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Current Nutrition Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430336/influence-of-bile-acids-on-colorectal-cancer-risk-potential-mechanisms-mediated-by-diet-gut-microbiota-interactions
#1
Sören Ocvirk, Stephen Jd O'Keefe
Purpose of review: To review the evidence for the tumorigenic effects of food-stimulated bile acids on the colon and interaction with the gut microbiota. Recent Findings: High-fat diets promote the hepatic synthesis of bile acids and increase their delivery to the colonic lumen. Here, they stimulate the growth and activity of 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, which convert primary into secondary bile acids that show tumorigenic activity, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA)...
December 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201536/the-challenges-of-nutritional-assessment-in-cirrhosis
#2
Alessio Molfino, Sheeva Johnson, Valentina Medici
Purpose of Review: Nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis is very frequently associated with macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. Cirrhosis itself is the cause of malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies but these conditions have to be identified and addressed properly as they can worsen the prognosis of cirrhosis. The goals of this review are to 1) identify and describe the challenges associated with nutritional assessment in cirrhosis and 2) describe recent advancements when using clinical, laboratory, and instrumental tools in the evaluation of malnourished patients with liver diseases...
September 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868211/considerations-when-using-predictive-equations-to-estimate-energy-needs-among-older-hospitalized-patients-a-narrative-review
#3
Elizabeth A Parker, Termeh M Feinberg, Stephanie Wappel, Avelino C Verceles
The aim of this narrative review was to summarize the accuracy of predictive equations used to estimate energy expenditure in older, hospitalized adults. More than 50% of patients admitted to intensive care units are older adults. Currently accepted prediction equations used to determine energy intake in the older, hospitalized patient were not specifically developed for the aging population. Rates of multimorbidity, polypharmacy and malnutrition, conditions that influence energy expenditure, are higher in older adults compared to younger adults...
June 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674639/the-relationship-between-infant-facial-expressions-and-food-acceptance
#4
Catherine A Forestell, Julie A Mennella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the range of methodological approaches used to objectively measure hedonic responses to taste stimuli during the first year of life and how these behavioral responses change with experience. Challenges inherent to this type of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although newborns display characteristic orofacial reactivity to four of the five basic tastes, the facial expressions made and the amount of food consumed can be modified by experience: children learn to like what they are fed...
June 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966881/neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-caloric-restriction-on-brain-metabolic-and-vascular-functions
#5
Ai-Ling Lin, Ishita Parikh, Jared D Hoffman, David Ma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in viv o brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533940/dietary-factors-and-cognitive-function-in-poor-urban-settings
#6
Regina S Wright, Constance Gerassimakis, Desirée Bygrave, Shari R Waldstein
A significant body of evidence suggests that poor dietary intake is associated with reduced cognitive function. However, few studies have examined this relation in poor urban settings. Our brief review suggests that (a) higher overall diet quality may play a particularly important role in cognitive function among the poorest; and (b) greater vitamin E intake is related to better cognitive performance, at least in part, via fewer depressive symptoms. The broader recent literature strongly suggests the beneficial role of diet for learning and memory, and potentially synergistic influences on other cognitive domains...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944099/novel-online-or-mobile-methods-to-assess-eating-patterns
#7
REVIEW
Felicity J Pendergast, Rebecca M Leech, Sarah A McNaughton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in technology-based dietary assessment allow real-time data collection of eating occasions, yet their application to assessing eating pattern constructs has not been evaluated. The purpose of this review was to examine existing electronic and mobile food diary methods in relation to their ability to assess eating patterns constructs (e.g. patterning, format and context of eating occasions). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search of electronic databases identified 18 dietary assessment methods...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944098/the-role-of-vitamin-k-status-in-cardiovascular-health-evidence-from-observational-and-clinical-studies
#8
REVIEW
A J van Ballegooijen, J W Beulens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596932/are-there-sensitive-periods-for-food-acceptance-in-infancy
#9
REVIEW
Gillian Harris, Sarah Mason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A sensitive period in development is one in which it is easier for learning to take place; the behaviour can however still be learned at a later stage, but with more difficulty. This is in contrast to a critical period, a time at which a behaviour must be learned, and if this window of opportunity is missed, then the behaviour can never be acquired. Both might determine food acceptance in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence to support the idea of a sensitive period for the introduction of tastes, a critical period for the introduction of textures and for the development of oral motor function, and a possible critical period for the introduction of new foods but only in children where there is an innate disposition to develop early and extreme disgust responses...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596931/a-systematic-review-of-methods-for-increasing-vegetable-consumption-in-early-childhood
#10
REVIEW
Clare E Holley, Claire Farrow, Emma Haycraft
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to synthesise the body of research investigating methods for increasing vegetable consumption in 2- to 5-year-old children, while offering advice for practitioners. RECENT FINDINGS: Repeated exposure is a well-supported method for increasing vegetable consumption in early childhood and may be enhanced with the inclusion of non-food rewards to incentivise tasting. Peer models appear particularly effective for increasing 2-5-year-olds' vegetable consumption...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596930/baby-led-weaning-the-evidence-to-date
#11
REVIEW
