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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218660/anaphase-a-disassembling-microtubules-move-chromosomes-toward-spindle-poles
#1
REVIEW
Charles L Asbury
The separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is the culmination of mitosis and one of the most strikingly beautiful examples of cellular movement. It consists of two distinct processes: Anaphase A, the movement of chromosomes toward spindle poles via shortening of the connecting fibers, and anaphase B, separation of the two poles from one another via spindle elongation. I focus here on anaphase A chromosome-to-pole movement. The chapter begins by summarizing classical observations of chromosome movements, which support the current understanding of anaphase mechanisms...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218638/metagaap-a-novel-pipeline-to-estimate-community-composition-and-abundance-from-non-model-sequence-data
#2
Christopher Noune, Caroline Hauxwell
Next generation sequencing and bioinformatic approaches are increasingly used to quantify microorganisms within populations by analysis of 'meta-barcode' data. This approach relies on comparison of amplicon sequences of 'barcode' regions from a population with public-domain databases of reference sequences. However, for many organisms relevant 'barcode' regions may not have been identified and large databases of reference sequences may not be available. A workflow and software pipeline, 'MetaGaAP,' was developed to identify and quantify genotypes through four steps: shotgun sequencing and identification of polymorphisms in a metapopulation to identify custom 'barcode' regions of less than 30 polymorphisms within the span of a single 'read', amplification and sequencing of the 'barcode', generation of a custom database of polymorphisms, and quantitation of the relative abundance of genotypes...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#3
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208750/the-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-mitosis-and-meiosis
#4
REVIEW
Tamara Potapova, Gary J Gorbsky
Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208702/the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-pathway-and-its-roles-in-cell-and-tissue-biology-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Plaitakis, Ester Kalef-Ezra, Dimitra Kotzamani, Ioannis Zaganas, Cleanthe Spanaki
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165421/circadian-rhythms-and-hormonal-homeostasis-pathophysiological-implications
#6
REVIEW
Davide Gnocchi, Giovannella Bruscalupi
Over recent years, a deeper comprehension of the molecular mechanisms that control biological clocks and circadian rhythms has been achieved. In fact, many studies have contributed to unravelling the importance of the molecular clock for the regulation of our physiology, including hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. Here we will review the structure, organisation and molecular machinery that make our circadian clock work, and its relevance for the proper functioning of physiological processes. We will also describe the interconnections between circadian rhythms and endocrine homeostasis, as well as the underlying consequences that circadian dysregulations might have in the development of several pathologic affections...
February 4, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165385/quantitative-profiling-of-hydroxy-lipid-metabolites-in-mouse-organs-reveals-distinct-lipidomic-profiles-and-modifications-due-to-elevated-n-3-fatty-acid-levels
#7
Cheng-Ying Chiu, Christopher Smyl, Inci Dogan, Michael Rothe, Karsten-H Weylandt
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels...
February 4, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165376/metaphase-spindle-assembly
#8
REVIEW
Tarun M Kapoor
A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells.
February 3, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146053/cardiac-channelopathies-and-sudden-death-recent-clinical-and-genetic-advances
#9
REVIEW
Anna Fernández-Falgueras, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Josep Brugada, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia)...
January 29, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125061/mitotic-spindle-assembly-in-land-plants-molecules-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Moé Yamada, Gohta Goshima
In textbooks, the mitotic spindles of plants are often described separately from those of animals. How do they differ at the molecular and mechanistic levels? In this chapter, we first outline the process of mitotic spindle assembly in animals and land plants. We next discuss the conservation of spindle assembly factors based on database searches. Searches of >100 animal spindle assembly factors showed that the genes involved in this process are well conserved in plants, with the exception of two major missing elements: centrosomal components and subunits/regulators of the cytoplasmic dynein complex...
January 25, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125021/a-molecular-view-of-kinetochore-assembly-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Musacchio, Arshad Desai
Kinetochores are large protein assemblies that connect chromosomes to microtubules of the mitotic and meiotic spindles in order to distribute the replicated genome from a mother cell to its daughters. Kinetochores also control feedback mechanisms responsible for the correction of incorrect microtubule attachments, and for the coordination of chromosome attachment with cell cycle progression. Finally, kinetochores contribute to their own preservation, across generations, at the specific chromosomal loci devoted to host them, the centromeres...
