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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#1
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918433/protein-phosphatase-1-regulates-expression-of-neuregulin-1
#2
Tatiana Ammosova, Kareem Washington, Jamie Rotimi, Namita Kumari, Kahli A Smith, Xiaomei Niu, Marina Jerebtsova, Sergei Nekhai
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9). Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1) that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918421/decreased-stat3-phosphorylation-mediates-cell-swelling-in-ammonia-treated-astrocyte-cultures
#3
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Kevin M Curtis, Kiran S Panickar, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Michael D Norenberg
Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916881/optimization-of-cyanine-dye-stability-and-analysis-of-fret-interaction-on-dna-microarrays
#4
Marcel von der Haar, Christopher Heuer, Martin Pähler, Kathrin von der Haar, Patrick Lindner, Thomas Scheper, Frank Stahl
The application of DNA microarrays for high throughput analysis of genetic regulation is often limited by the fluorophores used as markers. The implementation of multi-scan techniques is limited by the fluorophores' susceptibility to photobleaching when exposed to the scanner laser light. This paper presents combined mechanical and chemical strategies which enhance the photostability of cyanine 3 and cyanine 5 as part of solid state DNA microarrays. These strategies are based on scanning the microarrays while the hybridized DNA is still in an aqueous solution with the presence of a reductive/oxidative system (ROXS)...
November 30, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897997/thermal-resilience-of-feeding-kinematics-may-contribute-to-the-spread-of-invasive-fishes-in-light-of-climate-change
#5
Ralph Turingan, Tyler Sloan
As a consequence of global warming, tropical invasive species are expected to expand their range pole-ward, extending their negative impacts to previously undisturbed, high-latitude ecosystems. Investigating the physiological responses of invasive species to environmental temperature is important because the coupled effects of climate change and species invasion on ecosystems could be more alarming than the effects of each phenomenon independently. Especially in poikilotherms, the rate of motion in muscle-driven biomechanical systems is expected to double for every 10 °C increase in temperature...
November 25, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879632/fish-immunoglobulins
#6
REVIEW
Sara Mashoof, Michael F Criscitiello
The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception...
November 21, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869759/a-cell-biological-perspective-on-past-present-and-future-investigations-of-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#7
REVIEW
Ajit P Joglekar
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a quality control mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. It consists of a mechanochemical signal transduction mechanism that senses the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle, and a signaling cascade that inhibits cell division if one or more chromosomes are not attached. Extensive investigations of both these component systems of the SAC have synthesized a comprehensive understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. This review recounts the milestone results that elucidated the SAC, compiles a simple model of the complex molecular machinery underlying the SAC, and highlights poorly understood facets of the biochemical design and cell biological operation of the SAC that will drive research forward in the near future...
November 19, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869660/use-of-a-fluorescent-aptamer-rna-as-an-exonic-sequence-to-analyze-self-splicing-ability-of-agroup-i-intron-from-structured-rnas
#8
Airi Furukawa, Takahiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Furuta, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
Group I self-splicing intron constitutes an important class of functional RNA molecules that can promote chemical transformation. Although the fundamental mechanism of the auto-excision from its precursor RNA has been established, convenient assay systems for its splicing activity are still useful for a further understanding of its detailed mechanism and of its application. Because some host RNA sequences, to which group I introns inserted form stable three-dimensional (3D) structures, the effects of the 3D structures of exonic elements on the splicing efficiency of group I introns are important but not a fully investigated issue...
November 17, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834813/the-potential-of-non-provitamin-a-carotenoids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ana Gabriela Murillo, Diana M DiMarco, Maria Luz Fernandez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition...
November 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792170/x-ray-diffraction-evidence-for-low-force-actin-attached-and-rigor-like-cross-bridges-in-the-contractile-cycle
#10
Felicity Eakins, Christian Pinali, Anthony Gleeson, Carlo Knupp, John M Squire
Defining the structural changes involved in the myosin cross-bridge cycle on actin in active muscle by X-ray diffraction will involve recording of the whole two dimensional (2D) X-ray diffraction pattern from active muscle in a time-resolved manner. Bony fish muscle is the most highly ordered vertebrate striated muscle to study. With partial sarcomere length (SL) control we show that changes in the fish muscle equatorial A-band (10) and (11) reflections, along with (10)/(11) intensity ratio and the tension, are much more rapid than without such control...
