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MicrobiologyOpen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088841/intracellular-fate-of-ureaplasma-parvum-entrapped-by-host-cellular-autophagy
#1
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
January 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074554/population-genetic-analysis-of-giardia-duodenalis-genetic-diversity-and-haplotype-sharing-between-clinical-and-environmental-sources
#2
Mauricio Durigan, Maisa Ciampi-Guillardi, Ricardo C A Rodrigues, Juliane A Greinert-Goulart, Isabel C V Siqueira-Castro, Diego A G Leal, Sandra Yamashiro, Taís R Bonatti, Maria I Zucchi, Regina M B Franco, Anete P de Souza
Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated intestinal protozoan responsible for infections in various hosts including humans and several wild and domestic animals. Few studies have correlated environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study was to compare groups of Giardia duodenalis from clinical and environmental sources through population genetic analyses to verify haplotype sharing and the degree of genetic similarity among populations from clinical and environmental sources in the metropolitan region of Campinas...
January 11, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063198/functional-and-structural-studies-on-the-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gmha-the-first-enzyme-in-the-glycero-manno-heptose-biosynthesis-pathways-demonstrate-a-critical-role-in-lipooligosaccharide-synthesis-and-gonococcal-viability
#3
Igor H Wierzbicki, Ryszard A Zielke, Konstantin V Korotkov, Aleksandra E Sikora
Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase, GmhA, is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated-glycero-manno-heptoses and an attractive, yet underexploited, target for development of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We demonstrated that GmhA homologs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis (hereafter called GmhAGC and GmhANM , respectively) were interchangeable proteins essential for lipooligosaccharide (LOS) synthesis, and their depletion had adverse effects on neisserial viability. In contrast, the Escherichia coli ortholog failed to complement GmhAGC depletion...
January 7, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027601/hysteresis-in-myo-inositol-utilization-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#4
Jessica Hellinckx, Thilo M Fuchs
Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) as the sole carbon and energy source is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests in a growth phenotype with an extraordinarily long and length-variable lag phase. However, in the presence of hydrogen carbonate, in the absence of IolR that represses the MI degradation pathway, or if cells are already adapted to minimal medium (MM) with MI, the lag phase is drastically shortened, and the bistable phenotype is abolished...
December 27, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998037/investigation-of-the-microbial-communities-colonizing-prepainted-steel-used-for-roofing-and-walling
#5
Tran T Huynh, Ili Jamil, Nicole A Pianegonda, Stephen J Blanksby, Philip J Barker, Mike Manefield, Scott A Rice
Microbial colonization of prepainted steel, commonly used in roofing applications, impacts their aesthetics, durability, and functionality. Understanding the relevant organisms and the mechanisms by which colonization occurs would provide valuable information that can be subsequently used to design fouling prevention strategies. Here, next-generation sequencing and microbial community finger printing (T-RFLP) were used to study the community composition of microbes colonizing prepainted steel roofing materials at Burrawang, Australia and Kapar, Malaysia over a 52-week period...
December 20, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998035/metagenomic-profiling-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-both-wild-and-artificially-reared-bar-headed-goose-anser-indicus
#6
Wen Wang, Sisi Zheng, Kirill Sharshov, Hao Sun, Fang Yang, Xuelian Wang, Laixing Li, Zhixiong Xiao
Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus), a species endemic to Asia, has become one of the most popular species in recent years for rare bird breeding industries in several provinces of China. There has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in both wild and artificially reared Bar-headed geese, even though the importance of gut microbiome in vertebrate nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction is widely acknowledged. In this study, metagenomic methods have been used to describe the microbial community structure and composition of functional genes associated with both wild and artificially reared Bar-headed goose...
December 20, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987272/agarolytic-bacterium-persicobacter-sp-ccb-qb2-exhibited-a-diauxic-growth-involving-galactose-utilization-pathway
#7
Go Furusawa, Nyok-Sean Lau, Appalasamy Suganthi, Abdullah Al-Ashraf Amirul
The agarolytic bacterium Persicobacter sp. CCB-QB2 was isolated from seaweed (genus Ulva) collected from a coastal area of Malaysia. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence for QB2. The Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) annotation server identified four β-agarases (PdAgaA, PdAgaB, PdAgaC, and PdAgaD) as well as galK, galE, and phosphoglucomutase, which are related to the Leloir pathway. Interestingly, QB2 exhibited a diauxic growth in the presence of two kinds of nutrients, such as tryptone and agar...
