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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738473/expression-of-a-synthetic-gene-for-the-major-cytotoxin-cyt1aa-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-in-the-chloroplast-of-wild-type-chlamydomonas
#1
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Candice L Malone, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( Chlamydomonas ) strains that are toxic to mosquito larvae because they express chloroplast transgenes that are based on the mosquitocidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) could be very useful in mosquito control. Chlamydomonas has several advantages for this approach, including genetic controls not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin is produced by sporulating bacteria and has been used for mosquito control for >30 years without creating highly resistant mosquito populations...
May 8, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735890/the-double-aspect-of-life
#2
Daniel Fels
Life is based on two aspects: matter and a non-material, electrical component. In a dynamic system of reciprocal causality, matter and the so-called bioelectricity interact with one another, forming a functional unity. The aim of this essay is to summarize evidence for bioelectricity, for the sensitivity of biosystems to external physical factors and for the interactions of internal bioelectricity with internal biochemical structures. I propose non-material information of bioelectrical states to be just as inheritable from generation to generation as is the material genetic code...
May 7, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724027/sediment-carbon-accumulation-in-southern-latitude-saltmarsh-communities-of-tasmania-australia
#3
Joanna C Ellison, Kim M Beasy
Carbon sequestration values of wetlands are greatest in their sediments. Northern hemisphere research dominates the earlier saltmarsh carbon sequestration literature, recently augmented by analyses across mainland Australia where species assemblages, catchment histories and environmental settings differ. No previous assessment has been made for Tasmania. Carbon stores and accumulation rates in saltmarsh sediments of the Rubicon estuary, Tasmania, were investigated. Carbon was determined from sediment cores by Elemental Analyser, combined with analysis of organic content and bulk density...
May 2, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673222/electrochemical-characterisation-of-bio-bottle-voltaic-bbv-systems-operated-with-algae-and-built-with-recycled-materials
#4
Peter Bateson, Jack E H Fleet, Anthony S Riseley, Elena Janeva, Anastasia S Marcella, Chiara Farinea, Maria Kuptsova, Núria Conde Pueyo, Christopher J Howe, Paolo Bombelli, Brenda M Parker
Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days...
April 17, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652809/characterization-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-utex-1230
#5
Alessandro Marco Lizzul, Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain, Saul Purton, Luiza Cintra Campos
This paper characterizes the strain Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 within a laboratory setting using a 1 L bubble column. The findings show that productivity can be trebled under mixotrophic conditions (from 0.2 g·L−1 ·d−1 to 0.66 g·L−1 ·d−1 ) with the addition of sodium acetate. The results also indicate that both the growth rate and final yield increase with the cultivation temperature, with most parameters showing an optimum in the range of 30–35 °C...
April 13, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649182/applications-of-microalgal-biotechnology-for-disease-control-in-aquaculture
#6
REVIEW
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614062/pseudotime-dynamics-in-melanoma-single-cell-transcriptomes-reveals-different-mechanisms-of-tumor-progression
#7
Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Hans Binder, Edith Willscher, Tobias Gerber, Manfred Kunz
Single-cell transcriptomics has been used for analysis of heterogeneous populations of cells during developmental processes and for analysis of tumor cell heterogeneity. More recently, analysis of pseudotime (PT) dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations has been established as a powerful concept to study developmental processes. Here we perform PT analysis of 3 melanoma short-term cultures with different genetic backgrounds to study specific and concordant properties of PT dynamics of selected cellular programs with impact on melanoma progression...
April 3, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587377/groundsel-bush-baccharis-halimifolia-extract-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-in-vitro-and-increases-adiponectin-expression-in-mature-adipocytes
#8
Anik Boudreau, Scott Fuller, David M Ribnicky, Allison J Richard, Jacqueline M Stephens
An ethanolic extract of Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel bush, GB), which is a native Louisiana plant with documented use in Creole folk medicine, has been shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in cultured macrophages. Here, we examine the effects of GB on adipocyte development and function, as these processes are attractive targets for intervention in insulin resistance. Oil Red O neutral lipid staining, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and immunoblotting were used to measure GB effects on lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein abundance, respectively...
March 25, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509719/gene-editing-of-microalgae-scientific-progress-and-regulatory-challenges-in-europe
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Spicer, Attila Molnar
It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe...
March 6, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495378/tinkering-and-the-origins-of-heritable-anatomical-variation-in-vertebrates
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan B L Bard
Evolutionary change comes from natural and other forms of selection acting on existing anatomical and physiological variants. While much is known about selection, little is known about the details of how genetic mutation leads to the range of heritable anatomical variants that are present within any population. This paper takes a systems-based view to explore how genomic mutation in vertebrate genomes works its way upwards, though changes to proteins, protein networks, and cell phenotypes to produce variants in anatomical detail...
February 26, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463047/human-intrinsic-factor-expression-for-bioavailable-vitamin-b-12-enrichment-in-microalgae
#11
Serena Lima, Conner L Webb, Evelyne Deery, Colin Robinson, Julie A Z Zedler
Dietary supplements and functional foods are becoming increasingly popular complements to regular diets. A recurring ingredient is the essential cofactor vitamin B12 (B12 ). Microalgae are making their way into the dietary supplement and functional food market but do not produce B12 , and their B12 content is very variable. In this study, the suitability of using the human B12 -binding protein intrinsic factor (IF) to enrich bioavailable B12 using microalgae was tested. The IF protein was successfully expressed from the nuclear genome of the model microalga C hlamydomonas reinhardtii and the addition of an N-terminal ARS2 signal peptide resulted in efficient IF secretion to the medium...
