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Current Nutrition Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413973/dietary-patterns-physical-activity-sleep-and-risk-for-dementia-and-cognitive-decline
#1
REVIEW
Chen Zhao, James M Noble, Karen Marder, Jacob S Hartman, Yian Gu, Nikolaos Scarmeas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diet, physical activity, and sleep are three major modifiable lifestyle factors. This selective review examines the evidence for strong and reliable associations between these three lifestyle factors and risk of dementia and cognitive decline, in an effort to assist clinicians with providing more informed answers to the common questions they face from patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Certain aspects of nutrition can decrease risk for dementia. Physical activity has also been associated with delayed or slower age-related cognitive decline...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406514/dairy-consumption-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-systematic-review-and-updated-meta-analyses-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#2
REVIEW
Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Janette de Goede
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dairy products contain both beneficial and harmful nutrients in relation to cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we provide the latest scientific evidence regarding the relationship between dairy products and cardiometabolic diseases by reviewing the literature and updating meta-analyses of observational studies. RECENT FINDINGS: We updated our previous meta-analyses of cohort studies on type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke with nine studies and confirmed previous results...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374755/gene-environment-interplay-in-child-eating-behaviors-what-the-role-of-nature-means-for-the-effects-of-nurture
#3
REVIEW
Alexis C Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review describes the evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on child appetitive traits and suggests ways of thinking about how these interact and correlate to influence how a child eats. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence from social network analysis, and from longitudinal studies questioning the direction of association between parent feeding behaviors and child obesity risk, suggest that children's genes may shape the environmental risk for obesity that they are exposed to...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362023/trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality
#4
REVIEW
Chanavuth Kanitsoraphan, Pattara Rattanawong, Suranut Charoensri, Vichai Senthong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite produced from choline and phosphatidylcholine. Trimethylamine N-oxide was found associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. We summarized available clinical studies which investigated TMAO's role in predicting prognostic outcomes, including mortality, in patients with cardiovascular diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: In chronic kidney disease cohorts, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher mortality from 1...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353367/child-caregiver-family-and-social-contextual-factors-to-consider-when-implementing-parent-focused-child-feeding-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Alison L Miller, Sara E Miller, Katy M Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interventions that aim to alter child eating behaviors often focus on parents as a proximal influence. Yet, parents can be difficult to engage. Therefore, intervention recommendations are often not implemented as designed. The goal of this review is to highlight factors at multiple contextual levels that are important to consider when developing interventions to address child eating, due to their implications for overcoming parent engagement challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Intervention studies suggest that parents are often the key to successfully changing child eating behaviors, and many interventions focus on feeding...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350172/maternal-predictors-of-child-dietary-behaviors-and-weight-status
#6
REVIEW
Sheryl O Hughes, Maria A Papaioannou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide scientific evidence showing links between parenting/feeding, child eating, and weight status and recommend best practices for creating a feeding environment protective against childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research shows that authoritative styles in both feeding and general parenting contexts has been consistently associated with better child health outcomes. Authoritative feeding styles have been associated with better child dietary quality and weight...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324333/an-intergenerational-approach-to-break-the-cycle-of-malnutrition
#7
REVIEW
Katherine R Arlinghaus, Chelsea Truong, Craig A Johnston, Daphne C Hernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article examines how nutritional status is treated throughout the lifecycle. In doing so, the review identifies promising life stages during which intervention may improve nutritional status of future generations. RECENT FINDINGS: A life course perspective suggests that nutritional changes are most likely to be sustained when they occur during times of developmental transition, such as pregnancy or adolescence. Adolescence is a unique period in which malnutrition in future generations may be addressed because it is the first life stage at which pregnancy becomes feasible and individuals seek independence from parents...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284177/sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-child-health-implications-for-policy
#8
REVIEW
Shabnam R Momin, Alexis C Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Various policies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption in children have been implemented. Here, we review the evidence on whether these policies are effective in reducing SSB intake and whether a reduction in SSB intake results in a concomitant reduction in child obesity. We also highlight ethical concerns with such efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence supporting relationship between SSB consumption and child body mass index (BMI) is consistently small and lacks causality...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264354/role-of-gut-microbiota-generated-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-health
#9
REVIEW
Edward S Chambers, Tom Preston, Gary Frost, Douglas J Morrison
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: SCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264353/to-pull-or-not-to-pull-salvaging-central-line-catheters-in-home-parenteral-nutrition
#10
REVIEW
Sara L Bonnes, Manpreet S Mundi, Ryan T Hurt, Bradley R Salonen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) pose a significant risk to patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Recurrent loss of catheters can lead to scarring and eventual loss of central access, a potentially fatal situation for patients dependent on HPN. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past, the standard of care to treat these infections required catheter removal. More recently, several studies have indicated that many CRBSI can be treated without removal of the catheter...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259413/intergenerational-effects-of-health-issues-among-women-of-childbearing-age-a-review-of-the-recent-literature
