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Current Nutrition Reports

Edward Rojas, Valmore Bermúdez, Yasaman Motlaghzadeh, Justin Mathew, Enzamaria Fidilio, Judith Faria, Joselyn Rojas, Mayela Cabrera de Bravo, Julio Contreras, Linda Pamela Mantilla, Lissé Angarita, Paola Amar Sepúlveda, Isaac Kuzmar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial shrub with zero calorie content that has been increasing in popularity for its potential use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity. The level of evidence supporting general benefits to human health is insufficient. We conducted a review of the literature summarizing the current knowledge and role in human disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite stevia's minimal systemic absorption, studies have been promising regarding its potential benefits against inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis glucose control, and hypertension...
July 11, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Carla Venegas-Borsellino, Sonikpreet, Robert G Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the early development of human societies, religious beliefs, and practices has been integral to their identity, culture, and social structure, traditions are influenced by the area, era, and culture wherein they developed. Some religions offer advice on behavioral and diet modifications as strategies to fortify the body, purify the spirit, and elevate consciousness. This review is an attempt to compare different practices, describe the health benefits and risks of fasting, and reconcile these age-old recommendations with practical modern life...
July 9, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Senthilkumar Sankararaman, Wahid Syed, Valentina Medici, Thomas J Sferra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Energy drinks and energy shots are functional supplements with higher caffeine content marketed toward adolescents and young adults with the intention of boosting energy. Parallel to its rising popularity, there are safety concerns with the consumption of these beverages. Herein, we reviewed the impact these supplements produce on health and well-being. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the promoted benefits of the beverages can be attributed to caffeine...
July 7, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Samantha L Gardener, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were to examine literature published over the last 5 years and to evaluate the role of nutrition in cognitive function and brain ageing, focussing on the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets. RECENT FINDINGS: Results suggest that higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with preservation of brain structure and function as well as slower cognitive decline, with the MIND diet substantially slowing cognitive decline, over and above the MeDi and DASH diets...
July 5, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Carolyn Newberry, Jessica Schucht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a comprehensive overview of the etiology of stress-related mucosal disease, current acid suppression therapy recommendations, and the role enteral nutrition may play in disease prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature indicates enteral nutrition may prevent complications of stress-related mucosal disease by increasing splanchnic blood flow, enhancing gastrointestinal motility, and promoting cellular immunity and integrity through local nutrient delivery...
July 5, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Senthilkumar Sankararaman, Thomas J Sferra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sales and consumption of coconut oil have been on the raise due to effective marketing strategies. Coconut oil is stated to offer various benefits including weight loss, improvement in immunity, heart health support, and memory enhancement. Also, it is often portrayed as an excellent source of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). Here, we review the evidence behind the clinical utility of coconut oil consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies consistently showed consumption of coconut oil increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and thereby could increase adverse cardiovascular health...
July 4, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Teresia O'Connor, Oriana Perez, Isabel Colón Garcia, Martina Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing evidence of the important role that fathers play in influencing their children's eating and other weight-related behaviors. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and associated medical conditions. Engaging Latino fathers is a potentially important and unique way to help promote healthy lifestyles for Latino children, but doing so requires a culturally sensitive understanding both of fathers' current role and the family perceptions of this role...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Kelsea R Gildawie, Rachel L Galli, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Amanda N Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence suggests that flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds found in many plant-derived foods, such as berries, may allay cognitive impairment. We review recent research exploring the protective effects of flavonoids on age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. We also address the mechanisms by which flavonoids may exert their effects and promising avenues of future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Flavonoids have been found to decrease neuroinflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and mediate neuroplasticity in animal models of neurodegeneration and aging...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Emma Flanagan, Michael Müller, Michael Hornberger, David Vauzour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary flavonoids on age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that plant-derived flavonoids may exert powerful actions on mammalian cognition and protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been suggested to be due to interactions with the cellular and molecular architecture of brain regions responsible for memory...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Cin Cin Tan, Julie C Lumeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies on obesogenic eating behaviors in young children have mainly focused on the roles of family environment and parental behaviors. However, intrapersonal characteristics, particularly executive functions, have recently gained more attention in the literature. Therefore, herein we review work on children's executive functions (EFs), particularly the roles of cold and hot executive functions on children's obesogenic eating behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: Most work examining the associations between EF and obesogenic eating among children has focused on the cool EF, particularly inhibitory control/impulsivity...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Hannah Gardener, Michelle R Caunca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the most recent literature examining the associations between the Mediterranean-style diet (MD), neurodegenerative diseases, and markers and mechanisms of neurodegeneration. RECENT FINDINGS: Most, but not all, epidemiologic studies report a protective association between MD adherence, cognitive impairment, and brain health. Data from clinical trials supporting these observational findings are also emerging. Limited evidence suggests that MD adherence may be protective for Parkinson's disease risk...
