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Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials

Romina Comín, Mariana P Cid, Luciano Grinschpun, Carlos Oldani, Nancy A Salvatierra
BACKGROUND: In clinical orthopedics, a critical problem is the bone tissue loss produced by a disease or injury. The use of composites from titanium and hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications has increased due to the resulting advantageous combination of hydroxyapatite bioactivity and favorable mechanical properties of titanium. Powder metallurgy is a simple and lower-cost method that uses powder from titanium and hydroxyapatite to obtain composites having hydroxyapatite phases in a metallic matrix...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Domenico Lepore, Roberto De Santis, Monica M Pagliara, Antonio Gloria, Olimpia Oliviero, Carlo Nucci, Giovanni Improta, Maria Triassi, Luigi Ambrosio
BACKGROUND: A variety of antiinflammatory therapies are employed to promote corneal wound healing. The effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the biomechanical properties of rabbit cornea were investigated over time using tensile tests. METHODS: Full-thickness incisions were made and used to analyze the effects of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% on corneal biomechanical properties during wound healing at 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Gianluca Cicala, Alberta Latteri, Barbara Del Curto, Alessio Lo Russo, Giuseppe Recca, Silvia Farè
BACKGROUND: Among additive manufacturing techniques, the filament-based technique involves what is referred to as fused deposition modeling (FDM). FDM materials are currently limited to a selected number of polymers. The present study focused on investigating the potential of using high-end engineering polymers in FDM. In addition, a critical review of the materials available on the market compared with those studied here was completed. METHODS: Different engineering thermoplastics, ranging from industrial grade polycarbonates to novel polyetheretherketones (PEEKs), were processed by FDM...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Davide Prando, Andrea Brenna, Fabio M Bolzoni, Maria V Diamanti, Mariapia Pedeferri, Marco Ormellese
BACKGROUND: Titanium has outstanding corrosion resistance due to the thin protective oxide layer that is formed on its surface. Nevertheless, in harsh and severe environments, pure titanium may suffer localized corrosion. In those conditions, costly titanium alloys containing palladium, nickel and molybdenum are used. This purpose investigated how it is possible to control corrosion, at lower cost, by electrochemical surface treatment on pure titanium, increasing the thickness of the natural oxide layer...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Melanie Hoellig, Fabian Westhauser, Kira Kornienko, Kai Xiao, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: Femoral material harvested using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) system is an alternative source for autogenous bone material in the treatment of non-unions, especially in combination with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). So far, there is no in vivo evidence of BMP-7 interacting with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from RIA material (RIA-MSCs) and iliac crest autogenous bone (BMSCs). The aim of this study was to compare their osteogenic potential when stimulated with BMP-7 in vivo...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Andrea Maio, Fiorenza Sutera, Luigi Botta
Over recent years, there has been a growing interest in multilayer scaffolds fabrication approaches. In fact, functionally graded scaffolds (FGSs) provide biological and mechanical functions potentially similar to those of native tissues. Based on the final application of the scaffold, there are different properties (physical, mechanical, biochemical, etc.) which need to gradually change in space. Therefore, a number of different technologies have been investigated, and often combined, to customize each region of the scaffolds as much as possible, aiming at achieving the best regenerative performance...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Corrado Piconi, Vincenzo De Santis, Giulio Maccauro
BACKGROUND: Metallic ball heads for total hip replacement (THR) bearings with ceramicized surfaces were introduced in orthopedics during the second half of the 1980s, with the aim of decreasing the wear of polyethylene cups. METHODS: An analysis was made of the literature regarding outcomes for metallic ball heads with ceramicized surfaces now in clinical use (TiN, TiNbN, ZrN, monoclinic ZrO2), as well as carbon coatings (pyrolytic carbon, diamond-like carbon) and silicon nitride as coatings in ball heads for THR bearings...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Barbara Del Curto, Paolo Tarsini, Alberto Cigada
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a photocatalytic filter for the treatment of indoor air, characterized by a low pressure drop. METHODS: The filter (photocatalytic filter) was based on a polyester substrate additivated with active carbon (Carbotex 150-6), treated with a sol of titanium dioxide (Sol 121-AB; NextMaterials Ltd.) and illuminated with UV LEDs to induce photocatalytic activity. RESULTS: Tests showed that this filter, used in a suitable device for air circulation with a very low noise level, had the ability to block solid particulates, to photocatalytically oxidize a major fraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and deactivate all of the bacteria blocked on the filter, in contrast to traditional commercial air filters on which the bacteria remain viable...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Barbara Del Curto, Nadia Barelli, Mauro Profaizer, Silvia Farè, Maria Cristina Tanzi, Alberto Cigada, Giulia Ognibene, Giuseppe Recca, Gianluca Cicala
BACKGROUND: Until now, environmental sustainability issues are almost entirely unsolved for packaging materials. With the final aim of finding materials with a single recycling channel, cellulose fiber/poly(vinyl)alcohol composites were investigated. METHODS: After extrusion and injection molding, samples of composite with different cellulose fiber content (30%, 50% and 70% w/w) were tested. RESULTS: Tensile mechanical tests exhibited an improvement in composite stiffness when the reinforcement content was increased together with a decrease in composite elongation...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Rebecca L Majewski, Wujie Zhang, Xiaojun Ma, Zhanfeng Cui, Weiping Ren, David C Markel
Bioencapsulation technologies have played an important role in the developing successes of tissue engineering. Besides offering immunoisolation, they also show promise for cell/tissue banking and the directed differentiation of stem cells, by providing a unique microenvironment. This review describes bioencapsulation technologies and summarizes their recent progress in research into tissue engineering. The review concludes with a brief outlook regarding future research directions in this field.