October 26, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775558/minireview-on-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency-an-ultra-rare-inborn-error-of-amino-acid-biosynthesis
#11
Marta Spodenkiewicz, Carmen Diez-Fernandez, Véronique Rüfenacht, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Johannes Häberle
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a cytosolic enzyme that produces glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Glutamine is a major substrate for various metabolic pathways, and is thus an important factor for the functioning of many organs; therefore, deficiency of glutamine due to a defect in GS is incompatible with normal life. Mutations in the human GLUL gene (encoding for GS) can cause an ultra-rare recessive inborn error of metabolism-congenital glutamine synthetase deficiency. This disease was reported until now in only three unrelated patients, all of whom suffered from neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy...
October 19, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740597/lactate-as-a-signaling-molecule-that-regulates-exercise-induced-adaptations
#12
Minas Nalbandian, Masaki Takeda
Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed to an energy source, and in the last two decades new evidence suggests that lactate may play a much bigger role than was previously believed: many adaptations to exercise may be mediated in some way by lactate...
October 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740596/development-of-a-qpcr-method-to-measure-mitochondrial-and-genomic-dna-damage-with-application-to-chemotherapy-induced-dna-damage-and-cryopreserved-cells
#13
Stephen O Evans, Michael B Jameson, Ray T M Cursons, Linda M Peters, Steve Bird, Gregory M Jacobson
DNA damage quantitation assays such as the comet assay have focused on the measurement of total nuclear damage per cell. The adoption of PCR-based techniques to quantify DNA damage has enabled sequence- and organelle-specific assessment of DNA lesions. Here we report on an adaptation of a qPCR technique to assess DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial targets relative to control. Novel aspects of this assay include application of the assay to the Rotor-Gene platform with optimized DNA polymerase/fluorophore/primer set combination in a touchdown PCR protocol...
October 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740595/how-glutamate-is-managed-by-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Richard A Hawkins, Juan R Viña
A facilitative transport system exists on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that has been tacitly assumed to be a path for glutamate entry to the brain. However, glutamate is a non-essential amino acid whose brain content is much greater than plasma, and studies in vivo show that glutamate does not enter the brain in appreciable quantities except in those small regions with fenestrated capillaries (circumventricular organs). The situation became understandable when luminal (blood facing) and abluminal (brain facing) membranes were isolated and studied separately...
October 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706023/how-doth-the-little-crocodilian-analyzing-the-influence-of-environmental-viscosity-on-feeding-performance-of-juvenile-alligator-mississippiensis
#15
James R Kerfoot, Emily Easter, Ruth M Elsey
Wetland habitats are used as nursery sites for hatchling and juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), where they utilize prey from aquatic and terrestrial settings. However, little is known about how viscosity of the medium influences feeding performance. We hypothesized that timing and linear excursion feeding kinematic variables would be different for individuals feeding on prey above the water compared with the same individuals feeding underwater. Individuals were fed immobile fish prey and feeding events were recorded using a high speed video camera...
September 30, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420105/circadian-regulation-of-synaptic-plasticity
#16
REVIEW
Marcos G Frank
Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity...
July 13, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399791/phenotype-as-agent-for-epigenetic-inheritance
#17
John S Torday, William B Miller
The conventional understanding of phenotype is as a derivative of descent with modification through Darwinian random mutation and natural selection. Recent research has revealed Lamarckian inheritance as a major transgenerational mechanism for environmental action on genomes whose extent is determined, in significant part, by germ line cells during meiosis and subsequent stages of embryological development. In consequence, the role of phenotype can productively be reconsidered. The possibility that phenotype is directed towards the effective acquisition of epigenetic marks in consistent reciprocation with the environment during the life cycle of an organism is explored...
July 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626454/giraffe-stature-and-neck-elongation-vigilance-as-an-evolutionary-mechanism
#18
REVIEW
Edgar M Williams
Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. How these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. The two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. While both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. The extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of increased height is reviewed...
2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618116/individual-differences-in-the-post-illumination-pupil-response-to-blue-light-assessment-without-mydriatics
#19
Jessica Bruijel, Wisse P van der Meijden, Denise Bijlenga, Farangis Dorani, Joris E Coppens, Bart H W Te Lindert, J J Sandra Kooij, Eus J W Van Someren
Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise...
2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548240/quantifying-mosaic-development-towards-an-evo-devo-postmodern-synthesis-of-the-evolution-of-development-via-differentiation-trees-of-embryos
#20
Bradly Alicea, Richard Gordon
Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Ciona intestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa...
2016: Biology
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