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Current Nutrition Reports

Paul Alan Cox, James S Metcalf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ogimi village is renowned for its aging population. We sought to determine if the l-serine content of their diet could account for their neurological health. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently consumed food items, including tofu and seaweeds, are rich in the dietary amino acid l-serine. l-serine content of the Ogimi diet >8 grams/day for Ogimi women significantly exceeds the average American dietary intake of 2.5 grams/day for women >70 years old...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Stephanie G Harshman, M Kyla Shea
Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory action that is independent of its role as an enzyme co-factor. Vitamin K-dependent proteins and inflammation have been implicated in cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, which are leading causes of disability and mortality in older adults...
June 2016: Current Nutrition Reports
Gordon I Smith
This review will focus on findings from the few studies performed to date in humans to examine changes in muscle protein turnover, lean or muscle mass and physical function following fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acid treatment. Although considerable gaps in our current knowledge exist, hypertrophic responses (e.g., improvements in the rate of muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling during increased amino acid availability and an increase in muscle volume) have been reported in older adults following prolonged (8 to 24 weeks) of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation...
June 2016: Current Nutrition Reports
Ada L Garcia, Rebecca Reardon, Matthew McDonald, Elisa J Vargas-Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-based interventions aiming to improve cooking skills are a popular strategy to promote healthy eating. We reviewed current evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions on different confidence aspects and fruit and vegetable intake. RECENT FINDINGS: Evaluation of cooking programmes consistently report increased confidence in cooking skills in adults across different age groups and settings. The effectiveness of these programmes on modifying eating behaviour is less consistent, but small increases in self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables are also described...
2016: Current Nutrition Reports
Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann
Overall cancer incidence has been observed to be lower in Mediterranean countries compared to that in Northern countries, such as the UK, and the USA. There is increasing evidence that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern correlates with reduced risk of several cancer types and cancer mortality. In addition, specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet, such as high consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, and low processed meat intake, are inversely associated with risk of tumor pathogenesis at different cancer sites...
2016: Current Nutrition Reports
Audrey J Gaskins, Thomas L Toth, Jorge E Chavarro
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization...
September 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Denise K Houston
It has long been recognized that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and musculoskeletal health. More recent evidence supports a role of vitamin D in physical and cognitive function and depressive symptoms through direct effects on skeletal muscle and the brain as well as indirectly through its reported roles in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, conditions that frequently lead to declines in physical and cognitive function and depressed mood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prospective cohort and randomized controlled trial evidence for vitamin D on physical and cognitive function and depressed mood in older adults...
June 1, 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Eve Normandin, Denise K Houston, Barbara J Nicklas
Most evidence for the health benefits of prescribing caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss is derived from randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in young/middle-aged adults; there are very few RCTs in older adults in which the isolated effects of CR can be deciphered. The purpose of this review is to summarize the RCT evidence of the benefits (and potential risks) of CR for the treatment of obesity in older adults. We identified only 19 published papers from 10 RCTs ranging from 3 to 18 months that met the criteria of independent effects of a CR component and were conducted in adults with a mean age ≥65 yrs...
June 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Lisa Mosconi, Pauline F McHugh
Epidemiological evidence linking diet-one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors-and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most common cause of dementia-is rapidly increasing. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dietary nutrients, brain aging, and risk of AD are largely unexplored. Recent studies using brain imaging and biological markers of AD have begun to clarify how diet and nutrition modulate risk of AD in cognitively normal individuals, especially those at increased genetic risk...
June 1, 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Kathryn N Porter Starr, Shelley R McDonald, Connie W Bales
A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care...
June 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Elizabeth D Kantor, Edward L Giovannucci
A number of studies have evaluated the role of gene-diet interaction in the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Historically, these studies focused on established dietary risk factors and genes involved in their metabolism. However, results from these candidate gene studies were inconsistent, possibly due to multiple testing and publication bias. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of CRC susceptibility loci, and subsequent meta-analyses have observed limited evidence that diet may modify the risk associated with these susceptibility loci...