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Rossella Arrigo, Elisabetta Morici, Nadka Tzankova Dintcheva
BACKGROUND: This work presents a sustainable approach for the stabilization of polylactic acid (PLA) against thermo-oxidative aging. METHODS: Naturally occurring phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid (FerAc), vanillic acid (VanAc), quercetin (Querc) and vitamin E (VitE), were introduced into PLA. RESULTS: The preliminary characterization of the systems formulated containing different amounts of natural stabilizers showed that all compounds used acted as plasticizers, leading to a decrease in rheological functions with respect to neat PLA, without significantly modifying the crystallinity of the raw material...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Annapaola Parrilli, Stefano Falcioni, Milena Fini, Saverio Affatato
BACKGROUND: Wear associated with hip components represents the main clinical problem in these patients, and it is important to develop new techniques for more accurate measurements of that wear. Currently, the gravimetric method is the gold standard for assessing mass measurements in preclinical evaluations. However, this method does not give other information such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. This work aimed to develop and validate a new technique to quantify ceramic volume loss from in vitro experiments using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Nasim Kiaie, Rouhollah M Aghdam, Seyed H A Tafti, Shahriar H Emami
BACKGROUND: There has been increased attention given to polymeric nanoparticles as protein carriers. In this regard, chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles are considered to be a simple and efficient carrier. However, to have an ideal protein release profile, we need to optimize the properties of the carrier. METHODS: This study examined the influence of 4 critical process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of final nanoparticles. Chitosan-based nanoparticles were produced by ionic gelation, and then the size, polydispersity and zeta potential of those resulting nanoparticles were evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Jessica Campos-Delgado, Kelly L S Castro, Jose G Munguia-Lopez, Ana K González, Martin E Mendoza, Benjamin Fragneaud, Raphael Verdan, Joyce R Araujo, Francisco J González, Hugo Navarro-Contreras, Ivan N Pérez-Maldonado, Antonio de León-Rodríguez, Carlos A Achete
BACKGROUND: Driven by the potential biological applications of graphene, many groups have studied the response of cells exposed to graphene oxide (GO). In particular, investigations of bacteria indicate that there are 2 crucial parameters, which so far have only been investigated separately: GO size and exposure methodology. Our study took into account both parameters. We carefully characterized the samples to catalog sizes and structural properties, and tested different exposure methodologies: exposure in saline solution and in the presence of growth media...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Xiaoling He, Yuxin Zhao, Zhenli Jin, Yu Su, Huiqin An, Lili Ge, Dongsheng Wei, Li Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop a novel thermoresponsive material suited for tissue engineering and investigate the growth and harmless detachment of cells cultured on the surface of thermoresponsive tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). METHODS: Thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and biocompatible chitosan (CS) were grafted onto the surface of TCPS by ultraviolet (UV)-induced graft polymerization. The chemical composition, surface morphology and thermoresponsiveness of the modified TCPS were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atom force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA), respectively...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Norbert Harrasser, Michael de Wild, Johannes Gorkotte, Andreas Obermeier, Susanne Feihl, Melanie Straub, Ruediger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Hans Gollwitzer, Jasmine Rüegg, Walter Moser, Philipp Gruner, Rainer Burgkart
BACKGROUND: Silver ions (Ag+) have strong antibacterial effects, and silver-coated materials are in widespread clinical use. However, the application of silver-coated medical devices is not without concerns: its use with direct bone contact is not established, and systemic toxic side effects of released Ag+ have been described. Therefore, alternative bactericidal coatings with a more localized way of acting - e.g., calcium dihydroxide, Ca(OH)2 (CH) - would be advantageous. METHODS: A new rat model of the animal's tibial metaphysis was developed...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Wei Liang, Li Li, Xu Cui, Zhongfei Tang, Xiaomou Wei, Haobo Pan, Bing Li
INTRODUCTION: Because of its good osteoconductivity, strontium (Sr) ranelate has been extensively used as a bone substitute for the treatment of bone disorders. To facilitate treatment, Sr is also incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (Sr-CPC); however, the Sr from Sr-CPC is not sufficient to induce a significant increase of bone mass in an ovariectomized rat model. To improve the efficiency of Sr-CPC, we developed a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and Sr-enriched CPC (CGRP-Sr-CPC)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Martin Stefanic, Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bioceramic granules are a widely studied material for regeneration of human tissues, and their biological assessment with in vitro cell cultures plays a fundamental role in the development of bioceramics. Design of samples for cell testing represents an important aspect of the biological evaluation, as it dictates how cells will interact with the biomaterial. The aim of this study was to develop samples for cell testing of bioceramic granules with a novel design that would enable direct physical contacts between cells and bioceramic and improved handling properties for efficient laboratory work...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Simone Sprio, Marco Fricia, Giuseppe F Maddalena, Angelo Nataloni, Anna Tampieri
BACKGROUND: The number of cranioplasty procedures is steadily increasing, mainly due to growing indications for decompressive procedures following trauma, tumor or malformations. Although autologous bone is still considered the gold standard for bone replacement in skull, there is an urgent need for synthetic porous implants able to guide bone regeneration and stable reconstruction of the defect. In this respect, hydroxyapatite scaffolds with highly porous architecture are very promising materials, due to the excellent biocompatibility and intrinsic osteogenic and osteoconductive properties that enable deep bone penetration in the scaffold and excellent osteointegration...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Stefano Cattini, Federica Bondioli
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present work was to analyze the possibility of creating a light-storing photocatalyst material, a system that couples a phosphorescent substrate with a titania coating. The substrate could activate the titanium dioxide coating even in condition of darkness thanks to its light emission. This improvement of absorption can be achieved because the titania semiconductor is irradiated both by the direct light and by the luminescent substrate which is activated at the same time...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
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