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Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891292/cancer-stem-cells-cellular-plasticity-niche-and-its-clinical-relevance
#1
Gina Lee, Robert R Hall, Atique U Ahmed
Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor...
October 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158559/mechanisms-and-developmental-roles-of-promoter-proximal-pausing-of-rna-polymerase-ii
#2
Christine Robinson, Matthew Lowe, Amanda Schwartz, Nobuaki Kikyo
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) temporarily stops transcription after synthesizing 30-50 bases, and resumes elongation only after stimulations by various signaling molecules and developmental cues. This phenomenon, called promoter-proximal pausing, is observed in 10-50% of the entire genes from Drosophila embryos to human cells. Release of paused Pol II is primarily mediated by the activated form of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) initially sequestered in the inhibitory 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SK snRNP) complex...
March 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807329/differential-properties-of-human-alp-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-vs-their-alp-counterparts
#3
Zongdong Yu, Philippe Gauthier, Quynh T Tran, Ikbale El-Ayachi, Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Rayan Bahabri, Mey Al-Habib, George Tj Huang
Characterizing subpopulations of stem cells is important to understand stem cell properties. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is associated with mineral tissue forming cells as well as stem cells. Information regarding ALP subpopulation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is limited. In the present study, we examined ALP(+) and ALP(-) hPDLSC subpopulations, their surface markers STRO-1 and CD146, and the expression of stemness genes at various cell passages. We found that ALP(+) subpopulation had higher levels of STRO-1 (30...
July 2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26229735/anti-apoptotic-effects-of-bone-marrow-on-human-islets-a-preliminary-report
#4
Lu-Guang Luo, John Zq Luo
Apoptosis is one of the major factors contributing to the failure of human islet transplantation. Contributors to islet apoptosis exist in both the pre-transplantation and post transplantation stages. Factors include the islet isolation process, deterioration in vitro prior to transplantation, and immune rejection post transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-cultured bone marrow cells with human islets not only significantly enhanced the longevity of human islets but also maintained function...
April 2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937295/improved-method-for-isolation-of-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes-with-increased-yield-of-c-kit-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#5
Jennifer Rutering, Matthias Ilmer, Alejandro Recio, Michael Coleman, Jody Vykoukal, Eckhard Alt
Cell therapy represents a promising new paradigm for treatment of heart disease, a major cause of death in the industrialized world. The recent discovery of tissue resident c-Kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) has fueled scientific efforts to exploit these cells therapeutically for regenerative interventions, and primary culture of cardiomyocytes is a common in-vitro model to investigate basic molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac degeneration and regeneration. Current protocols for cardiomyocyte isolation frequently result in low cell yield and insufficient depletion of fibroblasts, which then overgrow the cardiomyocytes in culture...
2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705567/isolation-and-characterization-of-adult-spinal-disc-stem-cells-from-healthy-human-spinal-disc-tissues
#6
Christopher Duntsch, Erika Dillard, Umar Akbar
This report details the isolation, culture, and characterization of spinal disc stem cells derived from human adult spinal disc tissue specimens. Using stem cell suspension culture methods and biology, human adult spinal disc stem cells were isolated and monoclonally cultured into multicellular sphere-like clusters (discospheres). Discospheres from the first culture series were collected, processed, and replated as single stem cells for serial expansion studies using suspension culture, demonstrating linear expansion was possible...
November 21, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25995969/delivering-oxidation-resistance-1-oxr1-to-mouse-kidney-by-genetic-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells-exhibited-enhanced-protection-against-nephrotoxic-serum-induced-renal-injury-and-lupus-nephritis
#7
Yajuan Li, Wei Li, Chu Liu, Mei Yan, Indu Raman, Yong Du, Xiangdong Fang, Xin J Zhou, Chandra Mohan, Quan-Zhen Li
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) gene. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of immune-mediated nephritis. Recently we identified oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) is conventionally expressed in eukaryotes and has an ability to prevent oxidative damage caused by various oxidative stresses. However the protective effect of OXR1 in immune-associated inflammatory response and oxidative damage is not clear and will be investigated in this study...