March 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Jessica L Petrick, Nan Li, Kathleen M McClain, Susan E Steck, Marilie D Gammon
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) incidence is among the most rapidly increasing of any cancer type in the U.S., and prognosis is poor. Prevalence of the potential precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), is also increasing. Candidates for safe and effective risk reduction strategies are needed, potentially including dietary components. In this qualitative review, we summarize recently published epidemiologic studies, in context of earlier work, on dietary intake and BE-EA outcomes. Potential cohort study/intervention trial candidates which could be increased to reduce BE-EA development include intake of: (1) fruits and vegetables; vegetables; fruit (EA only); (2) β-carotene and vitamins C and E; (3) folate (EA only); and (4) total fiber (EA only)...
March 1, 2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Karina Standahl Olsen, Guri Skeie, Eiliv Lund
In nutrigenomics, gene expression profiling is used to investigate transcriptional mechanisms associated with nutrients and diet. Blood samples collected in the framework of dietary interventions and epidemiological studies allow the use of humans as the model system, as opposed to using cell lines or animal models. Here, we review recent publications in the field of gene expression profiling, based on a systematic literature search focusing on studies from the last 5 years and including studies that investigated either single nutrients, foods, food groups, or dietary patterns...
2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Shauna M Downs, Jessica Fanzo
There are many synergies between a diet that is healthy for the heart and one that is healthy for the planet, but there may also be tensions. We examined the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition's double pyramid to describe the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of the components of a cardio-protective diet. Overall, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains all tend to have low carbon and water footprints, while nuts and olive oil have relatively higher water footprints and fish have a high ecological footprint...
2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Alexis C Frazier-Wood
Several dietary approaches have been proposed to prevent the onset of chronic diseases. As yet, no single approach has emerged as having the most consistent health benefits. This arises, in part, due to the fact that diet influences health in the context of individual factors with genetic components. Therefore, the effects of diet on health may be dependent on an individual's genetic background. At this time we lack robust evidence for the effects of interactions between genes and dietary patterns on health...
2015: Current Nutrition Reports
Xavier Pi-Sunyer
The LookAhead trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) to a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes patients to track the development of cardiovascular disease over time. The triaI intervention was stopped for futility after a median follow-up of 9.6 years. While there was a differential effect on weight loss and fitness between the two groups, there was no effect on cardiovascular outcomes. Cardiovascular events were less than half the projected rate per year in the DSE group: thus there was a very low over-all rate of events in both groups...
December 2014: Current Nutrition Reports
Andres V Ardisson Korat, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
The epidemiological evidence collected from three large US cohorts (Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study 2, and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study) has yielded important information regarding the roles of overall diet, individual foods and nutrients, physical activity and other lifestyle factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and thus, maintaining a healthy body weight and avoidance of weight gain during adulthood is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention...
December 1, 2014: Current Nutrition Reports
Azra Kurbasic, Alaitz Poveda, Yan Chen, Asa Agren, Elisabeth Engberg, Frank B Hu, Ingegerd Johansson, Ines Barroso, Anders Brändström, Göran Hallmans, Frida Renström, Paul W Franks
Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors...
December 1, 2014: Current Nutrition Reports
Mary A Hoskin, George A Bray, Kathy Hattaway, Prajakta A Khare-Ranade, Jeremy Pomeroy, Linda N Semler, Valarie A Weinzierl, Judith Wylie-Rosett
A number of strategies have been used to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in high-risk adults. Among them were diet, exercise, medications and surgery. This report focuses on the nutritional lessons learned from implementation of the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) in the DPP and its follow-up DPPOS that looked at weight loss through modification of diet and exercise. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a large clinical trial, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, designed to look at several strategies to prevent conversion to type 2 diabetes (T2D) by adults with prediabetes (IGT/IFG) including an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI)...
December 1, 2014: Current Nutrition Reports
Rasika A Mathias, Vrindarani Pani, Floyd H Chilton
Unequivocally, genetic variants within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster are determinants of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in circulation, cells and tissues. A recent series of papers have addressed these associations in the context of ancestry; evidence clearly supports that the associations are robust to ethnicity. However ∼80% of African Americans carry two copies of the alleles associated with increased levels of arachidonic acid, compared to only ∼45% of European Americans raising important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions induced by a modern western diet are differentially driving the risk of diseases of inflammation in diverse populations, and are these interactions leading to health disparities...
June 2014: Current Nutrition Reports
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