December 17, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868387/polymetallic-nodules-sediments-and-deep-waters-in-the-equatorial-north-pacific-exhibit-highly-diverse-and-distinct-bacterial-archaeal-and-microeukaryotic-communities
#8
Christine N Shulse, Brianne Maillot, Craig R Smith, Matthew J Church
Concentrated seabed deposits of polymetallic nodules, which are rich in economically valuable metals (e.g., copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese), occur over vast areas of the abyssal Pacific Ocean floor. Little is currently known about the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting abyssal habitats. In this study, sediment, nodule, and water column samples were collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Eastern North Pacific. The diversities of prokaryote and microeukaryote communities associated with these habitats were examined...
November 21, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868360/global-transcriptome-responses-including-small-rnas-during-mixed-species-interactions-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Christine L Miller, Tricia A Van Laar, Tsute Chen, S L Rajasekhar Karna, Ping Chen, Tao You, Kai P Leung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus mixed-species biofilm infections are more resilient to biocide attacks compared to their single-species counterparts. Therefore, this study used an in vitro model recapitulating bacterial burdens seen in in vivo infections to investigate the interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in biofilms. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was utilized to identify the entire genomic response, both open reading frames (ORFs) and small RNAs (sRNAs), of each species. Using competitive indexes, transposon mutants validated uncharacterized PA1595 of P...
November 21, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864882/diversification-of-the-kinetic-properties-of-yeast-nadp-glutamate-dehydrogenase-isozymes-proceeds-independently-of-their-evolutionary-origin
#10
Carlos Campero-Basaldua, Héctor Quezada, Lina Riego-Ruíz, Dariel Márquez, Erendira Rojas, James González, Mohammed El-Hafidi, Alicia González
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScGDH1 and ScGDH3 encoded glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Previous kinetic characterization showed that these enzymes displayed different allosteric properties and respectively high or low rate of α-KG utilization. Accordingly, the coordinated action of ScGdh1 and ScGdh3, regulated balanced α-KG utilization for glutamate biosynthesis under either fermentative or respiratory conditions, safeguarding energy provision...
November 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860341/biostimulation-and-microbial-community-profiling-reveal-insights-on-rdx-transformation-in-groundwater
#11
Dongping Wang, Hakim Boukhalfa, Oana Marina, Doug S Ware, Tim J Goering, Fengjie Sun, Hajnalka E Daligault, Chien-Chi Lo, Momchilo Vuyisich, Shawn R Starkenburg
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high explosive released to the environment as a result of weapons manufacturing and testing worldwide. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Technical Area (TA) 16 260 Outfall discharged high-explosives-bearing water from a high-explosives-machining facility to Cañon de Valle during 1951 through 1996. These discharges served as a primary source of high-explosives and inorganic-element contamination in the area. Data indicate that springs, surface water, alluvial groundwater, and perched-intermediate groundwater contain explosive compounds, including RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine); HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine); and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)...
November 17, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804281/convergent-evolution-of-the-arginine-deiminase-pathway-the-arcd-and-arce-arginine-ornithine-exchangers
#12
Elke E E Noens, Juke S Lolkema
The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species revealed the presence of 124 arc gene clusters encoding the pathway. About half of the clusters contained the gene encoding the well-studied L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger ArcD, while the other half contained a gene, termed here arcE, encoding a membrane protein that is not a homolog of ArcD...
November 1, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790856/a-family-of-genus-specific-rnas-in-tandem-with-dna-binding-proteins-control-expression-of-the-bada-major-virulence-factor-gene-in-bartonella-henselae
#13
Nhan Tu, Ronan K Carroll, Andy Weiss, Lindsey N Shaw, Gael Nicolas, Sarah Thomas, Amorce Lima, Udoka Okaro, Burt Anderson
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that causes infections in humans including endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been shown to grow as large aggregates and form biofilms in vitro. The aggregative growth and the angiogenic host response requires the trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA. We examined the transcriptome of the Houston-1 strain of B. henselae using RNA-seq revealing nine novel, highly-expressed intergenic transcripts (Bartonella regulatory transcript, Brt1-9)...
