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Clinical and Molecular Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316778/role-of-liver-transplantation-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#1
Ravi Daswani, Ashish Kumar, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Naresh Bansal, Anil Arora
Severe alcoholic hepatitis has very high short term mortality and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for decades. Patients with Lille score >0.45 are considered non-responders to steroids and have poor outcome. Recently Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT) is being increasingly used as rescue treatment for these patients, without waiting for 6 months of abstinence. Liver transplant is the only rescue treatment which can potentially provide long term benefit for patients who are steroid non-responders...
January 10, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307132/current-epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-south-korea
#2
Sook-Hyang Jeong
Autoimmune liver diseases including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are rare diseases. The aim of this review is to examine the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of AIH and PBC in South Korea. There were 4,085 patients registered as AIH in the Rare Intractable Disease Registry of Korea between 2009-2013, with a median age of 56 years and female-to male ratio of 6.4. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of AIH were 1.07/100,000/year and 4.82/100,000 persons, respectively...
January 5, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268595/microbiota-a-key-player-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#3
Anne-Marie Cassard, Dragos Ciocan
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Only 20% of heavy alcohol consumers develop alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The intestinal microbiota (IM) has been recently identified as a key player in the severity of liver injury in ALD. Common features of ALD include a decrease of gut epithelial tight junction protein expression, mucin production, and antimicrobial peptide levels. This disruption of the gut barrier, which is a prerequisite for ALD, leads to the passage of bacterial products into the blood stream (endotoxemia)...
December 22, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254285/picroside-ii-attenuates-fatty-acid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-via-modulation-of-fatty-acid-uptake-and-synthesis
#4
Hiteshi Dhami-Shah, Rama Vaidya, Shobha Udipi, Srividhya Raghavan, Shiny Abhijit, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam, Ashok Vaidya
Background/Aims: Hepatic steatosis is caused by an imbalance between free fatty acids (FFAs) uptake, utilization, storage, and disposal. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in FFAs accumulation and its modulation could drive the development of potential therapies for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of picroside II, a phytoactive found in Picrorhiza kurroa, on fatty acid accumulation vis-à-vis silibinin, a known hepatoprotective phytoactive from Silybum marianum...
December 19, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249129/epidemiology-of-liver-cancer-in-south-korea
#5
Bo Hyun Kim, Joong-Won Park
Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer (fourth in men and sixth in women) and the second largest cause of cancer mortality in South Korea. The crude incidence rate of liver cancer was 31.9/100,000 (47.5/100,000 in men and 16.2/100,000 in women) and the age-standardized incidence rate was 19.9/100,000 (32.4/100,000 in men and 8.8/100,000 in women) in 2014. The crude incidence rate increased from 1999 to 2011 and thereafter showed a subtle decreasing tendency. The crude prevalence rate was 113.6/100,000 (170...
December 18, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249128/prevention-and-management-of-gastroesophageal-varices
#6
Yeon Seok Seo
Bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although there has been significance improvement in the prognosis of variceal bleeding with advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for its management, mortality rate still remains high. Therefore, appropriate prevention and rapid, effective management of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is very important. Recently, various studies about management of gastoesophageal varices, including prevention of development and aggravation of varices, prevention of first variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding, and prevention of variceal rebleeding, have been published...
December 18, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198095/is-it-possible-to-predict-the-development-of-an-entecavir-resistance-mutation-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-clinical-practice
#7
Joon Yeul Nam, Jeong-Hoon Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179530/lamivudine-fading-into-the-mists-of-time
#8
Jonggi Choi, Young-Suk Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172397/favorable-effect-of-corticosteroids-in-treating-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-underlying-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
Hyeji Kim, Jung Hyun Kwon, Yong Hee Kim, Soon Woo Nam, Jong Yul Lee, Jeong Won Jang
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) occurs in the presence of a chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, and often results from exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The efficacy of corticosteroid treatment in ACLF patients with underlying CHB remains unclear. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who experienced ACLF due to CHB exacerbation and was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and nucleot(s)ide analogue (NUC). The patient showed rapid decompensation due to CHB exacerbation. Three months of antiviral therapy produced no improvement in liver function...
November 27, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151327/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-level-represents-disease-activity-as-opposed-to-fibrosis-in-patients-with-histologically-proven-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Wataru Ando, Hiroaki Yokomori, Nobuhiro Tsutsui, Eigoro Yamanouchi, Yutaka Suzuki, Masaya Oda, Yutaka Inagaki, Katsuya Otori, Isao Okazaki
Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is prevalent in both economically developed and developing countries. Twenty percent of NASH progresses to cirrhosis with/without hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is an urgent need to find biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring progression of the disease. Using immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic examination we previously reported that expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) increased in monocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells in early stage NASH...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132204/complete-cure-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-right-adrenal-gland-metastasis-and-portal-vein-thrombosis-by-multiple-applications-of-an-interdisciplinary-therapy-case-report-with-8-year-follow-up
#11
Hojung Jung, Byung Ik Km, Yong Kyun Cho, Woo Kyu Jeon, Hong Joo Kim, Hyun Pyo Hong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and the main cause of primary liver cancer. The principle problem of HCC is the poor prognosis, since advanced HCC reportedly has a median survival of only 9 months. The standard therapies are sorafenib and regorafenib, but the outcomes remain unclear. We report a 60-year-old man with advanced HCC with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein tumor thrombosis, who showed a complete response to multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy...
