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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324687/intraperitoneal-administration-of-oxygen-ozone-to-rats-reduces-the-pancreatic-damage-induced-by-streptozotocin
#1
Dario Siniscalco, Maria Consiglia Trotta, Anna Lisa Brigida, Rosa Maisto, Margherita Luongo, Franca Ferraraccio, Michele D'Amico, Clara Di Filippo
Background: The rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreatic damage was used to examine whether a systemic oxygen/ozone mixture could be beneficial for the pancreas by reducing the machinery of the local detrimental mediators released by STZ. Results: The results showed that oxygen/ozone administration (150 µg/Kg i.p.) for ten days in STZ rats increased the endogenous glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzyme and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into the pancreatic tissue, together with reduction of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and PARP-1 compared to STZ rats receiving O₂ only...
January 11, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315249/bacteriophage-%C3%AE-sa012-has-a-broad-host-range-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-effective-lytic-capacity-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model
#2
Hidetomo Iwano, Yusuke Inoue, Takuji Takasago, Hironori Kobayashi, Takaaki Furusawa, Kotomi Taniguchi, Jumpei Fujiki, Hiroshi Yokota, Masaru Usui, Yasunori Tanji, Katsuro Hagiwara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Yutaka Tamura
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection in dairy cattle. It is the most costly disease in the dairy industry because of the high use of antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required in the dairy industry. One potential strategy is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. In the present study, we examined the host range of previously isolated S...
January 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315244/effects-of-sex-steroids-on-fish-leukocytes
#3
REVIEW
Elena Chaves-Pozo, Alfonsa García-Ayala, Isabel Cabas
In vertebrates, in addition to their classically reproductive functions, steroids regulate the immune system. This action is possible mainly due to the presence of steroid receptors in the different immune cell types. Much evidence suggests that the immune system of fish is vulnerable to xenosteroids, which are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In vivo and in vitro assays have amply demonstrated that oestrogens interfere with both the innate and the adaptive immune system of fish by regulating the main leukocyte activities and transcriptional genes...
January 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315240/the-kiss-switch-brings-inactive-r3c-ligase-ribozyme-back-to-life
#4
Kana Tanizawa, Sayuri Uchida, Eri Kurihara, Takuya Umehara, Koji Tamura
R3C ligase ribozyme catalyzes the nucleophilic attack by a 3'-hydroxyl on a 5'-α-phosphorus of triphosphates to form a 3'-5'-phosphodiester bond. In the present study, although the truncation of R3C ribozyme was accompanied by a large reduction in ligation activity (decrease by two orders of magnitude compared to that of the ligated product of full-length R3C ribozyme after 18.5 h at 23 °C), the introduction of complementary seven-membered kissing-loops served as a "switch" to reactivate the truncated R3C ribozyme with approximately one-fifth of the activity of the full-length R3C ribozyme...
January 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316622/interaction-analysis-of-longevity-interventions-using-survival-curves
#5
Stefan Nowak, Johannes Neidhart, Ivan G Szendro, Jonas Rzezonka, Rahul Marathe, Joachim Krug
A long-standing problem in ageing research is to understand how different factors contributing to longevity should be expected to act in combination under the assumption that they are independent. Standard interaction analysis compares the extension of mean lifespan achieved by a combination of interventions to the prediction under an additive or multiplicative null model, but neither model is fundamentally justified. Moreover, the target of longevity interventions is not mean life span but the entire survival curve...
January 6, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301327/family-a-and-b-dna-polymerases-in-cancer-opportunities-for-therapeutic-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Vinit Shanbhag, Shrikesh Sachdev, Jacqueline A Flores, Mukund J Modak, Kamalendra Singh
DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication, DNA repair and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Broadly, these enzymes belong to two groups: replicative and non-replicative DNA polymerases. A considerable body of data suggests that both groups of DNA polymerases are associated with cancer. Many mutations in cancer cells are either the result of error-prone DNA synthesis by non-replicative polymerases, or the inability of replicative DNA polymerases to proofread mismatched nucleotides due to mutations in 3'-5' exonuclease activity...