Amy Brown, Sara Wyn Jones, Hannah Rowan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infants are traditionally introduced to solid foods using spoon-feeding of specially prepared infant foods. RECENT FINDINGS: However, over the last 10-15 years, an alternative approach termed 'baby-led weaning' has grown in popularity. This approach involves allowing infants to self-feed family foods, encouraging the infant to set the pace and intake of the meal. Proponents of the approach believe it promotes healthy eating behaviour and weight gain trajectories, and evidence is starting to build surrounding the method...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331770/traditional-food-items-in-ogimi-okinawa-l-serine-content-and-the-potential-for-neuroprotection
#12
REVIEW
Paul Alan Cox, James S Metcalf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ogimi village is renowned for its aging population. We sought to determine if the l-serine content of their diet could account for their neurological health. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently consumed food items, including tofu and seaweeds, are rich in the dietary amino acid l-serine. l-serine content of the Ogimi diet >8 grams/day for Ogimi women significantly exceeds the average American dietary intake of 2.5 grams/day for women >70 years old...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480131/a-posteriori-data-derived-dietary-patterns-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-making-sense-of-inconsistent-findings
#13
Lyn M Steffen, Katie C Hootman
Inconsistent findings have been reported from numerous prospective studies for the relations of the 'Western' (unhealthy) and 'Prudent' (healthy) diet patterns, derived using factor, principle components, or cluster analysis methods, with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Among contemporary prospective studies, the 'Prudent' diet pattern was inversely related to CHD risk in 7 of 12 studies, while the 'Western' diet pattern positively related to risk in only 3 of 11 studies. To explain these inconsistent findings, we compared the methods and results from these prospective studies conducted in the U...
September 2016: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648390/the-role-of-vitamin-k-in-chronic-aging-diseases-inflammation-cardiovascular-disease-and-osteoarthritis
#14
Stephanie G Harshman, M Kyla Shea
Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory action that is independent of its role as an enzyme co-factor. Vitamin K-dependent proteins and inflammation have been implicated in cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, which are leading causes of disability and mortality in older adults...
June 2016: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398264/the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3s-on-muscle-composition-and-quality-in-older-adults
#15
Gordon I Smith
This review will focus on findings from the few studies performed to date in humans to examine changes in muscle protein turnover, lean or muscle mass and physical function following fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acid treatment. Although considerable gaps in our current knowledge exist, hypertrophic responses (e.g., improvements in the rate of muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling during increased amino acid availability and an increase in muscle volume) have been reported in older adults following prolonged (8 to 24 weeks) of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation...
June 2016: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882266/community-interventions-to-improve-cooking-skills-and-their-effects-on-confidence-and-eating-behaviour
#16
REVIEW
Ada L Garcia, Rebecca Reardon, Matthew McDonald, Elisa J Vargas-Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-based interventions aiming to improve cooking skills are a popular strategy to promote healthy eating. We reviewed current evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions on different confidence aspects and fruit and vegetable intake. RECENT FINDINGS: Evaluation of cooking programmes consistently report increased confidence in cooking skills in adults across different age groups and settings. The effectiveness of these programmes on modifying eating behaviour is less consistent, but small increases in self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables are also described...
2016: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014505/does-a-mediterranean-type-diet-reduce-cancer-risk
#17
REVIEW
Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann
Overall cancer incidence has been observed to be lower in Mediterranean countries compared to that in Northern countries, such as the UK, and the USA. There is increasing evidence that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern correlates with reduced risk of several cancer types and cancer mortality. In addition, specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet, such as high consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, and low processed meat intake, are inversely associated with risk of tumor pathogenesis at different cancer sites...
2016: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457232/prepregnancy-nutrition-and-early-pregnancy-outcomes
#18
Audrey J Gaskins, Thomas L Toth, Jorge E Chavarro
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization...
September 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779391/vitamin-d-and-age-related-health-outcomes-movement-mood-and-memory
#19
Denise K Houston
It has long been recognized that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and musculoskeletal health. More recent evidence supports a role of vitamin D in physical and cognitive function and depressive symptoms through direct effects on skeletal muscle and the brain as well as indirectly through its reported roles in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, conditions that frequently lead to declines in physical and cognitive function and depressed mood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prospective cohort and randomized controlled trial evidence for vitamin D on physical and cognitive function and depressed mood in older adults...
June 1, 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26213640/caloric-restriction-for-treatment-of-geriatric-obesity-do-the-benefits-outweigh-the-risks
#20
Eve Normandin, Denise K Houston, Barbara J Nicklas
Most evidence for the health benefits of prescribing caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss is derived from randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in young/middle-aged adults; there are very few RCTs in older adults in which the isolated effects of CR can be deciphered. The purpose of this review is to summarize the RCT evidence of the benefits (and potential risks) of CR for the treatment of obesity in older adults. We identified only 19 published papers from 10 RCTs ranging from 3 to 18 months that met the criteria of independent effects of a CR component and were conducted in adults with a mean age ≥65 yrs...
June 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
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