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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137146/the-dynamics-of-arrivals-of-maine-migratory-breeding-birds-results-from-a-24-year-study
#1
W Herbert Wilson
This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899-1911 with the modern data (1994-2017) collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas...
November 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084145/artificial-rna-motifs-expand-the-programmable-assembly-between-rna-modules-of-a-bimolecular-ribozyme-leading-to-application-to-rna-nanostructure-design
#2
Md Motiar Rahman, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
A bimolecular ribozyme consisting of a core ribozyme (ΔP5 RNA) and an activator module (P5abc RNA) has been used as a platform to design assembled RNA nanostructures. The tight and specific assembly between the P5abc and ΔP5 modules depends on two sets of intermodule interactions. The interface between P5abc and ΔP5 must be controlled when designing RNA nanostructures. To expand the repertoire of molecular recognition in the P5abc/ΔP5 interface, we modified the interface by replacing the parent tertiary interactions in the interface with artificial interactions...
October 30, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946685/in-vivo-effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-expression-in-juvenile-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata
#3
Efthimia Antonopoulou, Elisavet Kaitetzidou, Barbara Castellana, Nikolas Panteli, Dimitrios Kyriakis, Yoryia Vraskou, Josep V Planas
Fish are constantly exposed to microorganisms in the aquatic environment, many of which are bacterial pathogens. Bacterial pathogens activate the innate immune response in fish involving the production of pro-inflammatory molecules that, in addition to their immune-related role, can affect non-immune tissues. In the present study, we aimed at investigating how inflammatory responses can affect metabolic homeostasis in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a teleost of considerable economic importance in Southern European countries...
September 25, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927010/the-role-of-oocyte-organelles-in-determining-developmental-competence
#4
REVIEW
Karen L Reader, Jo-Ann L Stanton, Jennifer L Juengel
The ability of an oocyte to undergo successful cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo development is referred to as the oocyte's quality or developmental competence. Quality is dependent on the accumulation of organelles, metabolites and maternal RNAs during the growth and maturation of the oocyte. Various models of good and poor oocyte quality have been used to understand the essential contributors to developmental success. This review covers the current knowledge of how oocyte organelle quantity, distribution and morphology differ between good and poor quality oocytes...
September 18, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906477/microrna-signaling-in-embryo-development
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Gross, Jenna Kropp, Hasan Khatib
Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential for embryonic development and serves important roles in gametogenesis. miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular environment by the embryo during the preimplantation stage of development. Several cell types secrete miRNAs into biological fluids in the extracellular environment. These fluid-derived miRNAs have been shown to circulate the body. Stable transport is dependent on proper packaging of the miRNAs into extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. These vesicles, which also contain RNA, DNA and proteins, are on the forefront of research on cell-to-cell communication...
September 14, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758977/seed-coating-with-hydro-absorbers-as-potential-mitigation-of-early-season-drought-in-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#6
Linda Gorim, Folkard Asch
Climate change poses a threat to sorghum production systems by shifting the onset of the rainy season to a later date, increasing the risk of crop failure during crop establishment. The effects of drought on sorghum during seedling establishment have not been determined. Coating seeds with a water absorbing substance offers a way to buffer the seed against insufficient moisture in the surrounding soil. Seeds of two different sorghum varieties were coated with one of two commercially available hydro-absorbers: Stokosorb(®) and Geohumus(®)...
July 31, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644379/physical-forces-may-cause-the-hoxd-gene-cluster-elongation
#7
Spyros Papageorgiou
Hox gene collinearity was discovered be Edward B. Lewis in 1978. It consists of the Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 ordering of the Hox genes in the chromosome from the telomeric to the centromeric side of the chromosome. Surprisingly, the spatial activation of the Hox genes in the ontogenetic units of the embryo follows the same ordering along the anterior-posterior embryonic axis. The chromosome microscale differs from the embryo macroscale by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The traditional biomolecular mechanisms are not adequate to comprise phenomena at so divergent spatial domains...
June 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538658/seed-coating-increases-seed-moisture-uptake-and-restricts-embryonic-oxygen-availability-in-germinating-cereal-seeds
#8
Linda Gorim, Folkard Asch
Seed coating is a technology to improve germination and homogenize stand establishment. Although coating often results in lower germination rates, seeds that do germinate grow more vigorously and show strongly reduced respiratory losses during reserve mobilization. We hypothesize that the higher mobilization efficiency is due to a shift in the enzymatic cleavage of sucrose from invertase to sucrose synthase in the embryonic tissue caused by a reduced oxygen availability induced by oversaturation with water caused by the coating during early germination...
