the gene was deleted from A...
October 14, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yuxiao Hu, Yanrong Jia, Xiangdong Zhao, Zihao Yang, Zhimin Hao, Jingao Dong, Fanli Zeng
Technologies development for seamless gene editing and marker recycling has allowed frequent genomic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for desired laboratory strains and cell factory. Alternative new approaches are still required for complicated scenarios. In this study, we report that inducible overexpression of cell wall protein 1 (Cwp1) by galactose addition confers yeast cells a robust growth inhibition. Direct repeats flanking the Gal-CWP1:selectable marker cassette allow for its homology recombination excision and counter selection upon galactose addition, therefore enable seamless gene editing and marker recycling...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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