September 10, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25374763/utilization-of-multiphoton-imaging-for-real-time-fate-determination-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#8
Jay T Myers, Agne Petrosiute, Alex Y Huang
The clinical application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for the treatment of a variety of diseases is the focus of intense research. Despite large research efforts many questions regarding MSC biology in vivo remain unanswered. For instance, we do not know for certain whether MSCs exert their therapeutic effects directly within the target tissue or indirectly by influencing the polarization of other cell types, such as macrophages, which can then home to the target tissue microenvironment. To help address this issue, the application of intravital multiphoton microscopy allows for the determination of the dynamic action of intact MSCs versus endogenous host cells at the target tissue site in real time...
July 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25110615/vitamin-c-transporters-recycling-and-the-bystander-effect-in-the-nervous-system-svct2-versus-gluts
#9
Francisco Nualart, Lauren Mack, Andrea García, Pedro Cisternas, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Marjet Heitzer, Nery Jara, Fernando Martínez, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Victor Baeza, Katterine Salazar
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet; its deficiency leads to a number of symptoms and ultimately death. After entry into cells within the central nervous system (CNS) through sodium vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), vitamin C functions as a neuromodulator, enzymatic cofactor, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger; it also stimulates differentiation. In this review, we will compare the molecular and structural aspects of vitamin C and glucose transporters and their expression in endothelial or choroid plexus cells, which form part of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, respectively...
May 19, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547491/alcohol-disrupts-human-liver-stem-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#10
Xin Shi, Chia-Cheng Chang, Marc D Basson, Brad L Upham, Lixin Wei, Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption injures the liver resulting in various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis. Advanced liver disease continues to be a major challenge to human health. Liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) are tissue specific precursors with a distinct capacity of multi-lineage differentiation. These precursor cells may play an important role in the process of tissue injury repair and pathological transition of liver structures. At the present time, knowledge about the effect of alcohol on LSPC function during the development of alcoholic liver disease remains absent...
May 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25405071/lost-in-translation-regulation-of-abcg2-expression-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Raji Padmanabhan, Kevin G Chen, Michael M Gottesman
The expression and function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 have been studied for two decades in both adult and cancer stem cells. However, this important ABC transporter has not been well characterized in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Studies designed to understand the role of ABCG2 in hESCs are still in their initial stages. Several recent reports on expression patterns of the ABCG2 gene in hESCs contain contradictory results at both the mRNA and protein levels. In this review, we provide possible explanations for these discrepancies in ABCG2 expression patterns...
March 17, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203401/unconventional-neurogenic-niches-and-neurogenesis-modulation-by-vitamins
#12
Karina Oyarce, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Although the generation of new neurons occurs in adult mammals, it has been classically described in two defined regions of the brain denominated neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In these regions, neural stem cells give rise to new neurons and glia, which functionally integrate into the existing circuits under physiological conditions. However, accumulating evidence indicates the presence of neurogenic potential in other brain regions, from which multipotent precursors can be isolated and differentiated in vitro...
March 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25068075/mr-imaging-of-stem-cell-transplants-in-arthritic-joints
#13
Heike E Daldrup-Link, Hossein Nejadnik
About 43 million individuals in the US currently suffer from disabilities due to arthritis. Cartilage defects are the major source of pain in the affected joints. Current treatments, whilst alleviating some of the clinical symptoms, prove insufficient to cure the underlying irreversible cartilage loss. Stem cells represent a unique source for restoration of cartilage defects. Pre-clinical and clinical trials are currently pursued to investigate the potential of various types of stem cells and stem cell derived chondrocytes to repair arthritic joints...