#11
REVIEW
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the latest scientific evidence, primarily from systematic reviews/meta-analyses and large cohort studies, on the impact of health issues among women of childbearing age and their effect on their offspring during pregnancy and from birth to adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Women of childbearing age with overweight/obesity, diabetes, and hypertension prior to pregnancy are at increased risk for adverse outcomes during pregnancy, such as excessive gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242725/dietary-fat-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-recent-research
#12
REVIEW
Beth H Rice Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is estimated that over 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. Excess adiposity is the strongest risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2. Lifestyle interventions have demonstrated that diet plays a critical role in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat is not only a source of energy and nutrients, but also bioactive fatty acids. The purpose of this review was to examine data from recent prospective cohort studies and dietary interventions to determine if there are benefits to fat consumption on diabetes risk...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187293/sleep-diet-and-cardiometabolic-health-investigations-a-systematic-review-of-analytic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Erica C Jansen, Galit Levi Dunietz, Maria-Efstratia Tsimpanouli, Heidi M Guyer, Carol Shannon, Shelley D Hershner, Louise M O'Brien, Ana Baylin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor sleep is a risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity. The relationship of sleep and cardiometabolic health could be confounded, mediated, or modified by diet, yet the incorporation of diet in sleep-cardiometabolic health studies is inconsistent. This rapid systematic literature review evaluates the conceptualization of diet as a confounder, mediator, or effect modifier within sleep-cardiometabolic health investigations, and the statistical approaches utilized. RECENT FINDINGS: Of 4692 studies identified, 60 were retained (28 adult, 32 pediatric)...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178309/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-related-to-dietary-salt-intake-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Neela Bhana, Jennifer Utter, Helen Eyles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KAB) related to dietary salt intake among adults in high-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall (n = 24 studies across 12 countries), KAB related to dietary salt intake are low. While consumers are aware of the health implications of a high salt intake, fundamental knowledge regarding recommended dietary intake, primary food sources, and the relationship between salt and sodium is lacking...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168044/fad-diets-hype-or-hope
#15
REVIEW
Aravind R Kuchkuntla, Berkeley Limketkai, Sanjeev Nanda, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity continues to be a growing concern globally due to association with a number of comorbidities and contributing significantly to increase in health care expenditures. Despite availability of a number of treatment modalities, lifestyle modification with dietary modification and exercise continues to be the foundation. However, the standard model of lifestyle modification is not efficacious or sustainable for many patients leading them to seek alternative approaches...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168043/weight-regain-after-bariatric-surgery-prevalence-etiology-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Saketh R Velapati, Meera Shah, Aravind R Kuchkuntla, Barham Abu-Dayyeh, Karen Grothe, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a life-limiting disease that is associated with a number of co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery remains the most efficacious and durable weight loss method available to patients. However, a significant percentage of patients can regain weight resulting in frustration, depression, and return of obesity-related co-morbidities. The present review provides an overview of the most common therapeutic modalities available to combat weigh regain after weight loss surgery...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155750/dietary-interventions-and-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-a-fresh-look-at-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
William B Perkison, Joel A Adekanye, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents has sharply increased, highly influenced by prevalence of obesity in youth. Here, we provide an overview of the pathogenesis of diabetes, and summarize recent dietary interventions investigating effects of diet on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. RECENT FINDINGS: Seven dietary interventions were identified randomly assigning participants to weekly or bi-weekly dietary counseling sessions over 12-24-week period, with mixed results...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128963/nutritional-ketosis-for-weight-management-and-reversal-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Victoria M Gershuni, Stephanie L Yan, Valentina Medici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review current literature on nutritional ketosis within the context of weight management and metabolic syndrome, namely, insulin resistance, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease risk, and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We provide background on the mechanism of ketogenesis and describe nutritional ketosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nutritional ketosis has been found to improve metabolic and inflammatory markers, including lipids, HbA1c, high-sensitivity CRP, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and aid in weight management...
September 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117071/the-role-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-mechanistic-connections-and-current-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Ilana Katz Sand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to examine current research related to the role of diet in multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research in preclinical models, epidemiologic studies, and limited prospectively followed cohorts provide preliminary evidence that dietary factors influence MS incidence, disease course, and symptomatology. Current evidence for the effects of fatty acids, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, dairy, and salt are reviewed...
September 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099693/folate-and-its-impact-on-cancer-risk
#20
REVIEW
Renee Pieroth, Stephanie Paver, Sharon Day, Carolyn Lammersfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research has evaluated the potential impact of folate on cancer risk with conflicting findings. Studies have demonstrated increased risk, no effect, and decreased risk. This review summarizes findings of mixed results between folate intake, serum levels, gene polymorphisms, and cancer risk based on meta-analyses from the past five years. RECENT FINDING: Low or deficient folate status is associated with increased risk of many cancers. Folic acid supplementation and higher serum levels are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer...
September 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
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