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Eye and Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760575/the-development-of-human-visual-cortex-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Caitlin R Siu, Kathryn M Murphy
The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first cortical area that processes visual information. Normal development of V1 depends on binocular vision during the critical period, and age-related losses of vision are linked with neurobiological changes in V1. Animal studies have provided important details about the neurobiological mechanisms in V1 that support normal vision or are changed by visual diseases. There is very little information, however, about those neurobiological mechanisms in human V1. That lack of information has hampered the translation of biologically inspired treatments from preclinical models to effective clinical treatments...
2018: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440943/state-of-the-art-of-robotic-surgery-related-to-vision-brain-and-eye-applications-of-newly-available-devices
#2
REVIEW
Raffaele Nuzzi, Luca Brusasco
Background: Robot-assisted surgery has revolutionized many surgical subspecialties, mainly where procedures have to be performed in confined, difficult to visualize spaces. Despite advances in general surgery and neurosurgery, in vivo application of robotics to ocular surgery is still in its infancy, owing to the particular complexities of microsurgery. The use of robotic assistance and feedback guidance on surgical maneuvers could improve the technical performance of expert surgeons during the initial phase of the learning curve...
2018: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416384/profile-of-tocilizumab-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#3
REVIEW
Susan Patricia Mollan, John Horsburgh, Bhaskar Dasgupta
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) remains a medical emergency due to the threat of permanent sight loss. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective in inducing remission in the majority of patients, however, relapses are common which lengthen GC therapy. GC toxicity remains a major morbidity in this group of patients, and conventional steroid-sparing therapies have not yet shown enough of a clinical benefit to change the standard of care. As the understanding of the underlying immunopathophysiology of GCA has increased, positive clinical observations have been made with the use of IL-6 receptor inhibitor therapies, such as tocilizumab (TCZ)...
2018: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033621/nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-cause-effect-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Shauna Berry, Weijie V Lin, Ama Sadaka, Andrew G Lee
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common form of ischemic optic neuropathy and the second most common optic neuropathy. Patients are generally over the age of 50 years with vasculopathic risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea). The exact mechanism of NAION is not fully understood. In addition, several treatment options have been proposed. This article summarizes the current literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of NAION...
2017: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761385/contextual-modulation-revealed-by-optical-imaging-exhibits-figural-asymmetry-in-macaque-v1-and-v2
#5
Mark D Zarella, Daniel Y Ts'o
Neurons in early visual cortical areas are influenced by stimuli presented well beyond the confines of their classical receptive fields, endowing them with the ability to encode fine-scale features while also having access to the global context of the visual scene. This property can potentially define a role for the early visual cortex to contribute to a number of important visual functions, such as surface segmentation and figure-ground segregation. It is unknown how extraclassical response properties conform to the functional architecture of the visual cortex, given the high degree of functional specialization in areas V1 and V2...
2017: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721111/visual-consequences-of-medications-for-multiple-sclerosis-the-good-the-bad-the-ugly-and-the-unknown
#6
REVIEW
Heather E Moss
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with vision changes both due to MS effects on visual pathways and due to medication effects on the visual pathways. Distinguishing the causes of vision change are critical to appropriate diagnosis and management. The incidence, presentation, and treatment of fingolimod-associated macular edema, alemtuzumab-associated thyroid orbitopathy, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in MS patients are reviewed. Evidence for beneficial effects of acute, chronic, and symptomatic MS medications on vision is presented...
2017: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539814/optic-neuritis-as-an-early-sign-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Nilufer Kale
Optic neuritis (ON) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve. The general characteristics of isolated ON include unilateral, subacute, and painful visual loss without systemic or other neurological symptoms. The etiology for ON varies including demyelinating disorders or infections, inflammation, toxic reasons, and genetic disorders. In most cases the responsible etiology may not be known for ON and in this case, it is termed idiopathic ON. When a patient presents with an initial episode of ON, patients should undergo further tests...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539813/cue-combination-encoding-via-contextual-modulation-of-v1-and-v2-neurons
#8
Mark D Zarella, Daniel Y Ts'o
Neurons in early visual cortical areas encode the local properties of a stimulus in a number of different feature dimensions such as color, orientation, and motion. It has been shown, however, that stimuli presented well beyond the confines of the classical receptive field can augment these responses in a way that emphasizes these local attributes within the greater context of the visual scene. This mechanism imparts global information to cells that are otherwise considered local feature detectors and can potentially serve as an important foundation for surface segmentation, texture representation, and figure-ground segregation...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539812/prosopagnosia-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Sherryse L Corrow, Kirsten A Dalrymple, Jason Js Barton
Prosopagnosia is a selective visual agnosia characterized by the inability to recognize the identity of faces. There are both acquired forms secondary to brain damage and developmental forms without obvious structural lesions. In this review, we first discuss the diagnosis of acquired and developmental prosopagnosia, and the challenges present in the latter case. Second, we discuss the evidence regarding the selectivity of the prosopagnosic defect, particularly in relation to the recognition of other objects, written words (another visual object category requiring high expertise), and voices...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539811/traumatic-brain-injury-and-vestibulo-ocular-function-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#10
REVIEW
Bridgett Wallace, Jonathan Lifshitz
Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular canals of the inner ear to elicit compensatory eye movements, which maintain stability of images on the fovea during brief, rapid head motion, otherwise known as gaze stability. Normal VOR function is necessary in carrying out activities of daily living (eg, walking and riding in a car) and is of particular importance in higher demand activities (eg, sports-related activities)...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539810/screening-and-treatments-using-telemedicine-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#11
REVIEW
Aristomenis Thanos, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Bozho Todorich, Darius M Moshfeghi, Michael T Trese
Several studies have validated the role of telemedicine as a new powerful screening and diagnostic tool for retinal disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. With regard to retinopathy of prematurity, bedside examination with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy has been the gold standard technique for screening, yet with several limitations. Herein, we review the current evidence that supports the role of telemedicine for the screening of infants with retinopathy of prematurity.