February 7, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24900946/nk-cells-and-mscs-possible-implications-for-msc-therapy-in-renal-transplantation
#14
Marlies Ej Reinders, Martin J Hoogduijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24883232/duplication-of-tbk1-stimulates-autophagy-in-ipsc-derived-retinal-cells-from-a-patient-with-normal-tension-glaucoma
#15
Budd A Tucker, Frances Solivan-Timpe, Ben R Roos, Kristin R Anfinson, Alan L Robin, Luke A Wiley, Robert F Mullins, John H Fingert
Duplication of theTBK1 gene causes normal tension glaucoma (NTG); however the mechanism by which this copy number variation leads to retinal ganglion cell death is poorly understood. The ability to use skin-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to investigate the function or dysfunction of a mutant gene product in inaccessible tissues such as the retina now provides us with the ability to interrogate disease pathophysiology in vitro. iPSCs were generated from dermal fibroblasts obtained from a patient with TBK1-associated NTG, via viral transduction of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC...
January 25, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25599002/application-of-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-stem-cells-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#16
Bhagelu R Achyut, Nadimpalli Ravi S Varma, Ali S Arbab
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived multipotent stem cells are capable of giving rise hematopoietic, epithelial, endothelial and neural progenitor cells. Thus suggested to significantly improve graft-versus-host disease and represent the distinctive therapeutic option for several malignant and non-malignant diseases. Recent advances in strategies to isolate, expand and shorten the timing of UCB stem cells engraftment have tremendously improved the efficacy of transplantations. Nervous system has limited regenerative potential in disease conditions such as cancer, neurodegeneration, stroke, and several neural injuries...
2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24729944/human-allogeneic-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-cd8-cytotoxic-t-cell-reactivity
#17
Marieke Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marlies E Reinders, Marcella Franquesa, Anja U Engela, Sander S Korevaar, Helene Roelofs, Paul G Genever, Jan Nm Ijzermans, Michiel Gh Betjes, Carla C Baan, Willem Weimar, Martin J Hoogduijn
INTRODUCTION: For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity. METHODS: MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors...
December 12, 2013: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24672744/human-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-are-immunosuppressive-in-vitro-and-in-a-humanized-allograft-rejection-model
#18
Marieke Roemeling-van Rhijn, Meriem Khairoun, Sander S Korevaar, Ellen Lievers, Danielle G Leuning, Jan Nm Ijzermans, Michiel Gh Betjes, Paul G Genever, Cees van Kooten, Hans Jw de Fijter, Ton J Rabelink, Carla C Baan, Willem Weimar, Helene Roelofs, Martin J Hoogduijn, Marlies E Reinders
BACKGROUND: Recent studies with bone marrow (BM)-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) in transplant recipients demonstrate that treatment with MSC is safe and clinically feasible. While BM is currently the preferred source of MSC, adipose tissue is emerging as an alternative. To develop efficient therapies, there is a need for preclinical efficacy studies in transplantation. We used a unique humanized transplantation model to study the in vivo immunosuppressive effect of human BM-MSC and adipose tissue-derived MSC (ASC)...
November 25, 2013: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25197614/ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-adult-pancreatic-cells-with-properties-of-distributed-stem-cells-by-suppression-of-asymmetric-cell-kinetics
#19
Jf Paré, Jl Sherley
Transplantation therapy for type I diabetes (T1D) might be improved if pancreatic stem cells were readily available for investigation. Unlike macroscopic islets, pancreatic tissue stem cells could more easily access the retroperitoneal pancreatic environment and thereby might achieve more effective pancreatic regeneration. Unfortunately, whether the adult pancreas actually contains renewing stem cells continues as a controversial issue in diabetes research. We evaluated a new method developed in our lab for expanding renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs) from adult tissues as a means to provide more evidence for adult pancreatic stem cells, and potentially advance their availability for future clinical investigation...
September 2013: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24383045/identification-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-engraftment-genes-in-gene-therapy-studies
#20
John M Powers, Grant D Trobridge
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapy using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors is a promising approach to provide life-long correction for genetic defects. HSC gene therapy clinical studies have resulted in functional cures for several diseases, but in some studies clonal expansion or leukemia has occurred. This is due to the dyregulation of endogenous host gene expression from vector provirus insertional mutagenesis. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replicating retroviruses have been used extensively to identify genes that influence oncogenesis...
September 1, 2013: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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