January 2, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286322/harvesting-environmental-microalgal-blooms-for-remediation-and-resource-recovery-a-laboratory-scale-investigation-with-economic-and-microbial-community-impact-assessment
#7
Jagroop Pandhal, Wai L Choon, Rahul V Kapoore, David A Russo, James Hanotu, I A Grant Wilson, Pratik Desai, Malcolm Bailey, William J Zimmerman, Andrew S Ferguson
A laboratory based microflotation rig termed efficient FLOtation of Algae Technology (eFLOAT) was used to optimise parameters for harvesting microalgal biomass from eutrophic water systems. This was performed for the dual objectives of remediation (nutrient removal) and resource recovery. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient than alum for flocculation of biomass and the presence of bacteria could play a positive role and reduce flocculant application rates under the natural conditions tested...
December 29, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278377/media-screening-for-obtaining-haematococcus-pluvialis-red-motile-macrozooids-rich-in-astaxanthin-and-fatty-acids
#8
Thomas O Butler, Gordon J McDougall, Raymond Campbell, Michele S Stanley, John G Day
Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis is commercially produced in a two-stage process, involving green vegetative (macrozooid) and red aplanospore stages. This approach has been scaled up to an industrial process but constraints limit its commercial success and profitability, including: contamination issues, high pigment extraction costs, requirements for high light levels and photo-bleaching in the red stage. However, in addition to the aplanospore stage, this alga can produce astaxanthin in vegetative palmelloid and motile macrozooid cells...
December 26, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278359/incomplete-penetrance-and-variable-expressivity-hallmarks-in-channelopathies-associated-with-sudden-cardiac-death
#9
REVIEW
Monica Coll, Alexandra Pérez-Serra, Jesus Mates, Bernat Del Olmo, Marta Puigmulé, Anna Fernandez-Falgueras, Anna Iglesias, Ferran Picó, Laura Lopez, Ramon Brugada, Oscar Campuzano
Sudden cardiac death is defined as an unexpected decease of cardiac origin. In individuals under 35 years old, most of these deaths are due to familial arrhythmogenic syndromes of genetic origin, also known as channelopathies. These familial cardiac syndromes commonly follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Diagnosis, however, can be difficult, mainly due to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, which are hallmarks in these syndromes. The clinical manifestation of these diseases can range from asymptomatic to syncope but sudden death can sometimes be the first symptom of disease...
December 26, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295479/age-dependence-and-aging-dependence-neuronal-loss-and-lifespan-in-a-c-elegans-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Javier Apfeld, Walter Fontana
It is often assumed, but not established, that the major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, are not just age-dependent (their incidence changes with time) but actually aging-dependent (their incidence is coupled to the process that determines lifespan). To determine a dependence on the aging process requires the joint probability distribution of disease onset and lifespan. For human Parkinson's disease, such a joint distribution is not available, because the disease cuts lifespan short...
December 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261138/was-the-watchmaker-blind-or-was-she-one-eyed
#11
REVIEW
Raymond Noble, Denis Noble
The question whether evolution is blind is usually presented as a choice between no goals at all ('the blind watchmaker') and long-term goals which would be external to the organism, for example in the form of special creation or intelligent design. The arguments either way do not address the question whether there are short-term goals within rather than external to organisms. Organisms and their interacting populations have evolved mechanisms by which they can harness blind stochasticity and so generate rapid functional responses to environmental challenges...
December 20, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258225/stability-of-signaling-pathways-during-aging-a-boolean-network-approach
#12
Julian Daniel Schwab, Lea Siegle, Silke Daniela Kühlwein, Michael Kühl, Hans Armin Kestler
Biological pathways are thought to be robust against a variety of internal and external perturbations. Fail-safe mechanisms allow for compensation of perturbations to maintain the characteristic function of a pathway. Pathways can undergo changes during aging, which may lead to changes in their stability. Less stable or less robust pathways may be consequential to or increase the susceptibility of the development of diseases. Among others, NF- κ B signaling is a crucial pathway in the process of aging. The NF- κ B system is involved in the immune response and dealing with various internal and external stresses...
December 18, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244725/exploring-the-glycans-of-euglena-gracilis
#13
Ellis C O'Neill, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Martin Rejzek, Jonatan U Fangel, Kathirvel Alagesan, Daniel Kolarich, William G T Willats, Robert A Field
Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an unexpectedly high capacity for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates for a single-celled organism. Here, we present an analysis of some of the carbohydrates synthesised by Euglena gracilis. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool showed that there are the substrates necessary for synthesis of complex polysaccharides, including the unusual sugar galactofuranose...
