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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration

Richard Bedlack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Philippe Corcia, Patrick Vourc'h, Helene Blasco, Philippe Couratier, Audrey Dangoumau, Remi Bellance, Claude Desnuelle, Fausto Viader, Vivien Pautot, Stephanie Millecamps, Salah Bakkouche, FranÇois Salachas, Christian R Andres, Vincent Meininger, William Camu
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are the most frequent motor neuron disorders in adulthood and infancy, respectively. There is a growing literature supporting common pathophysiological patterns between those disorders. One important clinical issue for that is the co-occurrence of both diseases within a family. OBJECTIVES: To collect families in which ALS and SMA patients co-exist and describe the phenotype and the genotype of ALS patients...
March 1, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Lucia Corrado, Cinzia Tiloca, Clarissa Locci, Alessandra Bagarotti, Hamid Hamzeiy, Claudia Colombrita, Fabiola De Marchi, Nadia Barizzone, Diego Cotella, Nicola Ticozzi, Letizia Mazzini, Ayse Nazli Basak, Antonia Ratti, Vincenzo Silani, Sandra D'alfonso
Large expansions of a noncoding GGGGCC repeat in the C9orf72 gene are the main cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The GGGGCC repeat is contiguous with another GC-rich region. Recent studies reported a significantly higher frequency of insertions/deletions within the GC-rich region in patients carrying the GGGGCC expansion. A GTGGT motif comprised within the GC-rich region, which joins two 100% GC sequences, was frequently deleted, supporting the hypothesis that these deletions could make the region more prone to slippage and pathological expansion...
February 28, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Esther V Hobson, Wendy O Baird, Rebecca Partridge, Cindy L Cooper, Susan Mawson, Ann Quinn, Pamela J Shaw, Theresa Walsh, Daniel Wolstenholme, Christopher J Mcdermott
OBJECTIVES: Attendance at a specialist multidisciplinary motor neurone disease (MND) clinic is associated with improved survival and may also improve quality of life and reduce hospital admissions. However, patients struggle to travel to clinic and may experience difficulties between clinic visits that may not be addressed in a timely manner. We wanted to explore how we could improve access to specialist MND care. METHODS: We adopted an iterative, user-centered co-design approach, collaborating with those with experience of providing and receiving MND care including patients, carers, clinicians, and technology developers...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Hang Zhang, Wanshi Cai, Siyu Chen, Jialong Liang, Zhanjun Wang, Yuting Ren, Wenxiu Liu, Xiaolan Zhang, Zhongsheng Sun, Xusheng Huang
We investigated all coding regions of 17 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in 311 sporadic ALS patients who were of Chinese ancestry using next-generation sequencing technology. All nonsynonymous variants identified were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. 29 (9.32%) patients harbored at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. Nine (2.8%) patients harbored two or three variants which frequency <1% in population databases that may be related to oligogenic pathogenesis. A higher allele frequency was observed in East Asian than in European patients for the majority variants identified in this screening, which may indicate that genetic factors are responsible for the different clinical characteristics between Chinese and European ALS patients...
February 7, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Jinsy A Andrews, Merit E Cudkowicz, Orla Hardiman, Lisa Meng, Amy Bian, Jacqueline Lee, Andrew A Wolff, Fady I Malik, Jeremy M Shefner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of tirasemtiv, a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, vs. placebo on respiratory function and other functional measures in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was designed to confirm and extend results from a large phase IIb trial and maximize tolerability with a slower dose escalation. METHODS: VITALITY-ALS (NCT02496767) was a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in ALS patients...
February 6, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Zhouwei Xu, Aven Lee, Amanda Nouwens, Robert David Henderson, Pamela Ann Mccombe
Mass spectrometry was used to study blood samples from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-III (ACE-III) was used to test for cognitive impairment (CI). Nano liquid chromatography and time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) were performed on samples from 42 ALS patients and 18 healthy controls. SWATH™ proteomic analysis was utilized to look for differences between groups. Western blot analysis was used to study levels of 4 proteins, selected as being of possible interest in ALS, in the MS discovery cohort and a second validation group of 10 ALS patients and 10 healthy controls...
January 31, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Verónica M Vieira, Johnni Hansen, Ole Gredal, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neuron with very few known risk factors. We conducted a spatial epidemiologic analysis of ALS incidence in Denmark to assess the contribution of sociodemographic determinants to geographic variation. METHODS: We analyzed 4249 ALS cases (1982-2013), each with 100 controls matched on sex and birth year. Odds ratio and 95% confidence bands at birth and diagnosis/index locations were calculated using generalized additive models...
January 31, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Philippe Codron, Julien Cassereau, Patrick Vourc'h, Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Hélène Blasco, Selma Kane, Vincent Procaccio, Franck Letournel, Christophe Verny, Guy Lenears, Pascal Reynier, Arnaud Chevrollier
OBJECTIVE: Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons. In view of the heterogeneous presentation of the disease, one of the current challenges is to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in order to diagnose sALS at early stage and to stratify patients in trials. In this study, we sought to identify cytological hallmarks of sALS in patient-derived fibroblasts with the aim of finding new clinical-related markers of the disease...