November 14, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113030/recent-advances-in-transarterial-embolotherapies-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Edward Wolfgang Lee, Sarah Khan
Management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be maximized with the utilization of multiple treatment modalities including transplant, surgical resection and locoregional therapies including ablative therapies and transarterial embolotherapies. Although transplant and surgical resection offer the best clinical outcomes, a limited number of patients are amenable to these surgical treatment options due to the advanced disease at presentation. Transarterial embolotherapies including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), bland transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Yttrium 90 (90Y) have played an increasingly important role for these patients with unresectable HCC...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065678/bilateral-optic-neuropathy-related-to-severe-anemia-in-a-patient-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Lisa Humbertjean-Selton, Jérôme Selton, Nolwenn Riou-Comte, Jean-Christophe Lacour, Gioia Mione, Sébastien Richard
Anemia appears frequently in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) but has never been linked to bilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). A 65-year-old woman with a medical history of alcoholic cirrhosis was admitted for bilateral NAION. On admission, she was found to have a low arterial pressure and severe normocytic anemia (48 g/L). The anemia was related to chronic bleeding due to antral gastritis along with other factors associated with ALD. The applied treatment consisted of urgent transfusion followed by high doses of proton-pump inhibitors, iron and vitamin supplementation, and support in lifestyle measures...
October 25, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281870/histopathological-evaluation-of-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-regression
#14
REVIEW
Regina C Lo, Haeryoung Kim
The hepatic repair complex in the setting of cirrhosis has received increasing attention, as it implies the regression of cirrhosis, which was traditionally taken to be an irreversible state. In this brief review, the patterns of fibrosis, the existing staging systems for chronic liver disease and the histopathological features of cirrhosis regression are discussed.
December 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151326/treatment-options-after-sorafenib-failure-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Imane El Dika, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
Second line therapy after failure of sorafenib continues to be under study. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is measured in months, with median overall survival reaching 10.7 months with sorafenib. Because of the modest net benefit sorafenib has contributed, and rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the world, continued efforts are ongoing to look for efficient upfront, second line, or combination therapies. Herein we review the most relevant to date published literature on treatment options beyond sorafenib, reported studies, ongoing investigational efforts, and possibilities for future studies in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma...
December 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994271/imaging-evaluation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-focused-on-quantification
#16
Dong Ho Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an emerging major health problem, and the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Traditionally, liver biopsy has been gold standard method for quantification of hepatic steatosis. However, its invasive nature with potential complication as well as measurement variability are major problem. Thus, various imaging studies have been used for evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography provides fairly good accuracy to detect moderate-to-severe degree hepatic steatosis, but limited accuracy for mild steatosis...
October 10, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948751/use-of-sofosbuvir-in-chronic-kidney-disease-is-it-necessary
#17
Tae Seop Lim, Sang Hoon Ahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946736/efficacy-and-safety-of-entecavir-versus-lamivudine-over-5-years-of-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-korean-patients-with-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b
#18
Kwan Sik Lee, Young-Oh Kweon, Soon-Ho Um, Byung-Ho Kim, Young Suk Lim, Seung Woon Paik, Jeong Heo, Heon-Ju Lee, Dong Joon Kim, Tae Hun Kim, Young-Sok Lee, Kwan Soo Byun, Daeghon Kim, Myung Seok Lee, Kyungha Yu, Dong Jin Suh
Background/Aims: Long-term data on antiviral therapy in Korean patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are limited. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) over 240 weeks. Methods: Treatment-naive patients with HBeAg-negative CHB were randomized to receive ETV 0.5 mg/day or LAM 100 mg/day during the 96 week double-blind phase, followed by open-label treatment through week 240. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with virologic response (VR; hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA<300 copies/mL) at week 24...
September 26, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911220/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-liver-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-li-rads-2017-a-review-of-important-differences-compared-to-the-ct-mri-system
#19
Tae Kyoung Kim, Seung Yeon Noh, Stephanie R Wilson, Yuko Kono, Fabio Piscaglia, Hyun-Jung Jang, Andrej Lyshchik, Christoph F Dietrich, Juergen K Willmann, Alexander Vezeridis, Claude B Sirlin
Medical imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) was initially created to standardize the reporting and data collection of CT and MR imaging for patients at risk for HCC. As contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been widely used in clinical practice, it has recently been added to the LI-RADS. While CEUS LI-RADS shares fundamental concepts with CT/MRI LI-RADS, there are key differences between the modalities reflecting dissimilarities in the underlying methods of image acquisition and types of contrast material...
September 15, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870025/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-who-developed-genotypic-resistance-to-entecavir-real-life-experience
#20
Hong Joo Kim, Yong Kyun Cho, Woo Kyu Jeon, Byung Ik Kim
Background/Aims: Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed genotypic resistance to entecavir (ETV) were compared to those without resistance. Methods: Two hundred fifty eight CHB patients who underwent ETV treatment in our institution from July 2007 to May 2013 were included. Results: Eight (3.1%) patients developed genotypic resistance to ETV during the follow-up period. The patterns of genotypic resistance to ETV were as follows: L180M + M204V + S202G (n=3); M204I + V173M (n=1); I169V + V173M (n=1); L180M + M204V + V173L (n=1); L180M + M204V + V173L + M250V (n=1); M204I + V214A + P237H (n=1)...
September 5, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
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