December 15, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231906/simulation-of-cellular-energy-restriction-in-quiescence-eriq-a-theoretical-model-for-aging
#14
David Alfego, Andres Kriete
Cellular responses to energy stress involve activation of pro-survival signaling nodes, compensation in regulatory pathways and adaptations in organelle function. Specifically, energy restriction in quiescent cells (ERiQ) through energetic perturbations causes adaptive changes in response to reduced ATP, NAD+ and NADP levels in a regulatory network spanned by AKT, NF-κB, p53 and mTOR. Based on the experimental ERiQ platform, we have constructed a minimalistic theoretical model consisting of feedback motifs that enable investigation of stress-signaling pathways...
December 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231847/natural-knockouts-natural-selection-knocked-out
#15
Peter Borger
In functional genomics studies, research is dedicated to unveiling the function of genes using gene-knockouts, model organisms in which a gene is artificially inactivated. The idea is that, by knocking out the gene, the provoked phenotype would inform us about the function of the gene. Still, the function of many genes cannot be elucidated, because disruption of conserved sequences, including protein-coding genes, often does not directly affect the phenotype. Since the phenomenon was first observed in the early nineties of the last century, these so-called 'no-phenotype knockouts' have met with great skepticism and resistance by died-in-the-wool selectionists...
December 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211049/living-organisms-author-their-read-write-genomes-in-evolution
#16
REVIEW
James A Shapiro
Evolutionary variations generating phenotypic adaptations and novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities altering genome content and expression: (i) Symbiogenetic cell mergers producing the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of eukaryotes and chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes; (ii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings generating new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals; and, (iii) interspecific horizontal DNA transfer encoding virtually all of the cellular functions between organisms and their viruses in all domains of life...
December 6, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194351/identification-of-a-raloxifene-analog-that-promotes-ahr-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells
#17
Hyo Sang Jang, Martin Pearce, Edmond F O'Donnell, Bach Duc Nguyen, Lisa Truong, Monica J Mueller, William H Bisson, Nancy I Kerkvliet, Robert L Tanguay, Siva Kumar Kolluri
We previously reported that raloxifene, an estrogen receptor modulator, is also a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Raloxifene induces apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative human cancer cells through the AhR. We performed structure-activity studies with seven raloxifene analogs to better understand the structural requirements of raloxifene for induction of AhR-mediated transcriptional activity and apoptosis. We identified Y134 as a raloxifene analog that activates AhR-mediated transcriptional activity and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human triple negative breast cancer cells...
December 1, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168762/dual-roles-of-fer-kinase-are-required-for-proper-hematopoiesis-and-vascular-endothelium-organization-during-zebrafish-development
#18
Emily M Dunn, Elizabeth J Billquist, Amy L VanderStoep, Phillip G Bax, Laura M Westrate, Lisa K McLellan, Shelby C Peterson, Jeffrey P MacKeigan, Aaron P Putzke
Fer kinase, a protein involved in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and proliferation, has been shown to be required during invertebrate development and has been implicated in leukemia, gastric cancer, and liver cancer. However, in vivo roles for Fer during vertebrate development have remained elusive. In this study, we bridge the gap between the invertebrate and vertebrate realms by showing that Fer kinase is required during zebrafish embryogenesis for normal hematopoiesis and vascular organization with distinct kinase dependent and independent functions...
November 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165340/impacts-of-low-temperature-on-the-teleost-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Quinn H Abram, Brian Dixon, Barbara A Katzenback
As poikilothermic vertebrates, fish can experience changes in water temperature, and hence body temperature, as a result of seasonal changes, migration, or efflux of large quantities of effluent into a body of water. Temperature shifts outside of the optimal temperature range for an individual fish species can have negative impacts on the physiology of the animal, including the immune system. As a result, acute or chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures can impair an organisms' ability to defend against pathogens and thus compromise the overall health of the animal...
November 22, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137146/the-dynamics-of-arrivals-of-maine-migratory-breeding-birds-results-from-a-24-year-study
#20
W Herbert Wilson
This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899-1911 with the modern data (1994-2017) collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas...
November 12, 2017: Biology
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