May 24, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486403/treatment-of-real-world-hcv-genotype-2-infected-japanese-patients-with-sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin
#9
Tatsuo Kanda, Masato Nakamura, Shin Yasui, Yuki Haga, Akinobu Tawada, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Koji Takahashi, Reina Sasaki, Shuang Wu, Shingo Nakamoto, Makoto Arai, Fumio Imazeki, Osamu Yokosuka
The aim of this study was to characterize the treatment response and tolerability of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapies in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-2. This retrospective study analyzed 114 Japanese HCV GT-2 patients treated for 12 weeks with 400 mg of sofosbuvir plus weight-based ribavirin daily. This treatment led to higher sustained virologic response at 12-weeks post-treatment (SVR12) rates in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. The efficacy of this treatment in compensated cirrhotics was the same as that in patients with chronic hepatitis...
May 9, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481257/characterisation-of-arctic-bacterial-communities-in-the-air-above-svalbard
#10
Lewis Cuthbertson, Herminia Amores-Arrocha, Lucie A Malard, Nora Els, Birgit Sattler, David A Pearce
Atmospheric dispersal of bacteria is increasingly acknowledged as an important factor influencing bacterial community biodiversity, biogeography and bacteria-human interactions, including those linked to human health. However, knowledge about patterns in microbial aerobiology is still relatively scarce, and this can be attributed, in part, to a lack of consensus on appropriate sampling and analytical methodology. In this study, three different methods were used to investigate aerial biodiversity over Svalbard: impaction, membrane filtration and drop plates...
May 6, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467369/developmental-control-of-nramp1-slc11a1-expression-in-professional-phagocytes
#11
Mathieu F M Cellier
NRAMP1 (SLC11A1) is a professional phagocyte membrane importer of divalent metals that contributes to iron recycling at homeostasis and to nutritional immunity against infection. Analyses of data generated by several consortia and additional studies were integrated to hypothesize mechanisms restricting NRAMP1 expression to mature phagocytes. Results from various epigenetic and transcriptomic approaches were collected for mesodermal and hematopoietic cell types and compiled for combined analysis with results of genetic studies associating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with variations in NRAMP1 expression (eQTLs)...
May 3, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448442/rai1-haploinsufficiency-is-associated-with-social-abnormalities-in-mice
#12
Nalini R Rao, Clemer Abad, Irene C Perez, Anand K Srivastava, Juan I Young, Katherina Walz
Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448440/is-polysialylated-ncam-not-only-a-regulator-during-brain-development-but-also-during-the-formation-of-other-organs
#13
REVIEW
Christina E Galuska, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
In mammals several cell adhesion molecules are involved during the pre- and postnatal development of all organ systems. A very prominent member of this family is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Interestingly, NCAM can be a target for a special form of posttranslational modification: polysialylation. Whereas nearly all extracellular proteins bear mono-sialic acid residues, only a very small group can be polysialylated. Polysialic acid is a highly negatively-charged sugar polymer and can comprise more than 90 sialic acid residues in postnatal mouse brains increasing dramatically the hydrodynamic radius of their carriers...
April 27, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445413/identification-of-highly-specific-scfvs-against-total-adiponectin-for-diagnostic-purposes
#14
Peter Wilton, Michael Steidel, Gabriele Krczal, Iris Hermanns, Andreas Pfützner, Alisa Konnerth, Kajohn Boonrod
Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines secreted from adipose tissue. It acts as an endogenous insulin sensitizer and plasma concentrations are inversely correlated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. A decrease in plasma adiponectin levels normally indicates increased hormonal activity of the visceral lipid tissue, which is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. It may therefore be considered a valuable biomarker for elucidating the underlying deteriorations resulting in type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease...