October 28, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790854/one-step-forwards-for-the-routine-use-of-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-in-environmental-monitoring-an-efficient-and-standardizable-method-to-maximize-the-detection-of-environmental-bacteria
#14
Antonia Bruno, Anna Sandionigi, Andrea Galimberti, Eleonora Siani, Massimo Labra, Clementina Cocuzza, Emanuele Ferri, Maurizio Casiraghi
We propose an innovative, repeatable, and reliable experimental workflow to concentrate and detect environmental bacteria in drinking water using molecular techniques. We first concentrated bacteria in water samples using tangential flow filtration and then we evaluated two methods of environmental DNA extraction. We performed tests on both artificially contaminated water samples and real drinking water samples. The efficiency of the experimental workflow was measured through qPCR. The successful applicability of the high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) approach was demonstrated on drinking water samples...
October 27, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785885/understanding-pine-wilt-disease-roles-of-the-pine-endophytic-bacteria-and-of-the-bacteria-carried-by-the-disease-causing-pinewood-nematode
#15
REVIEW
Diogo N Proença, Gregor Grass, Paula V Morais
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is one of the most destructive diseases in trees of the genus Pinus and is responsible for environmental and economic losses around the world. The only known causal agent of the disease is the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Despite that, bacteria belonging to several different genera have been found associated with PWN and their roles in the development of PWD have been suggested. Molecular methodologies and the new era of genomics have revealed different perspectives to the problem, recognizing the manifold interactions between different organisms involved in the disease...
October 26, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781403/keeping-it-in-the-family-coevolution-of-latrunculid-sponges-and-their-dominant-bacterial-symbionts
#16
Gwynneth F Matcher, Samantha C Waterworth, Tara A Walmsley, Tendayi Matsatsa, Shirley Parker-Nance, Michael T Davies-Coleman, Rosemary A Dorrington
The Latrunculiidae are a family of cold water sponges known for their production of bioactive pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids. Previously it was shown that the bacterial community associated with a Tsitsikamma sponge species comprises unusual bacterial taxa and is dominated by a novel Betaproteobacterium. Here, we have characterized the bacterial communities associated with six latrunculid species representing three genera (Tsitsikamma, Cyclacanthia, and Latrunculia) as well as a Mycale species, collected from Algoa Bay on the South African southeast coast...
October 26, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771939/expanding-the-archaellum-regulatory-network-the-eukaryotic-protein-kinases-arnc-and-arnd-influence-motility-of-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#17
Lena Hoffmann, Andreas Schummer, Julia Reimann, Maria F Haurat, Amanda J Wilson, Morgan Beeby, Bettina Warscheid, Sonja-V Albers
Expression of the archaellum, the archaeal-type IV pilus-like rotating motility structure is upregulated under nutrient limitation. This is controlled by a network of regulators, called the archaellum regulatory network (arn). Several of the components of this network in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius can be phosphorylated, and the deletion of the phosphatase PP2A results in strongly increased motility during starvation, indicating a role for phosphorylation in the regulation of motility. Analysis of the motility of different protein kinase deletion strains revealed that deletion of saci_0965, saci_1181, and saci_1193 resulted in reduced motility, whereas the deletion of saci_1694 resulted in hypermotility...
October 22, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933756/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762086/bacterial-community-assembly-in-activated-sludge-mapping-beta-diversity-across-environmental-variables
#19
Siavash Isazadeh, Shameem Jauffur, Dominic Frigon
Effect of ecological variables on community assembly of heterotrophic bacteria at eight full-scale and two pilot-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (AS-WWTPs) were explored by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In total, 39 samples covering a range of abiotic factors spread over space and time were analyzed. A core bacterial community of 24 families detected in at least six of the eight AS-WWTPs was defined. In addition to the core families, plant-specific families (observed at <50% AS-WWTPs) were found to be also important in the community structure...
December 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506856/marine-and-giant-viruses-as-indicators-of-a-marine-microbial-community-in-a-riverine-system
#20
Lisa M Dann, Stephanie Rosales, Jody McKerral, James S Paterson, Renee J Smith, Thomas C Jeffries, Rod L Oliver, James G Mitchell
Viral communities are important for ecosystem function as they are involved in critical biogeochemical cycles and controlling host abundance. This study investigates riverine viral communities around a small rural town that influences local water inputs. Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae, Herpesviridae, and Podoviridae were the most abundant families. Viral species upstream and downstream of the town were similar, with Synechoccocus phage, salinus, Prochlorococcus phage, Mimivirus A, and Human herpes 6A virus most abundant, contributing to 4...
December 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
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