January 31, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Andreas Funke, Susanne Spittel, Torsten Grehl, Julian Grosskreutz, Dagmar Kettemann, Susanne Petri, Ute Weyen, Patrick Weydt, Johannes Dorst, Albert C Ludolph, Petra Baum, Moritz Oberstadt, Berit Jordan, Andreas Hermann, Joachim Wolf, Matthias Boentert, Bertram Walter, Nadine Gajewski, André Maier, Christoph Münch, Thomas Meyer
OBJECTIVE: The procurement of assistive technology devices (ATD) is an essential component of managed care in ALS. The objective was to analyze the standards of care for ATD and to identify challenges in the provision process. METHODS: A cohort study design was used. We investigated the provision of 11,364 ATD in 1494 patients with ALS at 12 ALS centers in Germany over four years. Participants were patients that entered a case management program for ATD including systematic assessment of ATD on a digital management platform...
January 30, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Maize C Cao, Andrew Chancellor, Alison Charleston, Mike Dragunow, Emma L Scotter
BACKGROUND: We determined the mortality rates of motor neuron disease (MND) in New Zealand over 22 years from 1992 to 2013. Previous studies have found an unusually high and/or increasing incidence of MND in certain regions of New Zealand; however, no studies have examined MND rates nationwide to corroborate this. METHODS: Death certificate data coded G12.2 by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding, or 335.2 by ICD-9 coding were obtained. These codes specify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, or other motor neuron diseases as the underlying cause of death...
January 30, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Francisco Espejo-Porras, Javier Fernández-Ruiz, Eva de Lago
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the endocannabinoid system in the motor cortex of motor neuron disease (MND) patients. METHODS: Post-mortem samples from MND patients and controls were used for immunostaining and/or Western blotting analysis of endocannabinoid elements. RESULTS: We did not find any evidence of neuronal losses in the motor cortex of MND patients, but elevations in glial markers Iba-1 and GFAP were evident. We found no changes in FAAH and MAGL enzymes and in the CB1 receptor, which correlated with the lack of cortical neuron death...
January 15, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Crystal Jing Jing Yeo, Zachary Simmons
The recent approval of edaravone by the United States Food and Drug Administration has generated a mix of hope tempered by reality. The costs of the drug, both monetarily and with regard to intensity of treatment, are high. The benefits, while modest, will be viewed through a very different lens by individuals depending on their goals of care. By virtue of our training and experience, physicians are ideally suited to understand and explain new treatments to our patients. As healthcare providers with a fiduciary responsibility to our patients, we must make sure they are fully informed about both the costs and benefits of non-curative therapies such as edaravone, and be prepared to discuss these in the context of their goals of care and potential impact on quality of life...
January 15, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Christina N Fournier, David Schoenfeld, James D Berry, Merit E Cudkowicz, James Chan, Colin Quinn, Robert H Brown, Johnny S Salameh, Malu G Tansey, David R Beers, Stanley H Appel, Jonathan D Glass
Neuroinflammation is increasingly tied to disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Participants in the first-in-human trial of intra-spinal allogeneic stem cell therapy for ALS received immunosuppression, and one participant saw dramatic improvement across multiple outcome measures. The primary objective of this study (NCT01884571) was to assess the rate of clinical response to the same immunosuppressive regimen using basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone in people with ALS...
January 8, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Éilis J O'Reilly, Kjetil Bjornevik, Michael A Schwarzschild, Marjorie L McCullough, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Joann E Manson, Alberto Ascherio
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine for the first time the association between plasma urate levels measured in healthy participants and future amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. METHODS: A pooled case-control study nested in five US prospective cohorts comprising 319,617 participants who provided blood, of which 275 had ALS during follow-up. Pre-diagnostic plasma urate was determined for all participants using a clinical colorimetric enzyme assay. Gender-specific multivariable-adjusted rate ratios (RR) of ALS incidence or death estimated by conditional logistic regression and pooled using inverse-variance weighting...
December 26, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Ola Nakken, Jonas Christoffer Lindstrøm, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Trygve Holmøy
OBJECTIVE: In Norway, diagnoses from specialist health care visits, drug prescriptions, and causes of deaths are registered in compulsory health registers. We aimed to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) prevalence from 2009 to 2015 by combining these registers. METHODS: We validated the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) through hospital files, and linked it with the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry and the Norwegian Prescription Database. Poisson regression models were fitted for estimating gender ratios, time trends and possible interactions...
December 22, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Elisabetta Pupillo, Elisa Bianchi, Adriano Chiò, Federico Casale, Chiara Zecca, Rosanna Tortelli, Ettore Beghi
OBJECTIVE: To verify if specific foods and nutrients could be risk factors or protective factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed ALS from three Italian administrative regions were included. For each patient, a healthy control, matched for age (±5 years), sex and administrative region of residence, was selected by a general practitioner. Cases and controls were interviewed by a trained investigator who filled a validated and reproducible food-frequency questionnaire...
December 21, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
D Kevin Horton, Shannon Graham, Reshma Punjani, Grete Wilt, Wendy Kaye, Kimberly Maginnis, Lauren Webb, Judy Richman, Richard Bedlack, Edward Tessaro, Paul Mehta
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that typically results in death within 2-5 years of initial symptom onset. Multidisciplinary ALS clinics (MDCs) have been established to provide specialty care to people living with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proximity of ALS prevalence cases to the nearest MDC in the US to help evaluate one aspect of access to care. METHODS: Using 2013 prevalence data from the National ALS Registry, cases were geocoded by city using geographic information system (GIS) software, along with the locations of all MDCs in operation during 2013...
December 20, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
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