April 26, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358347/the-enzymology-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-2-hydroxyglutaramate-and-2-hydroxysuccinamate-and-their-relationship-to-oncometabolites
#15
Vivek A Hariharan, Travis T Denton, Sarah Paraszcszak, Kyle McEvoy, Thomas M Jeitner, Boris F Krasnikov, Arthur J L Cooper
Many enzymes make "mistakes". Consequently, repair enzymes have evolved to correct these mistakes. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) slowly catalyze the reduction of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to the oncometabolite l-2-hydroxyglutarate (l-2-HG). l-2-HG dehydrogenase corrects this error by converting l-2-HG to 2-OG. LDH also catalyzes the reduction of the oxo group of 2-oxoglutaramate (2-OGM; transamination product of l-glutamine). We show here that human glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the amidation of the terminal carboxyl of both the l- and d- isomers of 2-HG...
March 30, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358327/coenzyme-a-independent-transacylation-system-possible-involvement-of-phospholipase-a2-in-transacylation
#16
REVIEW
Atsushi Yamashita, Yasuhiro Hayashi, Naoki Matsumoto, Yoko Nemoto-Sasaki, Takanori Koizumi, Yusuke Inagaki, Saori Oka, Takashi Tanikawa, Takayuki Sugiura
The coenzyme A (CoA)-independent transacylation system catalyzes fatty acid transfer from phospholipids to lysophospholipids in the absence of cofactors such as CoA. It prefers to use C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, which are esterified in the glycerophospholipid at the sn-2 position. This system can also acylate alkyl ether-linked lysophospholipids, is involved in the enrichment of arachidonic acid in alkyl ether-linked glycerophospholipids, and is critical for the metabolism of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor...
March 30, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353646/intraguild-predation-dynamics-in-a-lake-ecosystem-based-on-a-coupled-hydrodynamic-ecological-model-the-example-of-lake-kinneret-israel
#17
Vardit Makler-Pick, Matthew R Hipsey, Tamar Zohary, Yohay Carmel, Gideon Gal
The food web of Lake Kinneret contains intraguild predation (IGP). Predatory invertebrates and planktivorous fish both feed on herbivorous zooplankton, while the planktivorous fish also feed on the predatory invertebrates. In this study, a complex mechanistic hydrodynamic-ecological model, coupled to a bioenergetics-based fish population model (DYCD-FISH), was employed with the aim of revealing IGP dynamics. The results indicate that the predation pressure of predatory zooplankton on herbivorous zooplankton varies widely, depending on the season...
March 29, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287479/stat5-interacting-proteins-a-synopsis-of-proteins-that-regulate-stat5-activity
#18
REVIEW
Ashley A Able, Jasmine A Burrell, Jacqueline M Stephens
Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are key components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Of the seven STATs, STAT5A and STAT5B are of particular interest for their critical roles in cellular differentiation, adipogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune function. The interactions of STAT5A and STAT5B with cytokine/hormone receptors, nuclear receptors, transcriptional regulators, proto-oncogenes, kinases, and phosphatases all contribute to modulating STAT5 activity. Among these STAT5 interacting proteins, some serve as coactivators or corepressors to regulate STAT5 transcriptional activity and some proteins can interact with STAT5 to enhance or repress STAT5 signaling...
March 11, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287462/snp-discovery-using-a-pangenome-has-the-single-reference-approach-become-obsolete
#19
REVIEW
Bhavna Hurgobin, David Edwards
Increasing evidence suggests that a single individual is insufficient to capture the genetic diversity within a species due to gene presence absence variation. In order to understand the extent to which genomic variation occurs in a species, the construction of its pangenome is necessary. The pangenome represents the complete set of genes of a species; it is composed of core genes, which are present in all individuals, and variable genes, which are present only in some individuals. Aside from variations at the gene level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are also an important form of genetic variation...
March 11, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272331/ornithine-aminotransferase-an-important-glutamate-metabolizing-enzyme-at-the-crossroads-of-multiple-metabolic-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Antonin Ginguay, Luc Cynober, Emmanuel Curis, Ioannis Nicolis
Ornithine δ-aminotransferase (OAT, E.C. 2.6.1.13) catalyzes the transfer of the δ-amino group from ornithine (Orn) to α-ketoglutarate (aKG), yielding glutamate-5-semialdehyde and glutamate (Glu), and vice versa. In mammals, OAT is a mitochondrial enzyme, mainly located in the liver, intestine, brain, and kidney. In general, OAT serves to form glutamate from ornithine, with the notable exception of the intestine, where citrulline (Cit) or arginine (Arg) are end products. Its main function is to control the production of signaling molecules and mediators, such as Glu itself, Cit, GABA, and aliphatic polyamines...
March 7, 2017: Biology
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