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539809/wnt-signaling-pathway-in-retinal-vascularization
#12
REVIEW
Kimberly A Drenser
Wnt-signaling, a ubiquitous pathway that directs differentiation, cell polarity, and tissue specificity, has been implicated as an important gene-expression pathway in retinal development. An increasing body of evidence supports the importance of Wnt-signaling, and specifically, norrin-mediated Wnt-signaling in retinal development and retinal maintenance. Gene mutations affecting the Wnt-signaling pathways result in a variety of inherited vitreoretinopathies. Additionally, there is growing evidence that prematurity and associated retinopathy are associated with alterations in the Wnt-signaling pathways...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539808/review-of-effects-of-anti-vegf-treatment-on-refractive-error
#13
REVIEW
Helen A Mintz-Hittner, Megan M Geloneck
To examine the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents on refractive error in the setting of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a review of the literature, a PubMed search was performed of appropriate search terms, and the results of all relevant studies were extracted and compiled. Eleven relevant articles were identified in the literature, totaling 466 eyes, treated with varied anti-VEGF agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept) with mean spherical equivalent refractions ranging from +0...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539807/optical-coherence-tomography-of-the-preterm-eye-from-retinopathy-of-prematurity-to-brain-development
#14
REVIEW
Adam L Rothman, Shwetha Mangalesh, Xi Chen, Cynthia A Toth
Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539806/promoting-vascular-repair-in-the-retina-can-stem-progenitor-cells-help
#15
REVIEW
Thao Le Phuong Trinh, Sergio Li Calzi, Lynn C Shaw, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant
Since its first epidemic in the 1940s, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been a challenging illness in neonatology. Higher than physiological oxygen levels impede the development of the immature retinal neuropil and vasculature. Current treatment regimens include cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, and anti-VEGF agents. Unfortunately, none of these approaches can rescue the normal retinal vasculature, and each has significant safety concerns. The limitations of these approaches have led to new efforts to understand the pathological characteristics in each phase of ROP and to find a safer and more effective therapeutic approach...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539805/retinal-visual-and-refractive-development-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#16
REVIEW
Anne Moskowitz, Ronald M Hansen, Anne B Fulton
The pivotal role of the neurosensory retina in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) disease processes has been amply demonstrated in rat models. We have hypothesized that analogous cellular processes are operative in human ROP and have evaluated these presumptions in a series on non-invasive investigations of the photoreceptor and post-receptor peripheral and central retina in infants and children. Key results are slowed kinetics of phototransduction and deficits in photoreceptor sensitivity that persist years after ROP has completely resolved based on clinical criteria...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539804/retinopathy-of-prematurity-the-need-for-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Raffael Liegl, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539803/anti-vegf-therapy-in-the-management-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-what-we-learn-from-representative-animal-models-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#18
REVIEW
Haibo Wang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of childhood blindness, affecting infants born prematurely. ROP is characterized by the onset of delayed physiological retinal vascular development (PRVD) and followed by pathologic neovascularization into the vitreous instead of the retina, called intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV). Therefore, the therapeutic strategy for treating ROP is to promote PRVD and inhibit or prevent IVNV. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ROP...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539802/targeting-vegf-in-canine-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-a-model-for-human-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#19
D Scott McLeod, Gerard A Lutty
Development of the dog superficial retinal vasculature is similar to the mechanism of human retinal vasculature development; they both develop by vasculogenesis, differentiation, and assembly of vascular precursors called angioblasts. Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was first developed by Arnall Patz in an effort to experimentally determine the effects of hyperoxia on the development of the retinal vasculature. The canine OIR model has many characteristics in common with human retinopathy of prematurity...
2016: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539801/impact-of-improved-neonatal-care-on-the-profile-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-rural-neonatal-centers-in-india-over-a-4-year-period
#20
Anand Vinekar, Chaitra Jayadev, Siddesh Kumar, Shwetha Mangalesh, Mangat Ram Dogra, Noel J Bauer, Bhujang Shetty
PURPOSE: To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. METHODS: The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011...
2016: Eye and Brain
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