March 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Alexis C Wood, Shabnam Momin, Mackenzie Senn, Sheryl O Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current feeding advice to prevent pediatric obesity focuses on caregiver feeding behaviors. This review integrates newer data showing that child appetitive traits also have a genetic component. RECENT FINDINGS: Caregiver feeding behaviors robustly correlate with child eating behaviors; however, there is also a strong heritable component. The satiety cascade delineates the biological drive underlying hunger, satiation, and satiety. Innate individual differences exist for the components of the satiety cascade, which may explain the heritability of child eating behaviors...
March 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Sören Ocvirk, Stephen Jd O'Keefe
Purpose of review: To review the evidence for the tumorigenic effects of food-stimulated bile acids on the colon and interaction with the gut microbiota. Recent Findings: High-fat diets promote the hepatic synthesis of bile acids and increase their delivery to the colonic lumen. Here, they stimulate the growth and activity of 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, which convert primary into secondary bile acids that show tumorigenic activity, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA)...
December 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Alessio Molfino, Sheeva Johnson, Valentina Medici
Purpose of Review: Nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis is very frequently associated with macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. Cirrhosis itself is the cause of malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies but these conditions have to be identified and addressed properly as they can worsen the prognosis of cirrhosis. The goals of this review are to 1) identify and describe the challenges associated with nutritional assessment in cirrhosis and 2) describe recent advancements when using clinical, laboratory, and instrumental tools in the evaluation of malnourished patients with liver diseases...
September 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Elizabeth A Parker, Termeh M Feinberg, Stephanie Wappel, Avelino C Verceles
The aim of this narrative review was to summarize the accuracy of predictive equations used to estimate energy expenditure in older, hospitalized adults. More than 50% of patients admitted to intensive care units are older adults. Currently accepted prediction equations used to determine energy intake in the older, hospitalized patient were not specifically developed for the aging population. Rates of multimorbidity, polypharmacy and malnutrition, conditions that influence energy expenditure, are higher in older adults compared to younger adults...
June 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Catherine A Forestell, Julie A Mennella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the range of methodological approaches used to objectively measure hedonic responses to taste stimuli during the first year of life and how these behavioral responses change with experience. Challenges inherent to this type of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although newborns display characteristic orofacial reactivity to four of the five basic tastes, the facial expressions made and the amount of food consumed can be modified by experience: children learn to like what they are fed...
June 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Ai-Ling Lin, Ishita Parikh, Jared D Hoffman, David Ma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in viv o brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Regina S Wright, Constance Gerassimakis, Desirée Bygrave, Shari R Waldstein
A significant body of evidence suggests that poor dietary intake is associated with reduced cognitive function. However, few studies have examined this relation in poor urban settings. Our brief review suggests that (a) higher overall diet quality may play a particularly important role in cognitive function among the poorest; and (b) greater vitamin E intake is related to better cognitive performance, at least in part, via fewer depressive symptoms. The broader recent literature strongly suggests the beneficial role of diet for learning and memory, and potentially synergistic influences on other cognitive domains...
March 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Felicity J Pendergast, Rebecca M Leech, Sarah A McNaughton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in technology-based dietary assessment allow real-time data collection of eating occasions, yet their application to assessing eating pattern constructs has not been evaluated. The purpose of this review was to examine existing electronic and mobile food diary methods in relation to their ability to assess eating patterns constructs (e.g. patterning, format and context of eating occasions). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search of electronic databases identified 18 dietary assessment methods...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
A J van Ballegooijen, J W Beulens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
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