January 24, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106766/the-anti-oxidant-defense-system-of-the-marine-polar-ciliate-euplotes-nobilii-characterization-of-the-msrb-gene-family
#12
Francesca Ricci, Federico M Lauro, Joseph J Grzymski, Robert Read, Rigers Bakiu, Gianfranco Santovito, Pierangelo Luporini, Adriana Vallesi
Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E...
January 18, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085037/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-biology-in-2016
#13
EDITORIAL
Biology Editorial Office
The editors of Biology would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067761/mechanisms-to-avoid-and-correct-erroneous-kinetochore-microtubule-attachments
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Lampson, Ekaterina L Grishchuk
In dividing vertebrate cells multiple microtubules must connect to mitotic kinetochores in a highly stereotypical manner, with each sister kinetochore forming microtubule attachments to only one spindle pole. The exact sequence of events by which this goal is achieved varies considerably from cell to cell because of the variable locations of kinetochores and spindle poles, and randomness of initial microtubule attachments. These chance encounters with the kinetochores nonetheless ultimately lead to the desired outcome with high fidelity and in a limited time frame, providing one of the most startling examples of biological self-organization...
January 5, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009830/a-brief-history-of-research-on-mitotic-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
J Richard McIntosh, Thomas Hays
This chapter describes in summary form some of the most important research on chromosome segregation, from the discovery and naming of mitosis in the nineteenth century until around 1990. It gives both historical and scientific background for the nine chapters that follow, each of which provides an up-to-date review of a specific aspect of mitotic mechanism. Here, we trace the fruits of each new technology that allowed a deeper understanding of mitosis and its underlying mechanisms. We describe how light microscopy, including phase, polarization, and fluorescence optics, provided descriptive information about mitotic events and also enabled important experimentation on mitotic functions, such as the dynamics of spindle fibers and the forces generated for chromosome movement...
December 21, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983647/critical-function-of-prdm2-in-the-neoplastic-growth-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#16
Erika Di Zazzo, Carola Porcile, Silvia Bartollino, Bruno Moncharmont
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) derive from primordial germ cells. Their maturation is blocked at different stages, reflecting histological tumor subtypes. A common genetic alteration in TGCT is a deletion of the chromosome 1 short arm, where the PRDM2 gene, belonging to the Positive Regulatory domain gene (PRDM) family, is located. Expression of PRDM2 gene is shifted in different human tumors, where the expression of the two principal protein forms coded by PRDM2 gene, RIZ1 and RIZ2, is frequently unbalanced...
December 14, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983623/multiple-forms-of-glutamate-dehydrogenase-in-animals-structural-determinants-and-physiological-implications
#17
REVIEW
Victoria Bunik, Artem Artiukhov, Vasily Aleshin, Garik Mkrtchyan
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of animal cells is usually considered to be a mitochondrial enzyme. However, this enzyme has recently been reported to be also present in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. These extramitochondrial localizations are associated with moonlighting functions of GDH, which include acting as a serine protease or an ATP-dependent tubulin-binding protein. Here, we review the published data on kinetics and localization of multiple forms of animal GDH taking into account the splice variants, post-translational modifications and GDH isoenzymes, found in humans and apes...
December 14, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941666/subjective-mood-in-young-unmedicated-depressed-women-under-high-and-low-sleep-pressure-conditions
#18
Angelina Birchler-Pedross, Sylvia Frey, Thomas Götz, Patrick Brunner, Vera Knoblauch, Anna Wirz-Justice, Sarah L Chellappa, Christian Cajochen
Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD) can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD) without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure) and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure) protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min...
December 9, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941648/anaphase-b
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan M Scholey, Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey, Ingrid Brust-Mascher
Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical "modules" that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs); (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards; (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization; and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux...
December 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#20
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
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