February 19, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462888/microwave-assisted-extraction-for-microalgae-from-biofuels-to-biorefinery
#12
REVIEW
Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Thomas O Butler, Jagroop Pandhal, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
The commercial reality of bioactive compounds and oil production from microalgal species is constrained by the high cost of production. Downstream processing, which includes harvesting and extraction, can account for 70-80% of the total cost of production. Consequently, from an economic perspective extraction technologies need to be improved. Microalgal cells are difficult to disrupt due to polymers within their cell wall such as algaenan and sporopollenin. Consequently, solvents and disruption devices are required to obtain products of interest from within the cells...
February 15, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439525/detection-and-enhancement-of-ketocarotenoid-accumulation-in-the-newly-isolated-sarcinoid-green-microalga-chlorosarcinopsis-py02
#13
Peelada Cherdchukeattisak, Paul D Fraser, Saul Purton, Thanyanan Wannathong Brocklehurst
The sarcinoid alga PY02 is a newly isolated soil alga native to western Thailand. In this study PY02 is described, the carotenoid profile of the green and red forms of the algal cells are compared, and the effect of nitrogen reduction and media volume on ketocarotenoid production are reported. Partial sequences of the genes from elongation factor Tu ( tuf A) and 18S rRNA reveal that the alga is from the Chlorosarcinopsis genus. Growth studies demonstrated that Chlorosarcinopsis PY02 is capable of photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth...
February 12, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425116/integrated-systems-approach-reveals-sphingolipid-metabolism-pathway-dysregulation-in-association-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
John Stephen Malamon, Andres Kriete
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and age are significantly correlated such that one-third of Americans beyond 85 years of age are afflicted. We have designed and implemented a pilot study that combines systems biology approaches with traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis techniques to identify relevant regulatory pathways, infer functional relationships and confirm the dysregulation of these biological pathways in LOAD. Our study design is a most comprehensive systems approach combining co-expression network modeling derived from RNA-seq data, rigorous quality control (QC) standards, functional ontology, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) derived from whole exome (WES) single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotype data...
February 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393864/sex-steroid-mediated-control-of-oviductal-function-in-cattle
#15
REVIEW
Mario Binelli, Angela Maria Gonella-Diaza, Fernando Silveira Mesquita, Claudia Maria Bertan Membrive
In cattle, the oviduct is a tubular organ that connects the ovary and the uterus. The oviduct lumen stages a dynamic set of cellular and molecular interactions to fulfill the noble role of generating a new individual. Specific anatomical niches along the oviduct lumen provide the appropriate microenvironment for final sperm capacitation, oocyte capture and fertilization, and early embryo development and transport. To accomplish such complex tasks, the oviduct undergoes spatially and temporally-regulated morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes that are associated with endocrine events of the estrous cycle...
February 2, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389891/potential-of-new-isolates-of-dunaliella-salina-for-natural-%C3%AE-carotene-production
#16
Yanan Xu, Iskander M Ibrahim, Chiziezi I Wosu, Ami Ben-Amotz, Patricia J Harvey
The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil ). Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different...
February 1, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370074/odor-communication-and-mate-choice-in-rodents
#17
REVIEW
Michael H Ferkin
This paper details how chemical communication is affected by ecological challenges such as finding mates. I list several conditions that affect the decision to attract mates, the decision to respond to the signals of potential mates and how the response depends on context. These mate-choice decisions and their outcomes will depend on the life history constraints placed on individuals such as their fecundity, sex, lifespan, opportunities to mate in the future and age at senescence. Consequently, the sender's decision to scent mark or self-groom as well as the receiver's choice of response represents a tradeoff between the current costs of the participant's own survival and future reproduction against that of reproducing now...
January 25, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351200/comparing-nutrient-removal-from-membrane-filtered-and-unfiltered-domestic-wastewater-using-chlorella-vulgaris
#18
Elyssia Mayhead, Alla Silkina, Carole A Llewellyn, Claudio Fuentes-Grünewald
The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH₄-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO₄-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C...
January 19, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324687/intraperitoneal-administration-of-oxygen-ozone-to-rats-reduces-the-pancreatic-damage-induced-by-streptozotocin
#19
Dario Siniscalco, Maria Consiglia Trotta, Anna Lisa Brigida, Rosa Maisto, Margherita Luongo, Franca Ferraraccio, Michele D'Amico, Clara Di Filippo
Background: The rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreatic damage was used to examine whether a systemic oxygen/ozone mixture could be beneficial for the pancreas by reducing the machinery of the local detrimental mediators released by STZ. Results: The results showed that oxygen/ozone administration (150 µg/Kg i.p.) for ten days in STZ rats increased the endogenous glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzyme and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into the pancreatic tissue, together with reduction of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and PARP-1 compared to STZ rats receiving O₂ only...
January 11, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315249/bacteriophage-%C3%AE-sa012-has-a-broad-host-range-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-effective-lytic-capacity-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model
#20
Hidetomo Iwano, Yusuke Inoue, Takuji Takasago, Hironori Kobayashi, Takaaki Furusawa, Kotomi Taniguchi, Jumpei Fujiki, Hiroshi Yokota, Masaru Usui, Yasunori Tanji, Katsuro Hagiwara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Yutaka Tamura
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection in dairy cattle. It is the most costly disease in the dairy industry because of the high use of antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required in the dairy industry. One potential strategy is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. In the present study, we examined the host range of previously isolated S...
January 9, 2018: Biology
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